Ouaddaï highlands

Ouaddaï Highlands is an area in east of Chad along the border with Sudan. The Ennedi Plateau and the Ouaddaï highlands in the east of Chad complete the image of a gradually sloping basin, which descends towards Lake Chad. There are also central highlands in the Guera region rising to 1,500 m (4,921 ft).

Water systems

Batha River is an important ephemeral river that carries water west from these highlands during rainy seasons, usually during flash flooding.[1]

The land

Ouaddaï highlands mark Chad's eastern border and also divide the Chad and Nile watersheds. These highland areas are part of the East Saharan montane xeric woodlands ecoregion.

Yellow Nile

The Yellow Nile is a former tributary that connected the Ouaddaï highlands of eastern Chad to the Nile River Valley ca. 8000 to ca. 1000 BCE.[2] Its remains are known as the Wadi Howar. The wadi passes through West Darfur near the northern border with Chad and meets up with the Nile near the southern point of the Great Bend.

Ouaddaï prefecture

Ouaddaï Prefecture

Ouaddaï Prefecture was one of the 14 prefectures of Chad. Located in the east of the country, Ouaddaï covered an area of 76,240 square kilometers and had a population of 543,900 in 1993. Its capital was Abéché.

Ouaddai Empire

The Ouaddai Empire (1635–1912) (Also Wadai Empire) was originally a non-Muslim kingdom, located to the east of Lake Chad in present-day Chad. It emerged in the sixteenth century as an offshoot of the Sultanate of Darfur (in present-day Sudan) to the northeast of the Kingdom of Baguirmi.

See also


  1. ^ Country studies
  2. ^ Keding, B (2000). "New data on the Holocene occupation of the Wadi Howar region (Eastern Sahara/Sudan)." Studies in African Archaeology 7, 89–104.
Batha River

The Batha River is an ephemeral river in Chad. As with any rivers or lakes in this region, its existence depends on the amount of rainfall. The river's delta is at Lake Fitri in Chad. Batha River carries water west from Ouaddaï highlands during rainy seasons, usually during flash flooding.

Chad Basin

The Chad Basin is the largest endorheic basin in Africa, centered on Lake Chad. It has no outlet to the sea and contains large areas of desert or semi-arid savanna. The drainage basin is roughly coterminous with the sedimentary basin of the same name, but extends further to the northeast and east. The basin spans eight countries, including most of Chad and a large part of Niger. The region has an ethnically diverse population of about 30 million people as of 2011, growing rapidly.

A combination of dams, increased irrigation, climate change, and reduced rainfall are causing water shortages, contributing to terrorism and the rise of Boko Haram in the region. Lake Chad continues to shrink.

Chadian Arabic

Chadian Arabic (also known as Shuwa/Shua/Suwa Arabic; Arabic: لهجة تشادية‎, Baggara Arabic, and, most recently, Western Sudanic Arabic) is one of the regional colloquial varieties of Arabic and is the first language for over three million people, both town dwellers and nomadic cattle herders. The majority of its speakers live in southern Chad. Its range is an east-to-west oval in the Sahel, about 1400 miles long (12 to 20 degrees east longitude) by 300 miles north-to-south (between 10 and 14 degrees north latitude). Nearly all of this territory is in the two countries of Chad and Sudan. It is also spoken elsewhere in the vicinity of Lake Chad in the countries of Cameroon, Nigeria, Niger. Finally, it is spoken in slivers of the Central African Republic and South Sudan. In addition, this language serves as a lingua franca in much of the region. In most of its range, it is one of several local languages and often not among the major ones.

East Saharan montane xeric woodlands

The East Saharan montane xeric woodlands is an ecoregion of central Africa, a number of high mountains in the middle of the huge area of savanna on the edge of the Sahara Desert.

Fula people

The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe (Fula: Fulɓe; French: Peul; Hausa: Fulani or Hilani; Portuguese: Fula; Wolof: Pël; Bambara: Fulaw), numbering between 38 and 40 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region. Inhabiting many countries, they live mainly in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa but also in, South Sudan, Sudan and regions near the Red Sea coast.

