Outer Mongolia

Outer Mongolia[note 1] was a territory of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1691–1911). Its area was roughly equivalent to that of the modern state of Mongolia, which is sometimes called "North Mongolia" in China today, plus the Russian republic of Tuva. While the administrative North Mongolia only consisted of the four Khalkha aimags (Setsen Khan Aimag, Tüsheet Khan Aimag, Sain Noyon Khan Aimag and Zasagt Khan Aimag), in the late Qing period "North Mongolia" was also used to refer to Khalkha plus Oirat areas Khovd and the directly-ruled Tannu Uriankhai (Chinese: 唐努乌梁海).

The name "North Mongolia" is contrasted with South Mongolia,[1] which corresponds to the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia in China. South Mongolia was given its name because it was more directly administered by the Qing court; North Mongolia (which is further from the capital Beijing) had a greater degree of autonomy within the Qing domain.[2] The term ar mongol (or Chinese: 漠北蒙古; pinyin: Mòběi Měnggǔ; literally: 'North of the Desert Mongolia') is sometimes used in Mongolian (or Chinese) language to refer to North Mongolia[3] when making a distinction with South Mongolia, so as to elide the history of Qing rule and rather imply a geographic unity or distinction of regions inhabited by Mongols in the Mongolian Plateau. There also exists an English term Northern Mongolia, but possibly with political connotations.[4] It can also be used to refer to Mongolia synchronically.[5] In the Mongolian language, the word ar refers to the back side of something, which has been extended to mean the northern side of any spatial entity, e.g. a mountain or a yurt. The word öbür refers to the south (and thus protected) side of a mountain.[6] So the difference between South Mongolia and the Mongolian state is conceived of in the metaphor as at the backward northern side vs. the south side of a mountain. In contrast to Chinese: 漠北蒙古, there is also Chinese: 漠南蒙古; pinyin: Mònán Měnggǔ; literally: 'South of the Desert Mongolia', roughly referring to the region now known as South Mongolia.

Today, "North Mongolia" is sometimes still informally used to refer to Mongolia. "Outer Mongolia" is also used quite commonly in Taiwan. To avoid confusion between the sovereign nation of Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia, but to recognize the sovereignty of Mongolia, media in China generally refer to the former as "State of Mongolia" (Chinese: 蒙古国; pinyin: Ménggǔ Guó, that is the translation of the official name in Mongolian, Монгол Улс/Mongol Uls) instead of just "Mongolia" (Chinese: 蒙古; pinyin: Ménggǔ), that could refer to the whole Mongolia area.

Qing dynasty and Mongolia
Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia within the Qing dynasty.
ROC Div Menggu
Location of Mongolia Area in the Republic of China
1914 map of Asia
Rand McNally map of the Republic of China in 1914 while Mongolia declares its independence
Mongolia 1915
After the Treaty of Kyakhta (North) Mongolia in 1915

See also


  1. ^ Mongolian script: ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ
    or ᠠᠷᠤ
    Mongolian Cyrillic: Гадаад Монгол or Ар Монгол, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol; Manchu: ᡨᡠᠯᡝᡵᡤᡳ
    Tülergi Monggo; Chinese: 外蒙古; pinyin: Wài Měnggǔ[1]


  1. ^ a b Huhbator Borjigin. 2004. The history and political character of the name of 'Nei Menggu' (South Mongolia). Inner Asia 6: 61-80.
  2. ^ The Cambridge History of China, volume 10, p 49.
  3. ^ cf. Norcin, C. (1999): Monggol kelen-ü toli. Ömnud monggol-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya. Page 170.
  4. ^ Bulag, Uradyn (1998). Nationalism and Hybridity in Mongolia. Clarendon Press. pp. 179–180.
  5. ^ Bawden, Charles (1997): Mongolian-English dictionary. London: Kegan Paul. Page 23.
  6. ^ cf. Norcin, C. (1999): Monggol kelen-ü toli. Ömnud monggol-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya. Page 169, 580. ömnud: agula dabagan-u engger tal-a-yin gajar.
Administrative divisions of Mongolia during Qing

During the Qing rule, Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia were separately administered; other Mongol-inhabited regions were directly administered by the Qing dynasty.

