Osprey

The osprey or more specifically the western osprey (Pandion haliaetus) — also called sea hawk, river hawk, and fish hawk — is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey with a cosmopolitan range. It is a large raptor, reaching more than 60 cm (24 in) in length and 180 cm (71 in) across the wings. It is brown on the upperparts and predominantly greyish on the head and underparts.

The osprey tolerates a wide variety of habitats, nesting in any location near a body of water providing an adequate food supply. It is found on all continents except Australia and Antarctica, although in South America it occurs only as a non-breeding migrant.

As its other common names suggest, the osprey's diet consists almost exclusively of fish. It possesses specialised physical characteristics and exhibits unique behaviour to assist in hunting and catching prey. As a result of these unique characteristics, it has been given its own taxonomic genus, Pandion and family, Pandionidae. Three subspecies are usually recognized; one of the former subspecies, cristatus, has recently been given full species status and is referred to as the eastern osprey.

Osprey
2010-kabini-osprey
Nominate osprey subspecies from Nagarhole National Park
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Pandionidae
Genus: Pandion
Species:
P. haliaetus
Binomial name
Pandion haliaetus
Wiki-Pandion haliaetus
Global range of Pandion haliaetus
Synonyms

Falco haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758

Taxonomy and systematics

The osprey was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae, and named as Falco haliaeetus.[2] The genus, Pandion, is the sole member of the family Pandionidae, and used to contain only one species, the osprey (P. haliaetus). The genus Pandion was described by the French zoologist Marie Jules César Savigny in 1809.[3][4]

Most taxonomic authorities consider the species cosmopolitan and conspecific. A few authorities split the osprey into two species, the western osprey and the eastern osprey.

The osprey differs in several respects from other diurnal birds of prey. Its toes are of equal length, its tarsi are reticulate, and its talons are rounded, rather than grooved. The osprey and owls are the only raptors whose outer toe is reversible, allowing them to grasp their prey with two toes in front and two behind. This is particularly helpful when they grab slippery fish.[5] It has always presented something of a riddle to taxonomists, but here it is treated as the sole living member of the family Pandionidae, and the family listed in its traditional place as part of the order Falconiformes.

Other schemes place it alongside the hawks and eagles in the family Accipitridae—which itself can be regarded as making up the bulk of the order Accipitriformes or else be lumped with the Falconidae into Falconiformes. The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy has placed it together with the other diurnal raptors in a greatly enlarged Ciconiiformes, but this results in an unnatural paraphyletic classification.[6]

Classification

Osprey mg 9605
American subspecies
Wild Pandion
Australasian subspecies is the most distinctive
Pandion haliaetus -San Francisco Bay, California, USA-head-8 (2)
Californian bird with scraps of fish on its beak

The osprey is unusual in that it is a single living species that occurs nearly worldwide. Even the few subspecies are not unequivocally separable. There are four generally recognised subspecies, although differences are small, and ITIS lists only the first two.[3]

Fossil record

To date there have been two extinct species named from the fossil record.[11] Pandion homalopteron was named by Stuart L. Warter in 1976 from fossils of Middle Miocene, Barstovian age, found in marine deposits in the southern part of California. The second named species Pandion lovensis, was described in 1985 by Jonathan J. Becker from fossils found in Florida and dating to the latest Clarendonian and possibly representing a separate lineage from that of P. homalopteron and P. haliaetus. A number of claw fossils have been recovered from Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments in Florida and South Carolina.

The oldest recognized family Pandionidae fossils have been recovered from the Oligocene age Jebel Qatrani Formation, of Faiyum, Egypt. However they are not complete enough to assign to a specific genus.[12] Another Pandionidae claw fossil was recovered from Early Oligocene deposits in the Mainz basin, Germany, and was described in 2006 by Gerald Mayr.[13]

Etymology

The genus name Pandion derives from the mythical Greek king of Athens and grandfather of Theseus, Pandion II. Although Pandion II was not used to name a bird of prey, Nisus, a king of Megara, was used for the genus.[14] The species name haliaetus comes from Ancient Greek haliaietos ἁλιάετος[15] from hali- ἁλι-, "sea-" and aetos άετος, "eagle".[14]

The origins of osprey are obscure;[16] the word itself was first recorded around 1460, derived via the Anglo-French ospriet and the Medieval Latin avis prede "bird of prey," from the Latin avis praedæ though the Oxford English Dictionary notes a connection with the Latin ossifraga or "bone breaker" of Pliny the Elder.[17][18] However, this term referred to the Lämmergeier.[19]

