The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western was a genre film created in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc as a version of the Western films that originated in the United States. The term refers to two related genres:

While influenced by Westerns, Easterns form a specific and distinct genre. The word "Ostern" is derived from the German word Ost, meaning "East".

Red Westerns of the first type are often compared to Spaghetti Westerns, in that they use local scenery to imitate the American West. In particular, Yugoslavia, Mongolia and the Southern USSR were used. Some of the East German films were called Sauerkraut Westerns.

Red Westerns in an international context

Easterns provide a counterpoint to familiar mythologies and conventions of the original genre, particularly as the makers were on the other side of a propaganda war without parallel, the Cold War, and this is partially why many have never been shown in the west, at least not until after the Cold War ended. In a war in which many fabrications were made on both sides, there was often a lingering fascination with the cultural developments in enemy countries.

Westerns have proven particularly transferable in the way that they create a mythology out of relatively recent history, a malleable idea that translates well to different cultures. In Soviet Union, the Ostern uses the generic calling cards of the American Western to dramatise the Civil War in Central Asia in the 1920s and 1930s, in which the Red Army fought against Islamic Turkic 'Basmachi' rebels. By substituting, 'red' for 'blue' and 'Turk' for Mexican or Indian, there are the same opportunities for a sweeping drama played out against a backdrop of wide-open spaces. The Ural Mountains can be equivalent to Monument Valley, the Volga River for the Rio Grande. Add the gun slinging ethos, horse riding, working the land, pioneers of a sort (ideological often in this case), the bounty hunter traversing difficult terrain with outlaw in tow, railroading and taming the wild frontier and you have a generic mirror image of the American genre. One story could have many incarnations: the British Lost Patrol (1929) was set in Mesopotamia but was remade among others as the 1936 Soviet film The Thirteen, featuring Basmachi antagonists, and as the 1953 American Western Last of the Comanches.

Red Westerns which use the actual American west as a setting include, the Romanian The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians (1981) which dramatises the struggles of Romanian and Hungarian settlers in a new land. The Czech Lemonade Joe and the Soviet A Man from the Boulevard des Capucines plump for pastiche or satire, making fun of the hard worn conventions of the American films. The German The Sons of the Great Bear (1966) turned the traditional American "Cowboy and Indian" conventions on their head, casting the Native Americans as the heroes and the American Army as the villains - this was well within the established tradition of Karl May's highly successful German Western novels, but had some obvious Cold War overtones. The film started a series of "Indian films" by the East German DEFA studios which were quite successful.

Many of the non-Soviet examples of the genre were international co-productions akin to the Spaghetti Westerns. The Sons of the Great Bear for example was a co-production between East Germany and Czechoslovakia, starring a Yugoslav, scripted in German, and shot in a number of different Eastern Bloc countries and used a variety of locations including Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Mongolia and Czechoslovakia. The Oil, the Baby and the Transylvanians was a Romanian film, but featured emigrant Hungarians heavily in the storyline.

The Ostern and the Revisionist Western

There is some divergence between the true Red Western and the true Eastern in their portrayal of certain subject matter.

Proper Red Westerns share some features in common with the general Revisionist Western, notably, a more sympathetic portrayal of working people, Native Americans, and Mexicans. In the true Red Western more focus was put on the lawlessness of the time period, favoring realism over romanticism.

With the true "Ostern" ("Eastern"), some of these tendencies may be reversed, particularly in reference to Soviet history and particularly in the context of the Russian Civil War and Basmachi rebellion. Sympathy for the working class is obviously paramount, but it is also common to romanticise and stereotype non-Russian characters. Thus, Osterns often cast Russian or Jewish actors in prominent "ethnic" parts. Spartak Mishulin, who plays Sayid in White Sun of the Desert, and Konstantin Raikin, who plays Kayum in At Home among Strangers, are just some examples of this (compare Eli Wallach in The Good, The Bad, and the Ugly). At Home among Strangers, for example, whilst critically acclaimed, has a very one-sided view of its period, which was partly due to political pressure.

What they both share with the revisionist Western, includes a disdain for the business class (cf Once Upon a Time in the West and its critique of the rail builders), organised religion and Christianity and the idea of the "American Dream" and its related ethic.

There is also some common ground with the Zapata Western genre, which is often related to the Mexican Revolution, notably A Fistful of Dynamite which is a serious, non-romanticized look at revolution.

