Ottoman Turkish (/ˈɒtəmən/; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه, Türkçe or تركی, Türkî, "Turkish"; Turkish: Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.
Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language. The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language (لسان عثمانی lisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجه Osmanlıca) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish (Osmanlıca and Osmanlı Türkçesi).
|Era||c. 15th century - developed into Modern Turkish in 1928|
|Ottoman Turkish alphabet|
Official language in
|Beylik of Tunis|
Emirate of Jabal Shammar
Khedivate of Egypt
Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus
Provisional Government of Western Thrace
Turkish Provisional Government
Turkey (Until 1928)
The conjugation for the aorist tense is as follows:
Ottoman Turkish was highly influenced by Arabic and Persian. Arabic and Persian words in the language accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary. As in most other Turkic and other foreign languages of Islamic communities, the Arabic borrowings were not originally the result of a direct exposure of Ottoman Turkish to Arabic, a fact that is evidenced by the typically Persian phonological mutation of the words of Arabic origin.
The conservation of archaic phonological features of the Arabic borrowings furthermore suggests that Arabic-incorporated Persian was absorbed into pre-Ottoman Turkic at an early stage, when the speakers were still located to the north-east of Persia, prior to the westward migration of the Islamic Turkic tribes. An additional argument for this is that Ottoman Turkish shares the Persian character of its Arabic borrowings with other Turkic languages that had even less interaction with Arabic, such as Tatar and Uyghur. From the early ages of the Ottoman Empire, borrowings from Arabic and Persian were so abundant that original Turkish words were hard to find. In Ottoman, one may find whole passages in Arabic and Persian incorporated into the text. It was however not only extensive loaning of words, but along with them much of the grammatical systems of Persian and Arabic.
In a social and pragmatic sense, there were (at least) three variants of Ottoman Turkish:
A person would use each of the varieties above for different purposes, with the fasih variant being the most heavily suffused with Arabic and Persian words and kaba the least. For example, a scribe would use the Arabic asel (عسل) to refer to honey when writing a document but would use the native Turkish word bal when buying it.
Historically, Ottoman Turkish was transformed in three eras:
In 1928, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, widespread language reforms (a part in the greater framework of Atatürk's Reforms) instituted by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk saw the replacement of many Persian and Arabic origin loanwords in the language with their Turkish equivalents. It also saw the replacement of the Perso-Arabic script with the extended Latin alphabet. The changes were meant to encourage the growth of a new variety of written Turkish that more closely reflected the spoken vernacular and to foster a new variety of spoken Turkish that reinforced Turkey's new national identity as being a post-Ottoman state.
|city||شهر şehir||kent / il (also şehir)|
Historically speaking, Ottoman Turkish is the predecessor of modern Turkish. However, the standard Turkish of today is essentially Türkiye Türkçesi (Turkish of Turkey) as written in the Latin alphabet and with an abundance of neologisms added, which means there are now far fewer loan words from other languages, and Ottoman Turkish was not instantly transformed into the Turkish of today. At first, it was only the script that was changed, and while some households continued to use the Arabic system in private, most of the Turkish population was illiterate at the time, making the switch to the Latin alphabet much easier. Then, loan words were taken out, and new words fitting the growing amount of technology were introduced. Until the 1960s, Ottoman Turkish was at least partially intelligible with the Turkish of that day. One major difference between modern Turkish and Ottoman Turkish is the former's abandonment of compound word formation according to Arabic and Persian grammar rules. The usage of such phrases still exists in modern Turkish but only to a very limited extent and usually in specialist contexts; for example, the Persian genitive construction takdîr-i ilâhî (which reads literally as "the preordaining of the divine" and translates as "divine dispensation" or "destiny") is used, as opposed to the normative modern Turkish construction, ilâhî takdîr (literally, "divine preordaining").
Most Ottoman Turkish was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet (elifbâ الفبا), a variant of the Perso-Arabic script. The Armenian, Greek and Rashi script of Hebrew were sometimes used by Armenians, Greeks and Jews.
The transliteration system of the İslâm Ansiklopedisi has become a de facto standard in Oriental studies for the transliteration of Ottoman Turkish texts. Concerning transcription the New Redhouse, Karl Steuerwald and Ferit Develioğlu dictionaries have become standard. Another transliteration system is the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG), which provides a transliteration system for any Turkic language written in Arabic script. There are not many differences between the İA and the DMG transliteration systems.
The akçe (Ottoman Turkish: آقچه) (Turkish pronunciation: [aktʃe]) was the chief monetary unit of the Ottoman Empire, a silver coin. Three akçes were equal to one para. One-hundred and twenty akçes equalled one kuruş. Later after 1687 the kuruş became the main unit of account, replacing the akçe. In 1843, the silver kuruş was joined by the gold lira in a bimetallic system. Its weight fluctuated, one source estimates it is between 1.15 and 1.18 grams. The name akçe originally referred to a silver coin but later the meaning changed and it became a synonym for money.
