Otaibah

The Otaibah (Arabic: عتيبة‎, also spelled Otaiba, Utaybah) is a tribe originating in Saudi Arabia. Many members of the Saudi royal family descend maternally from the tribe, which is distributed throughout Saudi Arabia and the Middle East. The Otaibah are descended from the Bedouin. They trace back to the Mudar family and belong to the Qays ʿAylān confederacy via its previous name, Hawazin.[1][2]

Research of the lineage of northern tribes may began with Adnan (instead of Ishmael), as passed on by oral tradition. He is the common ancestor of the modern Otaibah, Annazah, Tamim, Abd al-Qays, and Quraysh tribes.[3][4] Although Adnan is at the head of the tribal genealogy, genealogists and poets typically refer to two of his descendants: his son Ma'ad (a later collective term for all north Arabian tribes) and his grandson Nizar, ancestor of Rabi'ah and Mudar.[5]

Mudar, the son of Nizar, fathered ʿAylān al-Nās (the ancestor of Hawazin and Otaibah).[6] The Hawazin is another tribe related to the Otaibah.[7]

The tribe's common ancestors are Otaibah, Guzayah, Banu Jusham, Muʿāwiya, Bakr, Hawāzin, Manṣūr, ʿIkrima, K̲h̲aṣafa, Qays ʿAylān, Mudir, Nijzar, Ma'ad and Adnan of the Ishmaelites. The tribe, five or six hundred years old,[8] is primarily found in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates.

Otaibah
Qaysi/Adnanite/Ishmaelites
LocationSaudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates.
Descended fromOtaibah, Guzayah, D̲j̲usham, Muʿāwiya, Bakr, Hawāzin, Manṣūr, ʿIkrima, K̲h̲aṣafa, Qays ʿAylān, Mudir, Nizar, Ma'ad, Adnan
Parent tribeHawazin, Qays
Branches
  • Barga
  • Roug
  • Bano Saad
ReligionSunni Islam

Genealogy

According to genealogy and oral tradition, the Otaibah tribe are descended from the pre-Islamic Hawazin. The Hawazin are descendants of the Qays ʿAylān (descendants of Ma'ad [son of Adnan]) or the Adnanites, descendants of the Ishmaelites (the sons of Ishmael, the elder son of Abraham).[19] The only known copy of historian and genealogist Hisham ibn al-Kalbi's 8th-century AD The Great Ancestrywas examined then verified in 1988 by Mahmud Firdous al Adm, who found portions of the manuscript in the research of Werner Caskel, a professor at the University of Berlin and the University of Cologne during the 1940s. According to the manuscript:[20][21]

"Otaibah" is attributed to a standard; one of the banners that belong to the tribe of Hawazin. (The name derives from a man) and he is, Otaibah Ibn Guzayah Ibn Jusham Ibn Ibn Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr Ibn Hawazin. The clans (subdivisions) of Hawazin all united under one of his descendants in an early time during the first centuries; other nations from Hawazin intertwined around him (as well). After most of the clans of Hawazin departed (resettled away) from the land of Hejaz and Najd to the (great and) wide lands of God. To the Sham (the Levant), Iraq, Egypt, the farthermost western lands (North Africa), the lands of Persia, and its surrounding Persian territories. None was left of them except those who could not leave their land and country. Those who remained, formed the largest Hawazin alliance in our present time, and it was named Otaibah. Additionally, the tribes of Bakr and Taghlib also congregated under its well-known banners.

Other works by al-Kalbi include the Book of Idols and The Abundance of Kinship. According to the latter, "The descendants of Jusham Ibn Ibn Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr Ibn Hawazin are Guzayah, Oday, Ouseema. The sons of Guzayah are Juda'aa, Hami, Otaibah, and Outwara." Ibn Kathir wrote in his 14th-century book, The Beginning and the End:

