Outline of ancient China

Ancient china had an emperor called Qin Shi Huang

What type of thing was ancient China?

Ancient China can be described as all of the following:

Geography of ancient China

Environment of ancient China

Locations in ancient China

Regions of ancient China

Government and politics of ancient China

Rulers in ancient China

Ancient Chinese law

Military history of ancient China

Military of ancient China

Military conflicts in ancient China

General history of ancient China

Ancient Chinese history, by period

History of ancient China

Ancient Chinese history, by region

Ancient Chinese history, by subject

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Works on ancient Chinese history

Culture of ancient China

Art in ancient China

Performing arts in ancient China

Language in ancient China

Literature in ancient China

People in ancient China

Philosophy in ancient China

Ancient Chinese philosophy

Economics and infrastructure of ancient China

Technology of ancient China

Ming Dynasty Achievements in ancient china (one of three golden eras)[2]

The Ming dynasty era is one of the main three golden eras of reforming and development of economic growth and efficiency in Chinese ancient economy (1368 to 1662).

Ming improved new technologies in many industries one of the main two were the rebuilding of the great wall of China and the engineering of the grand canal, which created economic development. Overall agriculture production rose than ever before due to technological discoveries. The technological inventions reached the military by making new and more powerful weapons.

In the agriculture sector, farmers started using new ways to increase output. By using water-powered crop rotation methods and plowing, increasing the efficiency of farming. Especially that the population was increasing, and the soil quality was declining. Allowing farmers to cultivate large lands to cultivate cash crops.

The manufacturing industry became more advanced and was involved in producing different products, compared to the Song Dynasty. Iron was produced at a rate which no previous dynasty was able to achieve. The Ming used the Han policies and privatized many industries, like tea and salt. Chinese industry was propelled by powerful and wealthy merchants. Ming helped with income equality by canceling any forced labor and increasing wages of labor class in manufacturing industries in all factories. There were over 300 factories run by wage labor forces. Increasing production in these factories.

Commerce and Trade, the rebuilding of the great wall of China and the canal river allowed the trade to increase. Building new bridges, wider roads for better transportation routes. Reaching to Europe and Japan.

Scholars who have written about ancient China

See also

References

  1. ^ Tzu & Griffith (1963), p. v.
  2. ^ "The Chinese Ming Dynasty Economy & Economic Structures". Totally History. 2011-12-24. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
Ancient history

Ancient history as a term refers to the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as the post-classical history. The phrase may be used either to refer to the period of time or the academic discipline.

The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script; the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC. Ancient History covers all continents inhabited by humans in the 3,000 BC – 500 AD period.

The broad term Ancient History is not to be confused with Classical Antiquity. The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to Western History in the Ancient Mediterranean from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First Olympiad). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the Founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece.

The academic term "history" is not to be confused with colloquial references to times past. History is fundamentally the study of the past through documents, and can be either scientific (archaeology) or humanistic (history through language).

Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. Outside of Europe the 450-500 time frame for the end of ancient times has had difficulty as a transition date from Ancient to Post-Classical times.

During the time period of 'Ancient History', starting roughly from 3000 BC world population was already exponentially increasing due to the Neolithic Revolution which was in full progress. According to HYDE estimates from the Netherlands world population increased exponentially in this period. In 10,000 BC in Prehistory world population had stood at 2 million, rising to 45 million by 3,000 BC. By the rise of the Iron Age in 1,000 BC that population had risen to 72 million. By the end of the period in 500 AD world population stood possibly at 209 million. In 3,500 years, world population increased by 100 times.

History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (c. 100 BC) and the Bamboo Annals (296 BC) describe a Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BC) before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) supplanted the Shang, and introduced the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. The central Zhou government began to weaken due to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually splintered into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. These states became independent and warred with one another in the following Warring States period. Much of traditional Chinese culture, literature and philosophy first developed during those troubled times.

In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and created for himself the title of Huangdi or "emperor" of the Qin, marking the beginning of imperial China. However, the oppressive government fell soon after his death, and was supplanted by the longer-lived Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). Successive dynasties developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the emperor to control vast territories directly. In the 21 centuries from 206 BC until AD 1912, routine administrative tasks were handled by a special elite of scholar-officials. Young men, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy, were carefully selected through difficult government examinations. China's last dynasty was the Qing (1644–1912), which was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912, and in the mainland by the People's Republic of China in 1949, resulting in two de facto states claiming to be the legitimate government of all China.

Chinese history has alternated between periods of political unity and peace, and periods of war and failed statehood – the most recent being the Chinese Civil War (1927–1949). China was occasionally dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were eventually assimilated into the Han Chinese culture and population. Between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras control stretched as far as Xinjiang and Tibet, as at present. Traditional culture, and influences from other parts of Asia and the Western world (carried by waves of immigration, cultural assimilation, expansion, and foreign contact), form the basis of the modern culture of China.

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