Otto Jahn

Otto Jahn (German: [jaːn]; 16 June 1813 in Kiel – 9 September 1869 in Göttingen), was a German archaeologist, philologist, and writer on art and music.

Otto Jahn - Imagines philologorum
Otto Jahn.


After the completion of his university studies at Christian-Albrechts-Universität in Kiel, the University of Leipzig and Humboldt University, Berlin, he traveled for three years in France and Italy. In Rome, he was greatly influenced by the work of August Emil Braun (1809-1856).[1] In 1839 he became privatdozent at Kiel, and in 1842 professor-extraordinary of archaeology and philology at the University of Greifswald (ordinary professor 1845).

In 1847 he accepted the chair of archaeology at Leipzig, however, he along with Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) and Moritz Haupt (1808-1874) were dismissed from the university in 1851 for having taken part in the political movements of 1848-1849.[1] In 1855 he was appointed professor of the science of antiquity, and director of the academic art museum at Bonn. While here, he turned down an offer as successor to Eduard Gerhard (1795-1867) at Berlin.[2]

His biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart appeared in 1856, the centenary of Mozart's birth. The work is admired for its scholarly approach (at the time, novel in Mozart biography); and in versions revised by Hermann Abert and Cliff Eisen, continues in use today.[3]

Among Jahn's notable students was the classical archaeologist and philologist Hugo Blümner.

List of most important works

Haupt, Mommsen and Jahn in front of a Goethe bust. Leipzig 1848.
  • Archaeological:
    • Palamedes (1836)
    • Telephos und Troilos (1841)
    • Die Gemälde des Polygnot (1841)
    • Pentheus und die Mänaden (1841)
    • Paris und Oinone (1844)
    • Die hellenische Kunst (1846)
    • Peitho, die Göttin der Überredung (1847)
    • Über einige Darstellungen des Paris-Urteils (1849)
    • Die Ficoronische Cista (1852)
    • Pausaniae descriptio arcis Athenarum (3rd ed., 1901)
    • Darstellungen griechischer Dichter auf Vasenbildern (1861)
  • Philological:
  • Biographical and aesthetic:
    • Ueber Mendelssohn's Paulus (1842)
    • Biographie Mozarts. The 11th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica called this "a work of extraordinary labour, and of great importance for the history of music" (3rd ed. by H. Deiters, 1889-1891; Eng. trans. by P. D. Townsend, 1891)
    • Ludwig Uhland (1863)
    • Gesammelte Aufsätze über Musik (1866)
    • Biographische Aufsätze (1866).

His Griechische Bilderchroniken was published after his death, by his nephew Adolf Michaelis, who has written an exhaustive biography in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie: Adolf Michaelis (1881), "Jahn, Otto", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 13, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 668–686


  1. ^ a b Dictionary of Art Historians - Otto Jahn @ A Biographical Dictionary of Historic Scholars, Museum Professionals and Academic Historians of Art
  2. ^ ADB:Jahn, Otto @ Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
  3. ^ W. A. Mozart Yale University Press, Nov 30, 2007 - Hermann Abert


External links

1836 in archaeology

1836 in archaeology.

See also: other events of 1836.

Adolf Klügmann

Adolf Klügmann (12 May 1837 – 27 November 1880) was a German classical archaeologist and numismatist born in Lübeck.

He was a pupil to Otto Jahn (1813–1869) at the University of Bonn, then continued his studies at the Universities of Berlin and Göttingen. Due to poor health, from 1861 onward, he spent almost his entire life in Rome.

From 1873, he worked as an unpaid librarian at the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut in Rome. In 1878 he was editor of the "Corpus Speculorum Etruscorum" (project to publish all existing Etruscan bronze mirrors), a project begun by Eduard Gerhard (1795–1867), and after Klügmann's death, continued by Gustav Körte (1852–1917).

In addition to the Etruscan mirrors, Klügmann performed research in the fields of Roman numismatics, ancient mythology (particularly Amazons) and Greek vase painting.

Akademisches Kunstmuseum

Akademisches Kunstmuseum (English:Academic Art Museum) is an art museum in Bonn, Germany. It is the oldest museum in Bonn and houses the antique collection of the University of Bonn with more than 500 antique statues and reliefs, and over 2,000 originals. It is located in a neoclassical building at the southern end of the Hofgarten, near the Electoral Palace.