The estate of Jebtsundamba Khutugtu, the Great Shabi (from Mongolian shabi = disciple) in 1723, became independent from the four aimags in the sense that its subjects were exempt from most taxes and corvees. The shabi did - except the three Darkhad otog in Khövsgöl - not control territory. Rather, its subjects mostly lived among the general population. The shabi was led by a Shanzav or Shanzobda, and divided into otog, and then bag and arvan. Similar shabis existed for other high lamas.

Apostolic Prefecture of Ulaanbaatar

The Apostolic Prefecture of Ulaanbaatar (Latin: Praefectura Apostolica Ulaanbaatarensis) is a Roman Catholic Latin apostolic prefecture (pre-diocesan missionary jurisdiction) located in (Outer) Mongolia, with its territory consisting of the entire country.

Its cathedral episcopal see is the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, in the capital city of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar.

It is exempt, i.e. directly subject to the Holy See, not part of any ecclesiastical province.

On 28 August 2016, the Apostolic Prefecture of Ulaanbaatar celebrated the ordination of the first native Mongolian priest by Msgr. Wenceslao Padilla. Other seminarians are studying currently in South Korea.

Banners of Inner Mongolia

A banner (Chinese: 旗; pinyin: qí) is an administrative division of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, corresponding to the county level.

Banners were first used during the Qing Dynasty, which organized the Mongols into banners except those who belonged to the Eight Banners. Each banner had sumu as nominal subdivisions. In Inner Mongolia, several banners made up a league. In the rest, including Outer Mongolia, northern Xinjiang and Qinghai, Aimag (Аймаг) was the largest administrative division. While it restricted the Mongols from crossing banner borders, the dynasty protected Mongolia from population pressure from China proper.

There were 49 banners and 24 tribes during the Republic of China.Today, banners are a county level division in the Chinese administrative hierarchy. There are 49 banners in total.

Bogd Khan

The Bogd Khan (Mongolian: Богд хаан; 1869–1924) became Bogd Gegeen Ezen Khaan of Bogd Khaganate in 1911, when Khüree declared independence from Qing dynasty of China after the Xinhai Revolution. He was born in Tibet. As the 8th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, he was the third most important person in the Tibetan Buddhist hierarchy, below only the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, and therefore also known as the "Bogdo Lama". He was the spiritual leader of Outer Mongolia's Tibetan Buddhism. His wife Tsendiin Dondogdulam, the Ekh Dagina ("Dakini Mother"), was believed to be a manifestation of White Tara.

Bogd Khanate of Mongolia

The Bogd Khanate of Mongolia was the government of Mongolia (Outer Mongolia) between 1911 and 1919 and again from 1921 to 1924. By the spring of 1911, some prominent Mongolian nobles including Prince Tögs-Ochiryn Namnansüren persuaded the Jebstundamba Khutukhtu to convene a meeting of nobles and ecclesiastical officials to discuss independence from the Manchu-led Qing China. On November 30, 1911 the Mongols established the Temporary Government of Khalkha. On December 29, 1911 the Mongols declared their independence from the collapsing Qing Empire following the Xinhai Revolution. They installed as theocratic sovereign the 8th Bogd Gegeen, highest authority of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia, who took the title Bogd Khaan or "Holy Ruler". The Bogd Khaan was last khagan of Mongolia. This ushered in the period of "Theocratic Mongolia", also known as the Bogd Khanate.Three historical currents were at work during this period. The first was the efforts of the Mongolians to form an independent, theocratic state that embraced Inner Mongolia, Barga (also known as Hulunbuir), Upper Mongolia, Western Mongolia and Tannu Uriankhai ("pan-Mongolia"). The second was the Russian Empire's determination to achieve the twin goals of establishing its own preeminence in the country but at the same time ensuring Mongolia's autonomy within the newly independent Chinese state. The third was the ultimate success of China in eliminating Mongolian autonomy and creating its sovereignty over the country.