Description

The osprey is 0.9–2.1 kg (2.0–4.6 lb) in weight and 50–66 cm (20–26 in) in length with a 127–180 cm (50–71 in) wingspan. It is, thus, of similar size to the largest members of the Buteo or Falco genera. The subspecies are fairly close in size, with the nominate subspecies averaging 1.53 kg (3.4 lb), P. h. carolinensis averaging 1.7 kg (3.7 lb) and P. h. cristatus averaging 1.25 kg (2.8 lb). The wing chord measures 38 to 52 cm (15 to 20 in), the tail measures 16.5 to 24 cm (6.5 to 9.4 in) and the tarsus is 5.2–6.6 cm (2.0–2.6 in).[20][21]

The upperparts are a deep, glossy brown, while the breast is white and sometimes streaked with brown, and the underparts are pure white. The head is white with a dark mask across the eyes, reaching to the sides of the neck.[22] The irises of the eyes are golden to brown, and the transparent nictitating membrane is pale blue. The bill is black, with a blue cere, and the feet are white with black talons.[5] A short tail and long, narrow wings with four long, finger-like feathers, and a shorter fifth, give it a very distinctive appearance.[23]

Osprey in flight over Lake Wylie
In flight, over Lake Wylie, South Carolina

The sexes appear fairly similar, but the adult male can be distinguished from the female by its slimmer body and narrower wings. The breast band of the male is also weaker than that of the female, or is non-existent, and the underwing coverts of the male are more uniformly pale. It is straightforward to determine the sex in a breeding pair, but harder with individual birds.[23]

The juvenile osprey may be identified by buff fringes to the plumage of the upperparts, a buff tone to the underparts, and streaked feathers on the head. During spring, barring on the underwings and flight feathers is a better indicator of a young bird, due to wear on the upperparts.[22]

In flight, the osprey has arched wings and drooping "hands", giving it a gull-like appearance. The call is a series of sharp whistles, described as cheep, cheep or yewk, yewk. If disturbed by activity near the nest, the call is a frenzied cheereek![24]

Osprey call 

Distribution and habitat

One of only six land-birds with a cosmopolitan distribution. The osprey is the second most widely distributed raptor species, after the peregrine falcon. It has a worldwide distribution and is found in temperate and tropical regions of all continents except Antarctica. In North America it breeds from Alaska and Newfoundland south to the Gulf Coast and Florida, wintering further south from the southern United States through to Argentina.[25] It is found in summer throughout Europe north into Ireland, Scandinavia, Finland and Scotland, England, and Wales though not Iceland, and winters in North Africa.[26] In Australia it is mainly sedentary and found patchily around the coastline, though it is a non-breeding visitor to eastern Victoria and Tasmania.[27]

There is a 1,000 km (620 mi) gap, corresponding with the coast of the Nullarbor Plain, between its westernmost breeding site in South Australia and the nearest breeding sites to the west in Western Australia.[28] In the islands of the Pacific it is found in the Bismarck Islands, Solomon Islands and New Caledonia, and fossil remains of adults and juveniles have been found in Tonga, where it probably was wiped out by arriving humans.[29] It is possible it may once have ranged across Vanuatu and Fiji as well. It is an uncommon to fairly common winter visitor to all parts of South Asia,[30] and Southeast Asia from Myanmar through to Indochina and southern China, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines.[31]

The worldwide distribution of the species is unusual for land based birds, and only recognised in five other species.[32][a]

Behaviour and ecology

Diet

Osprey with fish
Eating a fish

Fish make up 99% of the osprey's diet.[33] It typically takes fish weighing 150–300 g (5.3–10.6 oz) and about 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in) in length, but the weight can range from 50 g (1.8 oz) to 2 kg (4.4 lb). Virtually any type of fish in that size range are taken.