The museum was founded in 1818 and has one of the largest collections of plaster casts of ancient Greek and Roman sculptures in the world. At this time collections of plaster casts were mainly used in the instruction of students at art academies. They were first used in the instruction of university students in 1763 by Christian Gottlob Heyne at University of Göttingen. The Akademisches Kunstmuseum in Bonn was the first of its kind, as at this time collections at other universities were scattered around universities libraries. The first director was Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, who also held a professorship of archaeology. His tenure was from 1819 until his retirement in 1854. He was succeeded by Otto Jahn and Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, who shared the directorship. From 1870 to 1889 Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz, nephew of the famous organic chemist Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz, was the director. In 1872 the museum moved to a new building that was formerly used by the department of anatomy. The building was constructed from 1823 to 1830 and designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Hermann Friedrich Waesemann. Other directors of the museum were Georg Loeschcke (from 1889 to 1912), Franz Winter (from 1912 to 1929), Richard Delbrueck (from 1929 to 1940), Ernst Langlotz (from 1944 to 1966), Nikolaus Himmelmann (from 1969 to 1994) and Harald Mielsch (since 1994). All directors, with the exception of Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl held a professorship of archaeology at the university.

Bach Gesellschaft

The German Bach-Gesellschaft (Bach Society) was a society formed in 1850 for the express purpose of publishing the complete works of Johann Sebastian Bach without editorial additions. The collected works are known as the Bach-Gesellschaft-Ausgabe. On completion of the project, the Society dissolved itself.

The nineteenth-century society needs to be distinguished from its successor, the Neue Bachgesellschaft (New Bach Society), founded in 1900.

Beethoven and Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart had a powerful influence on the work of Ludwig van Beethoven. They are said to have met in Vienna in 1787, and Beethoven is said to have had a few lessons from Mozart. However, this is uncertain, as there is only one account of a meeting, and it is not contemporary. Beethoven knew much of Mozart's work. Some of his music recalls Mozart's, he composed several variations on Mozart's themes and he modeled a number of his compositions on those of the older composer.

Carl Czerny

Carl Czerny (German: [ˈtʃɛɐ̯ni]; 21 February 1791 – 15 July 1857) was an Austrian composer, teacher, and pianist of Czech origin whose vast musical production amounted to over a thousand works. His books of studies for the piano are still widely used in piano teaching.

Carl Robert

Carl (Karl) Georg Ludwig Theodor Herwig Joseph Robert (8 March 1850, Marburg – 17 January 1922, Halle an der Saale) was a German classical philologist and archaeologist.

He began his studies of ancient philology and archaeology at the University of Bonn, where he was a student of Otto Jahn, Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz and Anton Springer. In 1870 he began service as a volunteer in the Hessian Infantry Battalion No. 11 during the Franco-Prussian War. Afterwards, he resumed his studies at the University of Berlin under Theodor Mommsen, Adolf Kirchhoff and Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. In 1873 he obtained his doctorate in Berlin with the thesis De Apollodori bibliotheca. From a travel grant by the German Archaeological Institute, he conducted scientific research in Greece and Italy.In 1877 he became an associate professor at Berlin, attaining a full professorship in 1880. In 1890 he was appointed chair of classical archaeology and philology at the University of Halle. At Halle he served as director of its archaeological museum, of which, he made important improvements via new acquisitions. In the 1920s the museum was renamed the "Robertinum" in honor of his accomplishments.

Eugen Bormann

Eugen Ludwig Bormann (6 October 1842, Hilchenbach – 4 March 1917, Klosterneuburg) was a German-Austrian historian, known for his work in the field of Latin epigraphy.

He studied at the University of Bonn as a pupil of Otto Jahn and Friedrich Ritschl, and at the University of Berlin, where his influences were August Boeckh, Eduard Gerhard and especially Theodor Mommsen. As an employee of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, he spent several years conducting research in Italy. Following military service during the Franco-Prussian War (in which he was badly wounded), he taught courses in classical languages at the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin.In 1881 he was appointed professor of ancient history at the University of Marburg, then in 1885, relocated as a professor to the University of Vienna. Here, he became a member of the Academy of Sciences.He is credited with expansion of the Archäologisch-epigraphische Seminar (Archaeological-epigraphic Seminar), a scholarly entity that was founded by Otto Hirschfeld and Alexander Conze. In addition to his extensive work on the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, he edited the epigraphic material collected from the Roman Limes in Austria (Carnuntum, Lauriacum). With archaeologist Ernst Kalinka, he published a treatise on ancient monuments found in Bulgaria, titled "Antike Denkmäler in Bulgarien".The thoroughfare, Eugen Bormann-Gasse in Vienna Donaustadt (22nd District), is named in his honor.