There is no doubt that Adnan is from the lineage of Ishmeal, the only fact that is disagreed upon (or being disputed) is the number of ancestors between the two. Most of what was said (and known) is that the exact number is forty fathers between Adnan and Ishmeal, and this is (largely) based on what is written among the Christian and Jewish people, who know it from Baruch (the Israelite scribe, disciple, and secretary of Jeremah) writer of The Book of Jeremiah ... And Abu Jafar Al Tabari, and others, have concluded that the almighty God had sent to Jeremiah son of Hilkiah a revelation to go to (the King of Babylon) Nebuchadnezzar (II) and inform him that the almighty God has given him authority over the (ancient) people of Arabia (the Qedarites). God then commanded Jeremiah to take Ma'ad son of Adnan (far away from the imminent conflict) on (a horse). So that he, (Ma'ad), will not be afflicted by any resentfulness (since the victims cursed by the evils of Nebuchadnezzar were his people). (As the command stated) For I, the almighty God, will bring forth from him (Ma'ad son of Adnan) a generous prophet, and the last among prophets. Jeremiah accepted the request, and carried Ma'ad to the land (known as) the levant, where he grew among the sons of Israel; the few whom survived after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem ... The scribe who wrote the Book of Jeremiah, Baruch, transcribed the genealogy of his master (and devoted friend) to have it preserved (with the books) in the library of Jeremiah, and to save the lineage of Ma'ad (perhaps for posterity and future generations), but God only knows (the exact truth). This is the reason why Mailk (a primary scholar of prophetic traditions in the 8th century) disliked tracing the lineage to before Adnan (or attempt to name any of forefathers of Adnan, other than Ishmael himself, because no truthful or precise record exists of these ancestors, save the Book of Jeremiah).

The tribes of the northern Arabian Peninsula are descended from Ishmael. They are seldom referred to as the Ishmaelites, however, but are more often described as the Qays ʿAylān. The southern tribes are descended from Qahtan, also known as Qahtanites. During the Umayyad era, a feud began between them. Scottish historian W. Montgomery Watt wrote that "to constitute something like a political party", the tribes began to identify the people of the Arabian Peninsula as Qays ʿAylān or Qahtan. The rivalry led to open conflict during the Second Muslim Civil War (680–692).[27]

Most Otaibah geneaology is oral tradition dating to the Middle Ages and earlier.[16] Muhammad's foster mother, Halimah al-Sa‘diyah, was from the Banu Sa'd tribe (a subdivision of the Hawazin, the Otaibah parent tribe.[28][29]

The lineage of the Otaibah tribe varies among scholars; some attribute the tribe to the sons of the Banu Sa'd ibn Hawazin, and others say that they are composed of the Banu Jusham ibn Muawiya ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin or the Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah ibn Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin. However, accounts agree that their lineage traces back to Hawazin, son of Mansur, son of Ikrimah, son of Khasafah, son of Qays ʿAylān, son of Mudar, son of Nizar, son of Ma'ad, son of Adnan.[17]

History

Ottoman Empire (late 16th century to 1900)

Bedouin-Sheikh
Bedouin sheikh between 1934 and 1939

During the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast to their empire. They claimed rule of the interior as their central authority waxed and waned.[30][31][32]

In the 18th century, the Mutayr (aided by the Qahtan) began a series of wars against the Anazzah for the pastures of central Najd and forced the Anazzah north. The Mutayr and Qahtan were superseded by the Otaibah, who remain the largest tribe in central Najd.[33]

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Otaibah and Ḥarb were counterparts in the centuries-long struggle among the Sharifs of Mecca and the ruling families of Ibn Rashid and Ibn Saud for Najd. Nineteenth- and early-20th-century Otaibah history reflects the wars in Najd and Hejaz, whose belligerents tried to enlist the tribe's support.[9][34]

In 1816, the Wahhabi kingdom was defeated by the Egyptians. Their leader, Ibrahim Mohammed Ali, persuaded the Otaibah and several Anazzah tribes to assist him against Abdullah bin Saud. Between 1842 and 1872, nine powers (including the Otaibah) were at war in Najd. In 1872, Otaibah chief Muslit bin Rubayan attacked western settlements of Riyadh. Saud bin Faisal immediately made a retaliatory raid on their territory, in which he was defeated and critically wounded. In 1881 and 1882, the Otaibah plundered camps of Harb tribes who were subjects of Ibn Rashid. They unsuccessfully attacked Rashid in the summer of 1883. Members of the House of Saud joined Grand Sharif of Mecca Awn Al-Rafiq in 1897, and undertook campaigns against Ibn Rashid with Otaibah aid.[35]