The mint in Novo Brdo, a fortified mining town in the Serbian Despotate rich with gold and silver mines, began to strike akçe in 1441 when it was captured by the Ottoman forces for the first time.The Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul is said to have cost 59 million akçe when it was constructed in the 1550s. This amount is said to have equalled 700,000 ducats in gold (probably Venetian).Baghdad Eyalet
Baghdad Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت بغداد; Eyālet-i Baġdād) was an Iraqi eyalet of the Ottoman Empire centered on Baghdad. Its reported area in the 19th century was 62,208 square miles (161,120 km2).Chartaque
A chartaque (Ottoman Turkish: چارطاق, from Persian: چهارتاق chahartaq, literally "having four arches"; in German: Tschartake, in Turkish: Çardak) is a watchtower and important element of the fortification systems in the time of the Ottoman Empire.Dunam
A dunam (Ottoman Turkish: دونم; Turkish: dönüm), also known as a donum or dunum and as the old, Turkish, or Ottoman stremma, was the Ottoman unit of area equivalent to the Greek stremma or English acre, representing the amount of land that could be ploughed by a team of oxen in a day. The legal definition was "forty standard paces in length and breadth", but its actual area varied considerably from place to place, from a little more than 900 m2 in Ottoman Palestine to around 2500 m2 in Iraq.The unit is still in use in many areas previously ruled by the Ottomans, although the new or metric dunam has been redefined as exactly one decare (1000 m2), which is 1/10 hectare (1/10 * 10,000 m2), like the modern Greek royal stremma.Hadım Suleiman Pasha
Hadım Suleiman Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: خادم سلیمان پاشا; Turkish: Hadım Süleyman Paşa; c. 1467 – September 1547) was an Ottoman statesman and military commander. He was the (viceroy) of Ottoman Egypt in 1525–1535 and 1537–1538, and Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire between 1541 and 1544. He was a Hungarian eunuch, his epithet hadım meaning "eunuch" in Turkish.
As governor of Egypt, he was ordered by the sultan on an expedition to the Indian Ocean, where he led the capture of Aden and the Siege of Diu in 1538. Suleiman Pasha was a benefactor of his long-serving successor for Egyptian governorship, Davud Pasha (served 1538–1549), who he championed for the role to spite his rival and colleague, Rüstem Pasha.Halime Hatun
Halime Hatun (Ottoman Turkish: حلیمه خاتون) was the wife of Ertuğrul Bey, and possibly the mother of Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire.Hatice Sultan (daughter of Ahmed III)
Hatice Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: خدیجه سلطان; 4 October 1710 – c. 1738) was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Sultan Ahmed III.Ibşir Mustafa Pasha
Ibşir Mustafa Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: ابشير مصطفى پاشا) was an Ottoman statesman of Abkhazian origin, nephew of the governor and rebel Abaza Mehmed Pasha, and prominent Celali rebel. He was grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 28 October 1654 to 11 May 1655. He was also the Ottoman governor of Damascus Eyalet (province) in 1649. He was a damat ("bridegroom") to the Ottoman dynasty, as he married an Ottoman princess.Kaymakam
Qaim Maqam, Qaimaqam or Kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam; Ottoman Turkish: قائم مقام, "sub-governor") is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and in Lebanon; additionally, it was a title used for roughly the same official position in the Ottoman Empire.Kaza
A kaza (Arabic: قضاء, qaḍāʾ, pronounced [qɑˈd̪ˤɑːʔ], plural: أقضية, aqḍiyah, pronounced [ˈɑqd̪ˤijɑ]; Ottoman Turkish: kazâ) is an administrative division historically used in the Ottoman Empire and currently used in several of its successor states. The term is from Ottoman Turkish and means "jurisdiction"; it is often translated "district", "sub-district" (though this also applies to a nahiye), or "juridical district".Khedive
The term Khedive (Ottoman Turkish: خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha (Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa, General Muhammad Ali of Kavala), the governor of Egypt and Sudan, and vassal of the Ottoman Empire. The initially self-declared title was officially recognized by the Ottoman government in 1867, and used subsequently by Ismail Pasha, and his dynastic successors until 1914.Muazzez Sultan
Muazzez Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: معزز سلطان; died 12 September 1687) was the second consort of Sultan Ibrahim and the mother of Sultan Ahmed II.Mustafa IV
Mustafa IV (; Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى رابع Muṣṭafā-yi rābi‘; 8 September 1779 – 16 November 1808) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1807 to 1808.Osman III
Osman III (Ottoman Turkish: عثمان ثالث ‘Osmān-i sālis; 2/3 January 1699 – 30 October 1757) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1754 to 1757.Raziye Sultan
Raziye Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: راضیہ سلطان, also known as Tasasız Raziye Sultan (Tasasız meaning "Carefree") was an Ottoman princess, the daughter of Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. She may have died along with most of her brothers of smallpox, in 1522, as there is no record of her in the privy purse during the reign of her father. She is buried in the Yahya Efendi Tekkesi in Beshiktash, Istanbul.Sanjak
Sanjaks (; Ottoman Turkish: سنجاق; Modern Turkish: Sancak, pronounced [sanˈdʒak]) were administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire. Sanjak, and the variant spellings sandjak, sanjaq, and sinjaq, are English transliterations of the Turkish word sancak, meaning district, banner, or flag. Sanjaks were also called by the Arabic word for banner or flag: لواء liwa.
Ottoman provinces (eyalets, later vilayets) were divided into sanjaks (also called livas) governed by sanjakbeys (also called Mutesarriff) and were further subdivided into timars (fiefs held by timariots), kadiluks (the area of responsibility of a judge, or Kadı) and zeamets (also ziam; larger timars).
The unofficial, geo-political region of Sandžak in Serbia and Montenegro derives its name from the former Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar.State Hydraulic Works
The State Hydraulic Works (Turkish: Devlet Su İşleri) is a state agency organized under the Ministry of Environment and Forestry of Turkey responsible for the utilization of all the country's water resources. The institution's four major functions are energy, agriculture, services and environment.Sublime Porte
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (Ottoman Turkish: باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from Arabic: باب, bāb "gate" and Arabic: عالي, alī "high"), was a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.Trebizond Eyalet
Trebizond Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت طربزون; Eyālet-i Ṭrabzōn) or Trabzon Beylerbeyliği was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.
Established in 1598, it remained a primarily Christian region into the 17th century, well after the rest of Anatolia had been converted to Islam. Its reported area in the 19th century was 10,507 square miles (27,210 km2).
Languages of the Maghreb