Eugen Petersen

Eugen Adolf Hermann Petersen (16 August 1836 in Heiligenhafen – 14 December 1919 in Hamburg) was a German classical archaeologist and philologist.

He studied classical philology at the universities of Kiel and Bonn, where his influences were Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker, Friedrich Ritschl and Otto Jahn. In 1859 he received his doctorate at Kiel with a thesis on Theophrastus. Following graduation he worked at the Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica in Rome, during which time, he investigated the recently discovered tombs of Via Latina.In 1862, he obtained his habilitation for classical philology at the University of Erlangen. From 1864, he taught classes at the gymnasium in Husum, then from 1869 worked in a similar capacity in Plon. From 1873 to 1879, he served as a professor of classical philology and archaeology at the University of Dorpat, and afterwards was named a successor to Otto Benndorf at the University of Prague.From 1882 to 1885, with Benndorf, Felix von Luschan, Karol Lanckoroński and others, he participated in archaeological investigations in Asia Minor, about which, the treatises "Reisen in Lykien, Milyas und Kibyratis" (1889) and "Städte Pamphyliens und Pisidiens" (1890-92) were published. In 1886, he was chosen first secretary of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) in Athens, and during the following year, succeeded Wilhelm Henzen as manager of the DAI in Rome.

Friedrich Matz

Friedrich Matz (13 October 1843, in Lübeck – 30 December 1874, in Berlin) was a German archaeologist. His nephew, also named Friedrich Matz (1890–1974), was as well a noted archaeologist.

From 1863 he studied philology and archaeology at the University of Bonn as a favored student of Otto Jahn. In 1867 he received his doctorate with a dissertation thesis on Philostratus, titled De Philostratorum in describendis imaginibus fide specimen prius. Afterwards, he took a study trip to Greece and Italy, during which time, he conducted extensive studies of ancient sarcophagi. In 1870 he was tasked by the Central Directorate of the German Archaeological Institute to create a register of ancient sarcophagi. During the same year, he obtained his habilitation at the University of Göttingen.In other research, he investigated ancient statues in England and France, and examined a collection of long-forgotten manuscripts of antiquity belonging to the Duke of Coburg-Gotha. In 1873 he became an associate professor at the University of Halle, and during the following year, relocated to the University of Berlin. He died in Berlin on 30 December 1874, aged 31.


Jahn (Jähn) is a German surname. Notable people with this surname include the following:

Constanze Jahn (born 1963), German chess player

David Jahn (b. 1975), Czech burlesque impresario

Erich Jahn (1907– ?), Hitler Youth leader

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778 – 1852), German educator, founding figure of German Turner athletic movement

Gunnar Jahn (1883 – 1971), Norwegian politician and resistance member

Gunter Jahn (1910 – 1992), German U-boat commander

Helmut Jahn (born 1940), German-American architect

Hermann Arthur Jahn (1907 – 1979), British scientist

Jan Jahn (1739 – 1802), Czech painter and art historian

Jeff Jahn (born 1970), American artist and critic

Johann Jahn (1750 – 1816), German Orientalist

Kurt Jahn (1892 – 1966), German general

Marie-Luise Jahn (1918-2010), German physician

Martin Jahn (c. 1620 – c. 1682), German church musician, minister, hymnwriter

Martin Jahn (born 1970), Czech economist and politician

Joseph Michael Jahn (born 1943), American author and critic

Otto Jahn (1813 – 1869), German archaeologist, philologist, and writer on art and music

Robert G. Jahn (born 1930), American scientist, electrical engineer, and psychic investigator

Ryan David Jahn (born 1979), American novelist and screenwriter

Sigmund Jähn (born 1937), German astronaut

Thomas Jahn (born 1965), German film and television director

Wilhelm Jahn (1835 – 1900), Austro-Hungarian orchestral conductor

Wilhelm Jahn (athlete) (1889 – 1973), German athlete, leader of the Wandervogel youth movement, folksong composer, publisher, World War II army officer

Ludwig Wenzel Lachnith

Ludwig Wenzel Lachnith (Prague, July 7, 1746 – Paris, October 3, 1820) was a Bohemian horn player and versatile composer influenced by Joseph Haydn and Ignaz Pleyel. Today he is chiefly remembered because of his adaptions of operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The French composer and writer Hector Berlioz immortalized him in a diatribe in his autobiography.

