The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to British Columbia:
British Columbia – westernmost of Canada's provinces. It lies between the Pacific Ocean to the west, and the province of Alberta to the east. British Columbia was the sixth province to join the Canadian Confederation.
Court system of British Columbia
British Columbia (BC; French: Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province.
The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866) was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", and "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, and designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia. Port Moody is named after him.In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu ("Splendour without Diminishment").
The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, and the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371 (about 2.5 million of whom were in Greater Vancouver). The province is currently governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871. First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, and the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia.Geography of British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, bordered by the Pacific Ocean. With an area of 944,735 square kilometres (364,764 sq mi) it is Canada's third-largest province. The province is almost four times the size of United Kingdom, two and one-half times larger than Japan and larger than every U.S. state except Alaska. It is bounded on the northwest by the U.S. state of Alaska, directly north by Yukon and the Northwest Territories, on the east by Alberta, and on the south by the U.S. states of Washington, Idaho, and Montana. Formerly part of the British Empire, the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty. The province is dominated by mountain ranges, among them the Canadian Rockies but dominantly the Coast Mountains, Cassiar Mountains, and the Columbia Mountains. Most of the population is concentrated on the Pacific coast, notably in the area of Vancouver, located on the southwestern tip of the mainland, which is known as the Lower Mainland. It is the most mountainous province of Canada.History of British Columbia
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada. Originally politically constituted as a pair of British colonies, British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation on July 20, 1871. Perhaps the most influential historian of British Columbia has been Margaret Ormsby. In British Columbia: A History (1958) she presented a structural model that has been adopted by numerous historians and teachers. Chad Reimer says, "in many aspects, it still has not been surpassed". Ormsby posited a series of propositions that provided the dynamic to the history:
the ongoing pull between maritime and continental forces; the opposition between a "closed", hierarchical model of society represented by the Hudson's Bay Company and colonial officials, and the "open", egalitarian vision of English and Canadian settlers; and regional tensions between Vancouver Island and mainland, metropolitan Vancouver and the hinterland interior.Outline of Alberta
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Alberta:
Alberta – province of Canada. It had a population of 3,645,257 in 2011, making it the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Alberta and its neighbour, Saskatchewan, were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. Alberta is located in western Canada, bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U.S. state and is also one of only two provinces that are landlocked.Outline of Manitoba
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Manitoba:
Manitoba – Canadian prairie province. The province, with an area of 649,950 square kilometres (250,900 sq mi), has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other major industries are transportation, manufacturing, mining, forestry, energy, and tourism. Manitoba's capital and largest city is Winnipeg.Outline of New Brunswick
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to New Brunswick:
New Brunswick is a Canadian maritime province. The province, with an area of 72,908 square kilometres (28,100 sq mi), has a humid continental climate. It is the only constitutionally bilingual (English–French) province. Its urban areas have modern, service-based economies dominated by the health care, educational, retail, finance, and insurance sectors, while the rural primary economy is best known for forestry, mining, mixed farming, and fishing. New Brunswick's capital is Fredericton, and its largest city is Saint John.Outline of Newfoundland and Labrador
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Newfoundland and Labrador.
Newfoundland and Labrador – the most easterly province of Canada. It comprises the island of Newfoundland, mainland Labrador, and over 7,000 small islands. It is Canada's ninth-most populous province or territory and tenth-largest in total area. A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933 and became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation in 1949. Its name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador in 2001.Outline of Nova Scotia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Nova Scotia:
Nova Scotia – meaning New Scotland in Latin, is the second-smallest province in Canada. It is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces, with its mainland territory consisting of the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, in addition to over 3,800 coastal islands, the largest one being Cape Breton Island.Outline of Ontario
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Ontario:
Ontario – one of the provinces of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province or territory and fourth largest in total area. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto.Outline of Prince Edward Island
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Prince Edward Island:
Prince Edward Island – Canadian province consisting of an island of the same name, as well as other islands. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and is the smallest in the nation in land area and in population. According to the 2011 census, the province of Prince Edward Island has 140,204 residents. It is located approximately 200 km north of Halifax, Nova Scotia and 600 km east of Quebec City. It consists of the main island plus 231 minor islands.Outline of Quebec
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Quebec:
Quebec – province in the eastern part of Canada situated between Hudson Bay and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level. Sovereignty plays a large role in the politics of Quebec, and the official opposition social democratic Parti Québécois advocates national sovereignty for the province and secession from Canada. Sovereigntist governments have held referendums on independence in 1980 and 1995; both were voted down by voters, the latter defeated by a very narrow margin. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada."Outline of Saskatchewan
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Saskatchewan:
Saskatchewan – central prairie province in Canada, with an area of 588,276 square kilometres (227,100 sq mi), bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. Saskatchewan was first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774; prior to that, it was populated by several indigenous tribes. It became a province in 1905. Saskatchewan's major industries are agriculture, mining, and energy. The province's name is derived from the Saskatchewan River. The river is designated kisiskāciwani-sīpiy ("swift flowing river") in the Cree language.