Catholic Church in Mongolia

The Catholic Church in Mongolia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome. There are around 1,300 Catholics in the country who are served by three churches in the capital Ulaanbaatar plus churches in Darkhan, Arvaikheer, Erdenet and mission stations that may grow into churches.

Catholicism was first introduced in the 13th century during the Mongol empire, but died out with the demise of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368. New missionary activity only set in after the Second Opium War in the mid-19th century. A mission was founded for Outer Mongolia, giving Mongolia its first Catholic jurisdiction, but all work ceased within a year when a communist regime came to power.

With the introduction of democracy in 1991, Catholic missionaries returned and rebuilt the church from scratch. As of 2016, there is an Apostolic Prefecture, a bishop, six churches, and diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Mongolia since 4 April 1992.

China–Mongolia relations

The bilateral relations between Mongolia and the People's Republic of China have long been determined by the relations between China and the Soviet Union, Mongolia's other neighbour and main ally until 1990. With the rapprochement between the USSR and China in the late 1980s, Sino-Mongolian relations also began to improve. Since the 1990s, China has become Mongolia's biggest trading partner, and a number of Chinese businesses are operating in Mongolia.


Lamaceratops ( meaning "Lama Horned Face"), is a ceratopsian dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. It was discovered in the Khulsan locality in the Nemegt Valley, outer Mongolia. The validity of this species remains in doubt, as the fossils may in fact be referable to Bagaceratops.


Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between Russia to the north and China to the south, where it neighbours the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them.

At 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar also shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow, Ottawa, and Nur-Sultan.Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture is still integral. The majority of its population are Buddhists. The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan.

In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century. By the early 1900s, almost one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, and achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.

Mongolia national rugby union team

The Mongolian national rugby union team represents Mongolia in international rugby union play. Mongolia is a member of the International Rugby Board (IRB), and has yet to play in a Rugby World Cup. The Mongolian Rugby Football Union (MRFU), which governs the sport of rugby in the country, was established in 2003.

The first ever official match of Mongolia was played on 9 June 2009 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, against Kyrgyzstan, finishing with a respectable 21–38 loss. This match took place as part of the second regional division of the 2009 Asian Five Nations. From 2010, Mongolia will compete within the newly introduced Division Four of the tournament, with the possibility of promotion.

Mongolia under Qing rule

Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty of China over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and Inner Mongolian 6 leagues from the 17th century to the end of the dynasty. "Mongolia" here is understood in the broader historical sense (see Greater Mongolia and Mongolian Plateau). The last Mongol Khagan Ligden saw much of his power weakened in his quarrels with the Mongol tribes and was defeated by the Manchus, he died soon afterwards. His son Ejei Khan gave Hong Taiji the imperial authority, ending the rule of Northern Yuan dynasty then centered in Inner Mongolia by 1635. However, the Khalkha Mongols in Outer Mongolia continued to rule until they were overrun by the Dzungars in 1690, and they submitted to the Qing dynasty in 1691.

The Manchu-led Qing dynasty had ruled Inner and Outer Mongolia for over 200 years. During this period Qing rulers established separate administrative structures to govern each region. While the empire maintained firm control in both Inner and Outer Mongolia, the Mongols in Outer Mongolia (which is further from the capital Beijing) enjoyed more degree of autonomy, and also retained their own language and culture during this period.

Mongolian People's Republic

The Mongolian People's Republic (Mongolian: Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU), [buɡət nɑjrəmdəx mɔŋɡəɮ ɑr(ə)t uɮ(ə)s]) was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia. It was ruled by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and maintained close links with the Soviet Union throughout its history. Geographically, it was bordered by China to its south and the Soviet Union (via the Russian SFSR) to its north. Until 1944, it also bordered the Tuvan People's Republic, another Soviet satellite state recognized only by Mongolia and the Soviet Union.

Mongolian Revolution of 1911

The Mongolian Revolution of 1911 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1911) occurred when the region of Outer Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution. A combination of factors including economic hardship and failure to resist Western imperialism led many in China to be unhappy with the Qing government. When a new program to colonize Mongolia with Han Chinese and assimilate the natives was unveiled, it was met with resistance that resulted in a relatively bloodless separation from the Qing Empire. Many Barga and Inner Mongolian chieftains assisted in the revolution and became the revolution leaders.