Ospreys have vision that is well adapted to detecting underwater objects from the air. Prey is first sighted when the osprey is 10–40 m (33–131 ft) above the water, after which the bird hovers momentarily then plunges feet first into the water.[34]

Occasionally, the osprey may prey on rodents, rabbits, hares, amphibians, other birds,[35] and small reptiles.[36]

Adaptations

The osprey has several adaptations that suit its piscivorous lifestyle:

  • reversible outer toes[37]
  • sharp spicules on the underside of the toes[37]
  • closable nostrils to keep out water during dives
  • backwards-facing scales on the talons which act as barbs to help hold its catch.
  • dense plumage which is oily and prevents its feathers from getting waterlogged.[38]

Reproduction

Osprey prepare to mate
Preparing to mate on the nest
Osprey with its nest
Osprey standing next to its nest showing their relative sizes

The osprey breeds near freshwater lakes and rivers, and sometimes on coastal brackish waters. Rocky outcrops just offshore are used in Rottnest Island off the coast of Western Australia, where there are 14 or so similar nesting sites of which five to seven are used in any one year. Many are renovated each season, and some have been used for 70 years. The nest is a large heap of sticks, driftwood, turf or seaweed built in forks of trees, rocky outcrops, utility poles, artificial platforms or offshore islets.[33][39] As wide as 2 meters and weighing about 135 kg, large nests on utility poles may be fire hazards and have caused power outages.[40]

Generally, ospreys reach sexual maturity and begin breeding around the age of three to four, though in some regions with high osprey densities, such as Chesapeake Bay in the U.S., they may not start breeding until five to seven years old, and there may be a shortage of suitable tall structures. If there are no nesting sites available, young ospreys may be forced to delay breeding. To ease this problem, posts are sometimes erected to provide more sites suitable for nest building.[41] In some regions ospreys prefer transmission towers as nesting sites, e.g. in East Germany.[42]

Pandion haliaetus MWNH 0705
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

The platform design developed by one organization, Citizens United to Protect the Maurice River and Its Tributaries, Inc. has become the official design of the State of New Jersey, U.S. The platform plans and materials list, available online, have been utilized by people from a number of different geographical regions.[43] Osprey-watch.org is the global site for mapping osprey nest locations and logging observations on reproductive success.[44]

Ospreys usually mate for life. Rarely, polyandry has been recorded.[45] The breeding season varies according to latitude; spring (September–October) in southern Australia, April to July in northern Australia and winter (June–August) in southern Queensland.[39] In spring the pair begins a five-month period of partnership to raise their young. The female lays two to four eggs within a month, and relies on the size of the nest to conserve heat. The eggs are whitish with bold splotches of reddish-brown and are about 6.2 cm × 4.5 cm (2.4 in × 1.8 in) and weigh about 65 g (2.3 oz).[39] The eggs are incubated for about 35–43 days to hatching.[46]

The newly hatched chicks weigh only 50–60 g (1.8–2.1 oz), but fledge in 8–10 weeks. A study on Kangaroo Island, South Australia, had an average time between hatching and fledging of 69 days. The same study found an average of 0.66 young fledged per year per occupied territory, and 0.92 young fledged per year per active nest. Some 22% of surviving young either remained on the island or returned at maturity to join the breeding population.[45] When food is scarce, the first chicks to hatch are most likely to survive. The typical lifespan is 7–10 years, though rarely individuals can grow to as old as 20–25 years.

The oldest European wild osprey on record lived to be over thirty years of age. In North America, great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are the only major predators of ospreys, capable of taking both nestlings and adults.[36][47][48][49][50] However, kleptoparasitism by bald eagles, where the larger raptor steals the osprey's catch, is more common than predation. The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), which is very similar to the bald eagle, may harass or prey on the osprey in Eurasia.[51] Raccoons (Procyon lotor) can be a serious threat to nestlings or eggs if they can access the nest.[52] Endoparasitic trematodes (Scaphanocephalus expansus and Neodiplostomum spp.) have been recorded in wild ospreys.[53]

Migration

European breeders winter in Africa.[54] American and Canadian breeders winter in South America, although some stay in the southernmost U.S. states such as Florida and California.[55] Some ospreys from Florida migrate to South America.[56] Australasian ospreys tend not to migrate.

Studies of Swedish ospreys showed that females tend to migrate to Africa earlier than the males. More stopovers are made during their autumn migration. The variation of timing and duration in autumn was more variable than in spring. Although migrating predominantly in the day, they sometimes fly in the dark hours particularly in crossings over water and cover on average 260–280 km (160–170 mi) per day with a maximum of 431 km (268 mi) per day.[57] European birds may also winter in South Asia, indicated by an osprey tagged in Norway being monitored in western India.[58] In the Mediterranean, Ospreys show partial migratory behaviour with some individuals remaining resident, whilst others undertake relatively short migration trips.[59]