Oreithyia painter

The Oreithyia painter was an ancient Greek red-figure vase painter who flourished from 470–460 BCE. He is one of the many painters of the red-figure Classical Period, but his work is not considered the finest or well-known. This is partly because he began painting during the transition from red-figure to black-figure pottery.

In his early vases he only painted a Side A, adding to his minimalist style. The name Oreithyia Painter was assigned by archaeologist Otto Jahn off the pointed-neck amphora vase held at the Antikensammlung in Munich, Germany (Museum number 2345, Beazley Archive number 206422, ARV number 496.2) depicting the rape of Oreithyia by Boreas. The vase c. 470–460 is inscribed with the names Kekros, Erechsus, Boras, and Oreithya, hence its name.

Twenty-three vases in total have been attributed directly, perhaps, or compared to the Oreithyia painter, predominantly by John Beazley and Otto Jahn. Other people who have attributed vases to the Oreithyia painter include Cahn and Dohan. The majority of his work is on larger vases and has been found on lekythoi, amphoras, hydrias, kylixes, and stamnos, as well as various fragments. The provenances of his vases are predominantly from the western shores of Italy and the south western coast of Sicily, which most likely denotes that most of the Oreithyia painter's work was exported through trade.

The Oreithyia painter is typically viewed as an independent vase painter during the early 5th century. His works are limited in number and popularity. Earlier in the painter's work, his vases are only one-sided, and typically have limited meander pattern to frame the subjects depicted. Later in his career, the Oreithyia painter switched to painting both sides and adding more designs around the scenes. He often gives the figures large eyes, strong chins, and longer noses. The style of garments the Oreithyia painter uses are swallow tail folds and spaghetti folds. With simple designs and mediocre details in the figures, the Oreithyia painter may have been a new painter during the transition from black-figure to red-figure.

Otto Benndorf

Otto Benndorf (13 September 1838 – 2 January 1907) was a German-Austrian archaeologist who was a native of Greiz, Principality of Reuss-Greiz. He was the father of physicist Hans Benndorf (1870–1953).

He studied under Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker (1784–1868), Otto Jahn (1813–1869) and Friedrich Ritschl (1806–1876) at the University of Bonn. Later, he worked as an instructor at Schulpforta, where one of his students was Friedrich Nietzsche. From 1864 to 1868 he was a member of a scientific expedition that toured Italy (Rome), Sicily, Greece and Asia Minor. In 1868 he obtained his habilitation at the University of Göttingen under the guidance of Friedrich Wieseler (1811–1892).

In 1869 he became an associate professor of archaeology at the University of Zurich, relocating to University of Munich in 1871 and to Prague the following year. With Alexander Conze (1831–1914), he took part in the second Austrian archaeological expedition to Samothrace (1875). Two years later, he succeeded Conze as chair of archaeology at the University of Vienna. Among his students at Vienna were Michael Rostovtzeff (1870–1952), Emil Szántó (1857–1904), Julius von Schlosser (1866–1938) and Franz Studniczka (1860–1929).

In 1881–82, he excavated the so-called "Heroon of Trysa" in Lycia, shipping more than 100 boxes of material to the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. With Carl Humann, he organized an excavation of Ephesus (1895). In 1898 he founded the Österreichisches Archäologische Institut (Austrian Archaeological Institute at Athens), serving as its director until his death in 1907.


Persius, in full Aulus Persius Flaccus (; 4 December 34, in Volterra – 24 November 62), was a Roman poet and satirist of Etruscan origin. In his works, poems and satires, he shows a stoic wisdom and a strong criticism for what he considered to be the stylistic abuses of his poetic contemporaries. His works, which became very popular in the Middle Ages, were published after his death by his friend and mentor, the stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Cornutus.