Mongolian Revolution of 1921

The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924. Although nominally independent, the Mongolian People's Republic was a satellite state of the Soviet Union until a third Mongolian revolution in January 1990. The revolution also ended Chinese occupation of Mongolia, which had existed since 1919. The official Mongolian name of the revolution is "People's Revolution of 1921" or simply "People's Revolution" (Mongolian: Ардын хувьсгал).

Mongolia–Taiwan relations

The Republic of China did not recognise Mongolia until 1945. The countries did not exchange any diplomats between 1946 and 1949, and Mongolia recognized the People's Republic of China at the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949.

In the absence of formal diplomatic relations between Mongolia and the Republic of China on Taiwan, the two countries have "Trade and Economic Representative Offices" which function as de facto embassies: Taiwan is represented by an office in Ulaanbaatar, and Mongolia is represented by an office in Taipei.

Occupation of Mongolia

The occupation of Outer Mongolia by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China began in October 1919 and lasted until early 1921, when Chinese troops in Urga were routed by Baron Ungern's White Russian (Buryats, Russians etc.) and Mongolian forces. These, in turn, were defeated by the Red Army and its Mongolian allies by June 1921.

Although the Beiyang government abolished the autonomy of the Bogd Khaanate of Mongolia and subsequently expanded its occupation to include Tuva, it was not able to secure its claim over Outer Mongolia and Tannu Uriankhai (Tuva).


Pan-Mongolism is an irredentist idea that advocates cultural and political solidarity of Mongols. The proposed territory, called "Greater Mongolia" (Mongolian: Даяар Монгол, Dayaar Mongol), usually includes the independent state of Mongolia, the Chinese regions of Inner Mongolia and Dzungaria (in Xinjiang), and the Russian republic of Buryatia. Sometimes Tuva, the Altai Republic and parts of Zabaykalsky Krai and Irkutsk Oblast are included as well. As of 2006, all areas in Greater Mongolia except Mongolia have non-Mongol majorities.The nationalist movement emerged in the 20th century in response to the collapse of the Qing dynasty and the possibility of an independent Mongolian state. After the Red Army helped to establish the Mongolian People's Republic, Mongolian foreign policy prioritised seeking recognition of independence over territorial expansion. After the 1990 Mongolian Revolution ended Communist rule in Mongolia, a number of organizations have emerged that promote pan-Mongolism, but they have little popular support.

Qing dynasty in Inner Asia

The Qing dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Qing dynasty's realm in Inner Asia in the 17th and the 18th century AD, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang. Wars were fought primarily against the Northern Yuan dynasty (before 1636) and the Dzungar Khanate (1687–1758). Even before the conquest of China proper (see Qing conquest of the Ming), the Manchus had controlled Manchuria (modern Northeast China as well as Outer Manchuria) and Inner Mongolia, with the latter being previously controlled by the Mongols under Ligdan Khan. After suppressing the Revolt of the Three Feudatories and the conquest of Taiwan as well as ending the Sino-Russian border conflicts in the 1680s, the Dzungar–Qing War broken out. This eventually led to Qing conquests of Outer Mongolia, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang. All of them became part of the Qing Empire and were garrisoned by Qing forces, but they were governed through several different types of administrative structure and also retained many of their existing institutions. Furthermore, they were not governed as regular provinces (until Xinjiang and Manchuria were turned into provinces in late Qing), but instead were supervised by the Lifan Yuan, a Qing government agency that oversaw the empire's frontier regions.

Rugby union in Mongolia

Rugby union in Mongolia is a minor but growing sport. Mongolia is represented in international matches by the Mongolia national rugby union team, which compete in the annual Asian Five Nations tournament.

Inner Mongolia
(Southern 6 leagues)
Outer Mongolia
(Khalkha 4 aimags)
Western Hetao Mongolia
Khovd region
Other Mongolian regions
Mongols in other provinces
Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia

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