The tribal war between Otaibah and Ibn Rashid began after a comment by the Otaibah poet Mukhlad Al-Qthami to Rashidi leader Muhammed Ibn Abdullah at his court (translated from a nomadic dialect of Arabic):

 We are the Otaibah. Oh, how many warriors we've slain
Because our legions are a steady team.[16]

Early 20th century

The Ottoman Empire continued to control most of the peninsula. However, Arabia had its own rulers: a group of tribal chiefs in Najd and its surrounding area, and the Sharif of Mecca ruled the Hejaz. The Otaibah cooperated with Al Saud of Najd, but sided with the Sharifs of Mecca (who took refuge with the tribe in times of adversity).[36][37][38][39]

During World War I in 1915, Ibn Saud began an ambitious plan to settle the nomadic tribes in his territory (which included Najd and the east coast of Arabia. This was accomplished with the indoctrination of the tribes in religious ideals by Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, since the nomadic Arab Bedouin (including the Otaibah) were not considered religious. In 1916, with British support, Sharif of Mecca Hussein bin Ali led a revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united state. The Arab Revolt of 1916–1918 failed, but the Allied victory in World War I resulted in the end of Ottoman control of Arabia.[40][41]

ʿAbd ai-ʿAzīz began to establish settlements known as al-Hid̲j̲ar (singular hid̲j̲ra ), followed by Sultan bin Bajad Al-Otaibi of Nad̲j̲d in promoting the settlement of Saudi Arabia's people during the first quarter of the century. This was accompanied by the Ikhwan (the Brethren), a political, military, and religious movement. ʿAbd ai-ʿAzīz, its founder, attempted to kindle religious enthusiasm among the rarely-pious and often-unpredictable tribes as a start for the reclamation and control of his domain.[42]

The spread of religious enlightenment by the muṭawwiʿūn (preachers) prepared the idea of an agricultural, settled life, and the first (and most successful) settlement was established in 1912 by the Mutayr tribe. This settlement was soon followed by another by the Otaibah. Their inhabitants were members of Ikhwan. An important cause and new religious regulations, standards, and principles helped nomadic people leave their desert-dwelling culture and begin to live in groups, giving birth to a number of societies. The conflict with Āl Ras̲h̲īd of Ḥāʾil and the Sharifs in Mecca drove the process of settlement further, leading to about 130 such colonies across Arabia.[42]

Although efforts were made to bring different tribes together in a single settlement to end feuding, most of the settlements became associated with specific tribes. According to lists compiled by Oppenheim and Caskel, the Ḥarb had 27 settlements, the Otaibah 19, the Muṭayr 16, the Ajman 14, the Shammar nine and the Qahtan eight. The hid̲j̲ras were in Najd and on Arabia's east coast. They reached the edge of the al-Rubʿ al-K̲h̲ālī desert in the south, and the Syrian Desert in the north. In the west, they extended to the mountains of Hejaz and Asir.[43]

Otaibah Sultan ibn Bjad and Eqab bin Mohaya enlisted in the Ikhwan movement, and were deployed by Ibn Saud against regional rivals. They led tribal forces in the occupation of Al-Hasa, Ha'il, Al-Baha, Jizan, Asir, Ta'if, Mecca, and Jeddah.This was considered a significant contribution in gaining control of the Hejaz region. After several victories, some Ikhwan factions resented policies which appeared to favor modernization and an increased number of non-Muslim foreigners in the region. Some Ikhwan members became more zealous than their founder, and turned against him.[42][44][45]

Sultan ibn Bjad joined leaders of other tribes in revolt in December 1928; Eqab bin Mohaya led his Otaibah tribe to aid King Abdul Aziz and vanquish the threat. Eqab and his followers were not the only members of the tribe to ally with the young king the revolution was doomed when a large Otaibah faction (Roug, under the command of ʿUmar Ibn Rubayʿān) chose loyalty to Ibn Saud.[43]