A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 12 to 13 million – are pastoralists, making them the ethnic group with the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world. The majority of the Fula ethnic group consisted of semi-sedentary people as well as sedentary settled farmers, artisans, merchants and nobility. As an ethnic group, they are bound together by the Fula language, their history and their culture. More than 90% of the Fula are Muslims.The Fulas are leaders in many West African countries. These include the president of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari; the President of Senegal, Macky Sall; the President of Gambia, Adama Barrow; and the Vice President of Sierra Leone, Mohamed Juldeh Jalloh. They are also leaders in International Institutions such as the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, Amina J. Mohammed; and Secretary General of OPEC, Mohammed Sanusi Barkindo.

Geography of Chad

Chad is one of the 48 land-locked countries in the world and is located in North Central Africa, measuring 1,284,000 square kilometers (495,755 sq mi), nearly twice the size of France and slightly more than three times the size of California. Most of its ethnically and linguistically diverse population lives in the south, with densities ranging from 54 persons per square kilometer in the Logone River basin to 0.1 persons in the northern B.E.T. (Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti) desert region, which itself is larger than France. The capital city of N'Djaména, situated at the confluence of the Chari and Logone Rivers, is cosmopolitan in nature, with a current population in excess of 700,000 people.

Chad has four bioclimatic zones. The northernmost Saharan zone averages less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rainfall annually. The sparse human population is largely nomadic, with some livestock, mostly small ruminants and camels. The central Sahelian zone receives between 200 and 600 mm (7.9 and 23.6 in) rainfall and has vegetation ranging from grass/shrub steppe to thorny, open savanna. The southern zone, often referred to as the Sudan zone, receives between 600 and 1,000 mm (23.6 and 39.4 in), with woodland savanna and deciduous forests for vegetation. Rainfall in the Guinea zone, located in Chad's southwestern tip, ranges between 1,000 and 1,200 mm (39.4 and 47.2 in).

The country's topography is generally flat, with the elevation gradually rising as one moves north and east away from Lake Chad. The highest point in Chad is Emi Koussi, a mountain that rises 3,100 m (10,171 ft) in the northern Tibesti Mountains. The Ennedi Plateau and the Ouaddaï highlands in the east complete the image of a gradually sloping basin, which descends towards Lake Chad. There are also central highlands in the Guera region rising to 1,500 m (4,921 ft).

Lake Chad is the second largest lake in west Africa and is one of the most important wetlands on the continent. Home to 120 species of fish and at least that many species of birds, the lake has shrunk dramatically in the last four decades due to increased water usage from an expanding population and low rainfall. Bordered by Chad, Niger, Nigeria, and Cameroon, Lake Chad currently covers only 1350 square kilometers, down from 25,000 square kilometers in 1963. The Chari and Logone Rivers, both of which originate in the Central African Republic and flow northward, provide most of the surface water entering Lake Chad. Chad is also next to Niger.


The Nile (Arabic: النيل‎, written as al-Nīl; pronounced as an-Nīl) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is the longest river in Africa and in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest. The Nile, which is about 6,650 km (4,130 mi) long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, namely, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan.The river Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself. The Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi. It flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, then ends in a large delta and flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along river banks.


Ouaddaï may refer to:

Ouaddaï highlands, an area in eastern Chad along the border with Sudan

Ouaddaï Region, a political region of Chad created in 2002

Ouaddaï Prefecture, a former political prefecture of Chad

Wadai Empire (1635–1912), a kingdom located to the east of Lake Chad

Ouaddaï Region

Ouaddaï (Arabic: وداي‎) is one of the 23 regions of Chad and its capital is Abéché. It was created in 2002 from the former Ouaddaï Prefecture. Its main ethnic groups are the Arab people and the Maba. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture.

In 2008, a portion of the Ouaddaï region (the Sila Department and Djourf Al Ahmar Department) was split off to become the new Sila Region (also known as Dar Sila).

Regions of Africa
Central Africa
East Africa
North Africa
West Africa
Southern Africa

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