Mortality

Swedish ospreys have a significantly higher mortality rate during migration seasons than during stationary periods, with more than half of the total annual mortality occurring during migration.[60] These deaths can also be categorized into spatial patterns: Spring mortality occurs mainly in Africa, which can be traced to crossing the Sahara desert. Mortality can also occur through mishaps with human utilities, such as nesting near electrical wiring or collisions with aircraft.[61]

Status and conservation

Juvenile osprey on nest
Juvenile on a man-made nest

The osprey has a large range, covering 9,670,000 km2 (3,730,000 sq mi) in just Africa and the Americas, and has a large global population estimated at 460,000 individuals. Although global population trends have not been quantified, the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations), and for these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.[1] There is evidence for regional decline in South Australia where former territories at locations in the Spencer Gulf and along the lower Murray River have been vacant for decades.[28]

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the main threats to osprey populations were egg collectors and hunting of the adults along with other birds of prey,[36][62] but osprey populations declined drastically in many areas in the 1950s and 1960s; this appeared to be in part due to the toxic effects of insecticides such as DDT on reproduction.[63] The pesticide interfered with the bird's calcium metabolism which resulted in thin-shelled, easily broken or infertile eggs.[25] Possibly because of the banning of DDT in many countries in the early 1970s, together with reduced persecution, the osprey, as well as other affected bird of prey species, have made significant recoveries.[33] In South Australia, nesting sites on the Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island are vulnerable to unmanaged coastal recreation and encroaching urban development.[28]

Cultural depictions

The Roman writer Pliny the Elder reported that parent ospreys made their young fly up to the sun as a test, and dispatched any that failed.[64]

Another odd legend regarding this fish-eating bird of prey, derived from the writings of Albertus Magnus and recorded in Holinshed's Chronicles, was that it had one webbed foot and one taloned foot.[62][65]

There was a medieval belief that fish were so mesmerised by the osprey that they turned belly-up in surrender,[62] and this is referenced by Shakespeare in Act 4 Scene 5 of Coriolanus:

I think he'll be to Rome
As is the osprey to the fish, who takes it
By sovereignty of nature.

In Buddhism, the osprey is sometimes represented as the "King of Birds", especially in 'The Jātaka: Or, Stories of the Buddha’s Former Births' , no. 486.

The osprey is mentioned in the famous Chinese folk poem "guan guan ju jiu" (關關雎鳩); "ju jiu" 雎鳩 refers to the osprey, and "guan guan" (關關) to its voice. In the poem, the osprey is considered to be an icon of fidelity and harmony between wife and husband, due to its highly monogamous habits. Some commentators have claimed that "ju jiu" in the poem is not the osprey but the mallard duck, since the osprey cannot make the sound "guan guan".[66][67]

So-called "osprey" plumes were an important item in the plume trade of the late 19th century and used in hats including those used as part of the army uniform. Despite their name, these plumes were actually obtained from egrets.[68]

The Irish poet William Butler Yeats used a grey wandering osprey as a representation of sorrow in The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems (1889).[64]

In heraldry, the osprey is typically depicted as a white eagle,[65] often maintaining a fish in its talons or beak, and termed a "sea-eagle." It is historically regarded as a symbol of vision and abundance; more recently it has become a symbol of positive responses to nature,[62] and has been featured on more than 50 international postage stamps.[69]

Selous-Scouts-cap-badge
Cap badge of the Selous Scouts was a stylized osprey

The cap badge of Rhodesia's Selous Scouts (1973-1980) was a stylized osprey.

In 1994, the osprey was declared the provincial bird of Nova Scotia, Canada.[70] It is also the official bird of Södermanland, Sweden.

The osprey is used as a brand name for various products and sports teams. Examples include: the Ospreys (a Welsh Rugby team); the Richard Stockton College Ospreys (a NCAA Division III intercollegiate athletics team of the U.S. State of New Jersey); the first college in the nation (and the only one for many years) to adopt the osprey as its mascot and athletic team name, North Florida Ospreys (a NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletics team), the Missoula Osprey (a minor league baseball team); the Seattle Seahawks (an American football team of the National Football League); the Wagner Seahawks (a NCAA Division I intercollegiate athletics team); the Cold Spring Harbor Seahawks (a High school football team in Cold Spring Harbor, New York[71]); the Peninsula High School Seahawks (a High School Football Team in Gig Harbor, Washington); and the St. Mary's College of Maryland Seahawks (a NCAA Division III intercollegiate athletics team).