In 1926, the inhabitants of Najd and Hejaz gave their allegiance ( bayʿa ) to ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. He accepted the title of king ( malik ) the following year and ruled the central and provincial governments, authorized by Islamic legal scholars ('ʿulamāʾ') and Sharia law. Factions of the Ikhwan tribes (particularly the Mutayr, Otaibah and Ajman) supported the preservation of their chiefdoms—including the tribes’ choice of markets, raiding, and political affiliations—but were defeated in a series of battles during 1929 and 1930. Political opposition, including political parties, was subsequently forbidden. Centralization was apparent in economic change beginning in 1924, when ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz began to use taxation and pilgrimage income to build a central treasury. During this period,raids into neighbouring states were forbidden.[46]

On 29 March 1929, the revolution was suppressed at the Battle of Sabilla. After the defeat, another battle took place between two branches of the Otaibah tribe: Barka and Roug. The rebellious Barka branch fled under Sultan ibn Bjad, one of their three leaders. He and his men were defeated and captured at D̲j̲abala by ʿUmar Ibn Rubayʿān, in command of al-Roug elements loyal to the king. Ibn Bjad was later taken prisoner. In the final crushing of the Ikhwan rebellion in 1930, some settlements were completely destroyed. The king then created the nucleus of a modern, standing army, which proved its worth in establishing peace.[42][47][48] On 23 September 1932, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established in a successful unification of a large portion of the peninsula.[49][44]

Mid-20th to early 21st century

Early in the kingdom's history, a House of Supplies provided food for the people. A harsh manager was memorialized by Shammar poet Hamad Al Rukhees:

Oh (my) creator bestow ease (upon me) and (let me) Certainly (our future) days will (soon) be relieved as the free (falcon) gets full out of its own claw (hard effort and work).[50]

Late in the 20th century, King Faisal Al Saud was strongly supported by the Otaibah.[16] When the king was crown prince (between 1953 and 1964), the Otaibah were warring with the Mutayr over land near the city of Ta'if. One spring, a committee was formed by the government to legally prohibit either tribe from occupying the land until the issue was resolved. Faisal Al Saud went to the source of the conflict to resolve it. He saw a roaming Otaibah shepherd herding sheep and camels and asked him, "Who are you?" The shepherd replied, "I am from the Otaibah tribe". The crown prince then said, "Very good. Take these verses of mine to your people, and they will know its meaning":

Oh son of Otaibah, what say him (when) his mother's cheek (the land) was being defiled (by conflict)?
In the core of all knowledge are solutions; (therefore), take this message, take it (to them).[51]

With the poem, the crown prince emphasized that the land (their mother) was being defiled by the conflict. The shepherd said, "All right. I will take it to them, but I do not know who it is from (or who is its sender)". The crown prince replied, "The person speaking to you is Faisal Ibn Abdul Aziz". The shepherd responded, "A name significantly acknowledged and greatly praised; however, please take its response in verse":

Oh, greetings to the greatest of all solutions (manifested). If (we knew) Faisal was against it (the conflict)
We (the Otaibah) would evacuate the land. Take (accept) this message, take it.
And my mother (the land) is like an elderly woman; rosy (gentle in essence), white (unspoiled) and clean is her cheek.
And (alongside) your mother (Arabia), succeeded only by the strongest of kings, take this message, take it.[51]

The conflict ended soon afterwards. During the early 21st century, many Otaibah enlisted in Saudi Arabia's armed forces (particularly in the Saudi National Guard).[46][52]

Great Mosque of Mecca siege

Otaibahs Juhayman al-Otaybi, his brother-in-law, Mohammed Abdullah al-Qahtani (reportedly the Mahdi) and hundreds of their followers seized the Great Mosque of Mecca on 20 November 1979. Although the rebels included Egyptians, Pakistanis and American converts, most were Saudi Otaibahs.[53] The Grand Mosque seizure lasted until 4 December and resulted in the deaths of many civilian hostages, Saudi security personnel and most of the rebels, including Muhammad al-Qahtani. Juhayman and 67 of his fellow rebels who survived the assault were captured and publicly beheaded. Many rebels evaded capture and fled. In response to the seizure of the mosque, King Khalid bin Abdulaziz Al Saud gave more power to religious conservatives and ulamas. He reportedly believed that "the solution to the religious upheaval was simple: more religion."[54] Newspaper photographs of women were banned, followed by women on television. Cinemas and music shops were shut down. The educational curriculum was changed to provide many more hours of religious studies, eliminating classes on subjects such as non-Islamic history. Gender segregation was extended "to the humblest coffee shop", and the religious police became more assertive.