Peter Wilhelm Forchhammer

Peter Wilhelm Forchhammer (October 23, 1801 – January 8, 1894), was a German classical archaeologist born at Husum in Schleswig.

He was educated at the Lübeck gymnasium and the university of Kiel, with which he was connected for nearly 65 years. In 1830–1834 and 1838–1840 he travelled in Italy, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt. In 1843 he was appointed professor of philology at Kiel and director of the archaeological museum founded by himself in co-operation with Otto Jahn.

Forchhammer was an active democrat, and from 1871 to 1873 represented the progressive party of Schleswig-Holstein in the German Reichstag. His published works deal chiefly with topography and ancient mythology. His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world. These principles are illustrated in his Hellenika Griechenland Im Neuen das Alte (1837), which contains his theory of the origin and explanation of the Greek myths, which he never abandoned, in spite of the attacks to which it was subjected. According to him, the myths arose from definite local (especially atmospheric and aquatic) phenomena, and represented the annually recurring processes of nature as the acts of gods and heroes; thus, in Achill (1853), the Trojan War is the winter conflict of the elements in that district.

Other similar short treatises are:

Die Gründung Roms (1868)

Daduchos (1875), on the language of the myths and mythical buildings

Die Wanderwangen der Inachostochter Io (1880)

Prolegomena zur Mythologie als Wissenschaft und Lexikon der Mythensprache (1891).Among his topographical works mention may be made of:

Topographie von Athen (1841)

Beschreibung der Ebene von Troja (1850), a commentary on a map of the locality executed by T. A. Spratt (see Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, xii., 1842)

Topographia Thebarum Heptapylarum (1854); Erklärung der Ilias (1884), on the basis of the topographical and physical peculiarities of the plain of Troy.His Demokratenbüchlein (1849), in the main a discussion of the Aristotelian theory of the state, and Die Athener und Sokrates (1837), in which, contrary to the almost universal opinion, he upheld the procedure of the Athenians as perfectly legal and their verdict as a perfectly just one, also deserve notice.

Rudolf Schöll

Rudolf Schöll (1 September 1844 in Weimar – 10 June 1893 in Munich) was a German classical scholar. He specialized in the fields of Greek and Roman legal history, classical archaeology and Greek epigraphy.He received his education at the University of Göttingen as a student of Hermann Sauppe and Ernst Curtius, followed by studies in Bonn, where his instructors included Friedrich Ritschl and Otto Jahn. In 1865 he obtained his doctorate of philosophy. Later on, he worked in Italy and Greece (1867–70), first as an aide to Theodor Mommsen in the development of inscriptions and manuscripts, afterwards as a private secretary to Guido von Usedom, the Prussian ambassador to the Italian government in Florence.In 1871 he received his habilitation in classical philology, becoming an associate professor during the following year at the University of Greifswald. In 1874 he was named successor to Conrad Bursian at Jena, and in 1875 relocated to Strasbourg as a replacement for Ulrich Köhler. In 1885, he again replaced Bursian, this time as a professor at the University of Munich.Throughout his lifetime he cultivated relationships with luminaries that included Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia, writer Paul Heyse, composer Franz Liszt and painter Franz von Lenbach.

Wolfgang Helbig

Wolfgang Helbig (2 February 1839 – 6 October 1915) was a German classical archaeologist born in Dresden. He is known for his studies involving the wall paintings of Campania (Pompeii).

From 1856 to 1861 he studied philology and archaeology at the University of Göttingen, where he became member of Burschenschaft (fraternity) Hannovera, and also at the University of Bonn, where he was a student of Otto Jahn, Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker and Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl. He received his doctorate at Bonn in 1861 with the thesis "Questiones scaenicae". In 1862 he became a member of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) to Rome. In 1865 he succeeded Heinrich Brunn as second secretary at the DAI, a position he kept until 1887.During his career he traveled extensively throughout Italy, Greece, Russia, France and North Africa. Beginning in 1887, he lived in Rome as a private scholar and art dealer, and served as a broker of numerous works of art for the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in Copenhagen.

In 1887, he presented the now controversial Praeneste fibula. In 1892, he published the first edition of "Führer durch die öffentlichen Sammlungen klassischer Altertümer in Rom", a very popular guide to classical antiquities in Rome.

He died in 1915 in Rome.


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