In Dauria (1971), Siberian Cossacks are acting like American cowboys: horseriding, fighting, shooting, and even robbing a bank.


A number of films from the former Eastern bloc, while not falling neatly into the genre, are partly influenced by it. Siberiade by Andrei Konchalovsky, the isolated Siberian frontier town, which becomes irrevocably changed thanks to the discovery of oil, bears a resemblance to Western family epics.

Gibanica westerns

"Gibanica western" was a short-lived term for the Yugoslav equivalent of the Ostern, more commonly known as partisan film and, sometimes, the Partisan western. They were made in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, and were about the partisans in World War II.

Goulash westerns

The Goulash westerns are the Easterns of Hungarian director György Szomjas. He directed two films (The Wind Blows Under Your Feet and Wrong-Doers) in the 1970s.

See also

2016 New Hampshire gubernatorial election

The 2016 New Hampshire gubernatorial election took place on November 8, 2016, to elect the Governor of New Hampshire, concurrently with the 2016 U.S. presidential election, as well as elections to the United States Senate, elections to the United States House of Representatives and various state and local elections.

The primaries were held on September 13.

Incumbent Democratic Governor Maggie Hassan would have been eligible to run for re-election to a third term in office, but instead, she successfully ran for the U.S. Senate against incumbent senator Kelly Ayotte. In the general election, Republican nominee Chris Sununu defeated Democrat Colin Van Ostern and Libertarian state representative Max Abramson to become the first Republican governor of New Hampshire elected since 2002.

2018 New Hampshire gubernatorial election

The 2018 New Hampshire gubernatorial election took place on November 6, 2018, to elect the Governor of New Hampshire. Incumbent Republican Governor Chris Sununu won re-election to a second term, defeating Democrat Molly Kelly.

Primary elections were held on September 11, 2018. The gubernatorial election was coincident with races for the state legislature and the United States House of Representatives.

Charles Fries (producer)

Charles William Fries (born September 30, 1928) is an American film producer, television producer, and executive producer who has worked on many TV series, made-for-TV movies, and theatrical films.The Cincinnati, Ohio-born Fries moved to Los Angeles in 1952 and began working for the production and syndication company Ziv Television Programs. He later worked at Screen Gems, Columbia Pictures, and Metromedia. In 1974, he formed Charles Fries Productions, which later became Fries Entertainment, where he produced and/or supervised more than 275 hours of television movies and mini-series.

Among the projects he produced are The Amazing Spider-Man television series, which aired in the USA between 1977–79, the 1980 television miniseries The Martian Chronicles, based on the book by Ray Bradbury, the 1981 television docudrama Bitter Harvest, and the 1989 made-for-TV movies Small Sacrifices and The Neon Empire.

For theatrical release, he produced or was involved in the productions of the 1982 film Cat People, the 1986 skateboarding film Thrashin', and the 1989 film Troop Beverly Hills, which is based on his wife's, Ava Ostern Fries' experiences with Beverly Hills Girl Scout troop, which film she also produced, and Fries executive produced.

Fries has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame since 1978. In 1986 he moved the star from the north side of Hollywood Blvd to the sidewalk in front of the building he occupied at 8922 Hollywood Blvd.

Colin Van Ostern

Colin Van Ostern (born Kevin Colin O’Loughlin; February 14, 1979), is an American businessman and politician who served on the New Hampshire Executive Council from 2013 to 2017, where he represented the state's second district. He is a member of the Democratic Party, and was the Democratic nominee for Governor of New Hampshire in 2016. He was a candidate for a two-year term as New Hampshire Secretary of State in the New Hampshire General Court's December 5 election, which he lost to incumbent Bill Gardner.

Das geistliche Jahr

Das geistliche Jahr (or the Spiritual Year) is a religious and philosophical cycle of poems that began in 1818 and were published in 1851. The poems were written by Annette von Droste-Hülshoff, an influential 19th-century German author and one of Germany's most well-known female poets.

Edmund Pascha

Edmund Pascha (Páska) (1714 – 6 May 1772) was a preacher, organist and composer. He used the pen name Claudianus Ostern.

Erzbach (Osterbach)

Erzbach is a small river of Hesse, Germany. It flows into the Osterbach near Unter-Ostern.

Fabric 54

Fabric 54 is a 2010 album by Damian Lazarus. The album was released as part of the Fabric Mix Series.