Tribal branches

Otaibah tree2008
Otaibah branches in a number of countries

The Otaibah tribe is divided into three major branches: Barga (Arabic: برقا‎), Roug (روق) and Bano Saad (Sons of Saad, بنو سعد). Each branch is divided into a number of clans, and each clan is divided into families.[16]

See also

References

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  52. ^ Commins, David (2009). The Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 92. Rank and file Ikhwan fighters formed units in a new military institution, initially the White Army, eventually the National Guard ...
  53. ^ "The battle at Islam's heart". www.newstatesman.com.
  54. ^ Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom : Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. Viking. p. 48. Those old men actually believed that the Mosque disaster was God's punishment to us because we were publishing women's photographs in the newspapers, says a princess, one of Khaled's nieces. The worrying thing is that the king [Khaled] probably believed that as well ... Khaled had come to agree with the sheikhs. Foreign influences and bida'a were the problem. The solution to the religious upheaval was simple—more religion.
2017 FIFA Club World Cup squads

Each team in the 2017 FIFA Club World Cup must name a 23-man squad (three of whom must be goalkeepers). Injury replacements are allowed until 24 hours before the team's first match.

Al-Ittihad Kalba SC

Ittihad Kalba Sports & Cultural Club is a football club in Kalba, United Arab Emirates.

Al Jazira Club

Al-Jazira SCC is a football club from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. They play in the UAE Arabian Gulf League.

Arab tribes in Iraq

Most Iraqis identify strongly with a tribe (العشيرة 'ashira). Thirty of the 150 or so identifiable tribes in Iraq are the most influential. Tribes are grouped into federations (qabila). Below the tribe, there are the clan (الفخذ fukhdh), the house (البيت beit) and the extended family (الخمس khams).

On its accession to power in the 17 July Revolution of 1968, the Ba'ath Party announced its opposition to tribalism ( القبلية al-qabaliyya), although for pragmatic reasons, especially during the war with Iran, tribalism was sometimes tolerated and even encouraged.

Dorayd bin Al Soma

Dorayd bin Al Soma was a pre-Islamic warrior, knight and poet of the Hawazin tribe. He was also the chief of the Banu Jusham, or the modern day Al-Qthami clan of the tribe of Otaibah. Historians have cited that he contributed to more than a hundred battles for his tribe. By the time of the rise of Islam, he was already an old man and remained a pagan.

Hani Al-Mazeedi

Hani Mansour M. Al-Mazeedi (born 1954) is a Kuwaiti scientist who specializes in Halal requirements, quality and Safety systems for food (HACCP/Pre-requisite programs such as GMP & GHP) and Halal services for the Halal Industry.[1]

Mazeedi, through Kuwait government (Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs and Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research) and GSO (Gulf Standard Organization) of the GCC Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, has organized the first gulf conference on the Halal Industry and its Services in January 2011. This has followed by an Halal workshop in 2012, the second and third gulf conference on the Halal Industry and its Services in 2012 and 2103 consequently.

