The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Canada:
Canada /ˈkænədə/ is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area, and shares land borders with the United States to the south and northwest, and marine borders with France and Greenland on the east and northeast, respectively.
The lands have been inhabited for millennia by various groups of aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored and later settled the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982 which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a federation that is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. It is a bilingual and multicultural country, with both English and French as official languages at the federal level. Technologically advanced and industrialized, Canada maintains a diversified economy that is heavily reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has a long and complex relationship.
|Province, with flag||Postal abbreviation/
|Other abbreviations||Capital||Entered Confederation||Population
|Ontario1||ON||Ont.||Toronto||July 1, 1867||12,753,702||917,741||158,654||1,076,395|
|Quebec1||QC||Que., PQ, P.Q.||Quebec City||7,687,068||1,356,128||185,928||1,542,056|
|Manitoba3||MB||Man.||Winnipeg||July 15, 1870||1,182,921||553,556||94,241||647,797|
|British Columbia2||BC||B.C.||Victoria||July 20, 1871||4,352,798||925,186||19,549||944,735|
|Prince Edward Island2||PE||PEI, P.E.I., P.E. Island||Charlottetown||July 1, 1873||138,800||5,660||—||5,660|
|Saskatchewan4||SK||Sask., SK, SKWN||Regina||September 1, 1905||990,212||591,670||59,366||651,036|
|Newfoundland and Labrador5||NL||Nfld., NF, LB||St. John's||March 31, 1949||506,548||373,872||31,340||405,212|
There are currently three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent jurisdiction and only have those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
|Territory, with flag||Postal abbreviation/
|Other abbreviations||Capital||Entered Confederation||Population
|Northwest Territories||NT||N.W.T., NWT||Yellowknife||July 15, 1870||41,795||1,183,085||163,021||1,346,106|
|Yukon||YT||Y.T., YK||Whitehorse||June 13, 1898||30,883||474,391||8,052||482,443|
|Nunavut||NU||NV||Iqaluit||April 1, 1999||31,216||1,936,113||157,077||2,093,190|
Note: Canada did not acquire any new land to create Yukon, Alberta, Saskatchewan, or Nunavut. All of these originally formed part of Northwest Territories.
Canada is a member of:
Sport in Canada Official Sports
Hall of Fame Museums
In 1867, the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are united in a federal state, the Dominion of Canada....
The British North America Act of 1867 brought together four British colonies ... in one federal Dominion under the name of Canada.
With CONFEDERATION in 1867, Canada became the first federation in the British Empire ...
This is a bibliography of works on Canada.
For an annotated bibliography and evaluation of major books, see also Canada: A Reader's Guide, (2nd ed., 2000) by J.André Senécal, online.Bibliography of Canadian history
This is a bibliography of major works on the History of Canada.Canada
Canada (Canadian French: [kanadɑ]) is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, with 70% of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.Index of Canada-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Canada.Index of articles related to Indigenous Canadians
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Indigenous peoples in Canada, comprising the First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples.List of Canada-related topics by provinces and territories
This is a list of topics related to the provinces and territories of Canada, listed by topic type.List of mountains of Canada
The vast majority of mountains in Canada lie in the western provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon Territory. Mountains can be found all over British Hgcha while those in Alberta are mainly situated on the eastern side of the Canadian Rockies. The Saint Elias Mountains in the Yukon hold some of country's highest mountains, including the highest, Mount Logan at 5,959 meters.List of volcanoes in Canada
A list of volcanoes in Canada.Outline of Alberta
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Alberta:
Alberta – province of Canada. It had a population of 3,645,257 in 2011, making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Alberta and its neighbour, Saskatchewan, were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. Alberta is located in western Canada, bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U.S. state and is also one of only two provinces that are landlocked.Outline of British Columbia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to British Columbia:
British Columbia – westernmost of Canada's provinces. It lies between the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the province of Alberta to the east. British Columbia was the sixth province to join the Canadian Confederation.Outline of Manitoba
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Manitoba:
Manitoba – Canadian prairie province. The province, with an area of 649,950 square kilometres (250,900 sq mi), has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other major industries are transportation, manufacturing, mining, forestry, energy, and tourism. Manitoba's capital and largest city is Winnipeg.Outline of New Brunswick
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to New Brunswick:
New Brunswick is a Canadian maritime province. The province, with an area of 72,908 square kilometres (28,100 sq mi), has a humid continental climate. It is the only constitutionally bilingual (English–French) province. Its urban areas have modern, service-based economies dominated by the health care, educational, retail, finance, and insurance sectors, while the rural primary economy is best known for forestry, mining, mixed farming, and fishing. New Brunswick's capital is Fredericton, and its largest city is Saint John.Outline of Newfoundland and Labrador
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Newfoundland and Labrador.
Newfoundland and Labrador – the most easterly province of Canada. It comprises the island of Newfoundland, mainland Labrador, and over 7,000 small islands. It is Canada's ninth-most populous province or territory and tenth-largest in total area. A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933 and became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation in 1949. Its name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador in 2001.Outline of Nova Scotia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Nova Scotia:
Nova Scotia – meaning New Scotland in Latin, is the second-smallest province in Canada. It is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces, with its mainland territory consisting of the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, in addition to over 3,800 coastal islands, the largest one being Cape Breton Island.Outline of Ontario
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Ontario:
Ontario – one of the provinces of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province or territory and fourth largest in total area. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto.Outline of Prince Edward Island
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Prince Edward Island:
Prince Edward Island – Canadian province consisting of an island of the same name, as well as other islands. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and is the smallest in the nation in land area and in population. According to the 2011 census, the province of Prince Edward Island has 140,204 residents. It is located approximately 200 km north of Halifax, Nova Scotia and 600 km east of Quebec City. It consists of the main island plus 231 minor islands.Outline of Quebec
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Quebec:
Quebec – province in the eastern part of Canada situated between Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level. Sovereignty plays a large role in the politics of Quebec, and the official opposition social democratic Parti Québécois advocates national sovereignty for the province and secession from Canada. Sovereigntist governments have held referendums on independence in 1980 and 1995; both were voted down by voters, the latter defeated by a very narrow margin. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada."Outline of Saskatchewan
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Saskatchewan:
Saskatchewan – central prairie province in Canada, with an area of 588,276 square kilometres (227,100 sq mi), bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. Saskatchewan was first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774; prior to that, it was populated by several indigenous tribes. It became a province in 1905. Saskatchewan's major industries are agriculture, mining, and energy. The province's name is derived from the Saskatchewan River. The river is designated kisiskāciwani-sīpiy ("swift flowing river") in the Cree language.Outline of Toronto
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Toronto:
Toronto – largest city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. Toronto is a relatively modern city. Its history begins in the late 18th century, when the British Crown purchased its land from the Mississaugas of the New Credit.
Outline of the Americas