Formbach is a small river of Hesse, Germany. It flows into the Osterbach near Unter-Ostern.

György Szomjas

György Szomjas (born 26 November 1940) is a Hungarian film director and screenwriter. He has directed over 25 films since 1965. His 1983 film Tight Quarters was entered into the 34th Berlin International Film Festival. Szomjas is the father of the Hungarian Ostern, the Goulash Western: in 1970s was directed two osterns about the Hungarian rascallys the Wrong Doers and The Wind Blows Under Your Feat.


Irrbach is a small river of Hesse, Germany. It flows into the Osterbach in Unter-Ostern.


Mosfilm (Russian: Мосфильм, Mosfil’m pronounced [məsˈfʲilʲm]) is a film studio which is among the largest and oldest in the Russian Federation and in Europe. Its output includes most of the more widely acclaimed Soviet-era films, ranging from works by Andrei Tarkovsky and Sergei Eisenstein (commonly considered the greatest Soviet director), to Red Westerns to the Akira Kurosawa co-production Dersu Uzala (Дерсу Узала) and the epic War and Peace (Война и Мир).

Public holidays in Liechtenstein

This is a list of public holidays in Liechtenstein.

Reichelsheim (Odenwald)

Reichelsheim (Odenwald) is a community in the Odenwaldkreis (district) in Hesse, Germany.

Rohrbach (Osterbach)

Rohrbach is a small river of Hesse, Germany. It is a right tributary of the Osterbach in Unter-Ostern.

Sieben Stücke, Op. 145

Sieben Stücke für Orgel (Seven organ pieces), Op. 145, is a collection of seven compositions for organ by Max Reger. He composed the work in three groups in 1915 and 1916. The titles of seven individual character pieces reflect aspects of World War I and Christian feasts. The compositions are based on traditional German hymns, sometimes combining several in one piece. Reger's last work for organ, it was published, again in three installments, in 1915 and 1916.

The Elusive Avengers

The Elusive Avengers (Russian: Неуловимые мстители, translit. Neulovimye mstiteli) is a 1967 Soviet adventure film directed by Edmond Keosayan and made by Mosfilm. It is loosely based on the novel Red Devilets by Pavel Blyakhin, already filmed in 1923 under its original name. The film is an example of Ostern, set in Russian Civil War era Ukraine.

The film has spawned two sequels, The New Adventures of the Elusive Avengers (1968) and The Crown of the Russian Empire, or Once Again the Elusive Avengers (1971).

The Seventh Bullet

The Seventh Bullet (Russian: Седьмая пуля, translit. Sedmaya pulya) is a Soviet Ostern film of 1972 directed by Ali Khamraev.

Vladimir Motyl

Vladimir Yakovlevich Motyl (Russian: Влади́мир Я́ковлевич Моты́ль) (26 June 1927 – 21 February 2010) was a Soviet and Belarussian film director and screenwriter.Vladimir Motyl was born in Lepiel, Belarus. His father was a Polish émigré, who was arrested in 1930 and sent to Solovki and died there the following year. Many of his other relatives suffered similar treatment. Vladimir and his mother were exiled to the Northern Urals, where he became fascinated in theatre and cinema, and later graduated from the Sverdlovsk Theatrical Institute. For about 10 years he worked in various theatres in the Urals and Siberia and eventually became chief director of Sverdlovsk Young Spectator's Theatre.He decided to start afresh in cinema, despite having no technical qualifications. Eventually he directed his first film, Children of Pamirs (1963) (Detyi Pamira/Дети Памира) in Tajikistan. This work was met with public success, as well as earning him the State Prize of Tajik SSR (1964), and the title of honorary citizen of Dushanbe (1977).His next film Zhenya, Zhenechka and Katyusha (1967) (Женя, Женечка и "Катюша"), a romantic comedy/drama set in 1944, was warmly accepted by the public as well, but earned the displeasure of the Soviet agitprop for "disrespectful" treatment of the second world war theme, and the director fell into disfavor.

Nevertheless, he was invited to direct a film which was to become one of the most popular Soviet cult films, the "Red Western" (or technically, "Ostern") White Sun of the Desert. Notably, this film has a strong theme about exile, as its protagonist, Sukhov finds himself waylaid in Central Asia when trying to return home.For his work, Motyl received numerous awards.

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