Hawazin

The Hawazin (Arabic: هوازن‎ / ALA-LC: Hawāzin) were an ancient Pre-Islamic Arab tribe considered to be the descendants of Hawazin son of Mansur son of Ikrimah son of Khasafah son of Qays ʿAylān son of Mudar son of Nizar son of Ma'ad son of Adnan son of Aa'd son of U'dud son of Sind son of Ya'rub son of Yashjub son of Nabeth son of Qedar son of Ishmael, or Ishmaelites, son of Abraham.In the oral tradition and studies on genealogy, the modern-day tribe of Otaibah in the Arabian Peninsula are the de facto descendants of the Hawazin tribe. Based in the Hejaz at the time, they formed part of the larger Qaysi tribal grouping, and were the main Qaysi force that fought the Quraysh and Kinana during the Fijar War in the late 6th century.The tribe's defeat at the Hunayn was a factor in enabling Islam to spread beyond Arabia. Upon their surrender and conversion, the tribe was told to choose between reclaiming the women who had been taken captive following the battle and the property that had been taken from them as booty. They chose the women.In the Pre-Islamic era, the foster-mother and wetnurse of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Halimah al-Sa‘diyah, and her husband were from the tribe of the Banu Sa'd, a subdivision of Hawazin.Furthermore, the tribe often clashed with their one-time patrons, the Ghatafan, and on occasion, sub-tribes of the Hawazin fought each other. The tribe had little contact with the Islamic prophet Muhammad until 630 when they were defeated by Muhammad's forces at the Battle of Hunayn. After the battle, Muhammad treated the Hawazin chief Malik ibn 'Awf al-Nasri well. Nevertheless, the Hawazin tribe were one of the one of first to rebel and fight against the religion after the death of Muhammad in the seventh century during the Wars of Apostasy.The Hawazin were a large group that included the sub-tribes of the Banu Sa'd ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin. The Banu Nasr and the Banu Jusham sons of Mu'awiyah ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin. The Banu Thaqif ibn Munabbih ibn Bakr ibn Hawazin. The Banu 'Amir ibn Sa'sa'ah.Furthermore, the tribe among other tribes were called 'The Great Skulls of Arabia.' The other tribes under the ancient title included the tribe of Kinana, the tribe of Tamim, the tribe of Bakr Ibn Wael, the tribe of Al Aizd, the tribe of Ghatafan, the tribe of Muthehej, the tribe of Abd Al Qays, and the tribe of Guda'a. As the rulers of the land prior to the rise of Islam, the tribes under the title were characterized by strength, abundance, superiority, and honor. The name derived from the notion that the skull is the most important part of the body.

House of Saud

The House of Saud (Arabic: آلسعود‎, translit. ʾĀl Suʿūd IPA: [ʔaːl sʊʕuːd]) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the Emirate of Diriyah, known as the First Saudi state (1744–1818), and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Ibn Saud, the modern founder of Saudi Arabia. The most influential position of the royal family is the King of Saudi Arabia. King Salman, who reigns currently, chose first his nephew and then his son as the crown prince without consulting the Allegiance Council. The family is estimated to comprise 15,000 members, but the majority of the power and wealth is possessed by a group of about 2,000 of them.The House of Saud has gone through three phases: the Emirate of Diriyah, the First Saudi State (1744–1818), marked by the expansion of Wahhabism; the Emirate of Nejd, the Second Saudi State (1824–1891), marked with continuous infighting; and the Third Saudi State (1902–present), which evolved into Saudi Arabia in 1932 and now wields considerable influence in the Middle East. The family has had conflicts with the Ottoman Empire, the Sharif of Mecca, the Al Rashid family of Ha'il and their vassal houses in Najd, numerous Islamist groups both inside and outside Saudi Arabia and Shia minority in Saudi Arabia.

The succession to the Saudi Arabian throne was designed to pass from one son of the first king, Ibn Saud, to another. The next in line, Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, is the son of King Salman. The king-appointed cabinet includes more members of the royal family. The monarchy was hereditary by agnatic seniority until 2006, when a royal decree provided that future Saudi kings are to be elected by a committee of Saudi princes.

Ikhwan revolt

The Ikhwan Revolt began in 1927, when the tribesmen of the Otaibah and Mutayr and Ajman rebelled against the authority of Ibn Saud and engaged in cross-border raids into parts of Trans-Jordan, Mandatory Iraq and the Emirate of Kuwait. The relationship between the House of Saud and the Ikhwan deteriorated into an open bloody feud in December 1928. The main instigators of the rebellion were defeated in the Battle of Sabilla, on 29 March 1929. Ikhwan tribesmen and troops loyal to Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud clashed again in the Jabal Shammar region in August 1929, and Ikhwan tribesmen attacked the Awazim tribe on 5 October 1929. Faisal al-Dawish, the main leader of the rebellion and the Mutair tribe, fled to Kuwait in October 1929 before being detained by the British and handed over to Ibn Saud. Faisal Al-Dawish would die in Riyadh on 3 October 1931 from what appears to have been a heart condition. Government troops had finally suppressed the rebellion on 10 January 1930, when other Ikhwan rebel leaders surrendered to the British. In the aftermath, the Ikhwan leadership was slain, and the remains were eventually incorporated into regular Saudi units. Sultan bin Bajad, one of the three main Ikhwan leaders, was killed in 1931, while al-Dawish died in prison in Riyadh on 3 October 1931.

Ishmaelites

According to the Book of Genesis, Ishmaelites (Arabic: Bani Isma'il, Hebrew: Bnai Yishma'el) are the descendants of Ishmael, the elder son of Abraham and the descendants of the twelve sons and princes of Ishmael.

In the Quran; "God has gifted all of Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah and Lot a favour above the nations". "With some of their forefathers and their offspring and their brethren; and We chose them and guided them unto a straight path".

List of wars involving Kuwait

This is a list of wars that Kuwait has been involved in.

Mana Al Otaiba

Mana Al Otaiba (Arabic: مانع العتيبه‎) was born on 15 May 1946 to Saeed Al Otaiba in Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. Little else is known about Al Otaiba's personal life. Al Otaiba is the former Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources of the United Arab Emirates under the Presidency of Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan. Al Otaiba then became his Personal Adviser until the president's death, after which he became the Private Advisor to Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan , as well as a member of the Royal Moroccan Academy under King Hassan II. His son is Yousef Al Otaiba.

Saudi–Rashidi War (1903–1907)

Saudi–Rashidi War of 1903–1907, also referred as the First Saudi–Rashidi War or the Battles over Qasim, was a conflict between Saudi loyalist forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh and the Emirate of Ha'il (Jabal Shammar), supported by the Rashidis. The pro-Ottoman Rashidis were supported by 8 battalions of Ottoman infantry. The majority of the war was fought out in a series of sporadic battles, which ended with a Saudi takeover of the al-Qassim region following their decisive victory at Qassim on April 13, 1906, though additional engagements followed in 1907.

Settlements of Otaibah

Also known as Hujer (singular Hijra). The indoctrination of the tribe Otaibah into religious ideologies imposed by Muhammad ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, along with the accompanying religious, political, and military movement, pushed the nomadic tribes of Arabia, including Otaibah, out of the desert and into settlements. These settlements played a major role in the modernization its inhabitants. In the early 20th to 21st century, the following were the most important settlements of the tribe of Otaibah in the Arabian Peninsula.

Sultan bin Bajad Al-Otaibi

Sultan bin Bajad bin Hameed Al-Otaibi (Arabic: سلطان بن بجاد بن حميد العتيبي‎) was a member of the Otaibah tribe and leader of the Ikhwan movement in Saudi Arabia. This movement was the virtual army that supported King Abdul-Aziz to build his kingdom between 1910 and 1927. Along with his colleague and friend Faisal Al-Dawish, he led the Arab tribal forces in the occupation of Al-Hasa, Ha'il, Al-Baha, Jizan, Asir and Mecca and Jeddah. He was illiterate and very religious—strongly believing in Salafi principles.

After the occupation of Hijaz, King Abdul-Aziz and several of the Ikhwan leaders went into bloody clashes, as Abdul Aziz wanted to stop incursions outside of Arabia and concentrate on building the foundations of a modern state. Al-Otaibi and his associates considered this a sin and challenged the agreements, made by Ibn Saud with the British and neighboring powers. Bin Bajad entered into an open rebellion against Ibn Saud's forces and continued opposing him even after the major defeat of the rebel Ikhwan in the Battle of Sabilla.

Ta'if

Ta'if (Arabic: ٱلطَّائِف‎; aṭ-Ṭāʾif) is a city in Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, at an elevation of 1,879 m (6,165 ft) on the slopes of the Sarawat Mountains (Al-Sarawat Mountains). It has a population of 1,200,000 people and the 5th largest city in Saudi Arabia and is the unofficial summer capital. The city is the center of an agricultural area known for its grapes, pomegranate, figs, roses and honey.

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