Examples of the osprey used as a mascot include: Ozzie Osprey (of the University of North Florida); Talon the Osprey of New Jersey's Stockton University; Sammy the Seahawk (of University of North Carolina Wilmington); the Wells International Seahawks (of Bangkok, Thailand); the Salve Regina Seahawks (of Newport, Rhode Island); the LA Harbor College Seahawks (of South Bay); and Rowdy the Riverhawk (of the University of Massachusetts Lowell).[72][73]

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Notes

  1. ^ six of 10000 land based bird species include Pandion haliaetus [sensu lato] and species: great egret Ardea alba, the cattle egret Bubulcus ibis, the glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus, the barn owl Tyto alba and the peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus.

External links

Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey

The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capabilities. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft.

The failure of Operation Eagle Claw during the Iran hostage crisis in 1980 underscored the requirement for a new long-range, high-speed, vertical-takeoff aircraft for the United States Department of Defense. In response, the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. A partnership between Bell Helicopter and Boeing Helicopters was awarded a development contract in 1983 for the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft. The Bell Boeing team jointly produce the aircraft. The V-22 first flew in 1989, and began flight testing and design alterations; the complexity and difficulties of being the first tiltrotor for military service led to many years of development.

The United States Marine Corps began crew training for the MV-22B Osprey in 2000, and fielded it in 2007; it supplemented and then replaced their Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knights. The U.S. Air Force fielded their version of the tiltrotor, CV-22B, in 2009. Since entering service with the U.S. Marine Corps and Air Force, the Osprey has been deployed in transportation and medevac operations over Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya, and Kuwait. The U.S. Navy is planning to use the CMV-22B for carrier onboard delivery (COD) duties beginning in 2021.

Carlos González (baseball)

Carlos Eduardo González (born October 17, 1985), nicknamed CarGo, is a Venezuelan professional baseball right fielder for the Chicago Cubs of Major League Baseball (MLB). He has also played for the Oakland Athletics, Colorado Rockies, and Cleveland Indians. A three-time All-Star, González was the National League batting champion in 2010. He has also won two Silver Slugger Awards and is a three-time Gold Glove Award winner. While mainly a left fielder throughout his career, González became the Rockies starting right fielder in 2015.

Fairchild SD-5 Osprey

The Fairchild SD-5 Osprey was an early high-speed reconnaissance drone developed by Fairchild Aircraft for the United States Army. Intended for use by the U.S. Army Signal Corps to target tactical ballistic missiles, it was cancelled before the first prototype could be completed, and did not see operational service.

HMS Osprey, Portland

HMS Osprey was an anti-submarine training establishment located at the Isle of Portland, Dorset, England. It was active between 1924 and 1941, and again from 1946 to 1999. The helicopter station RNAS Portland formed part of the establishment from 1959 to 1999.

Hawker Hart

The Hawker Hart was a British two-seater biplane light bomber aircraft of the Royal Air Force (RAF). It was designed during the 1920s by Sydney Camm and manufactured by Hawker Aircraft. The Hart was a prominent British aircraft in the inter-war period, but was obsolete and already side-lined for newer monoplane aircraft designs by the start of the Second World War, playing only minor roles in the conflict before being retired.

Several major variants of the Hart were developed, including a navalised version for the Royal Navy's aircraft carriers. Beyond Britain, the Hart would be operated by a number of foreign nations, including Sweden, Yugoslavia, Estonia, South Africa, and Canada.

Le Batofar

LV Osprey entered service as a Light Vessel for the Commissioners of Irish Lights in 1955. On 9 May 1975 she was sold to the New Ross Harbour Commissioners for use as a floating oil berth, pilot station and harbour store. In March 1998 she was sold again and moored on the Seine.Le Batofar ignited the "night club on boat" trend in Paris. This lighthouse boat (in French bateau-phare) offers an original setting on the bank of the Seine in the 13th arrondissement. It is known for its progressive musical programming which champions cutting edge electro bands live, and its renowned DJ-driven afterhours dance parties.

During the day, Batofar is also a community gathering that serves as a restaurant, café and a summertime "beach" hang-out (Paris-Beach).

List of books about the Napoleonic Wars

This is a non-fiction bibliography of works about the Napoleonic Wars as selected by editors.

Missoula Osprey

The Missoula Osprey are a minor league baseball team, affiliated with the Arizona Diamondbacks in Missoula, Montana. The team plays its home games at Ogren Park at Allegiance Field. The club is a member of the Pioneer League, a short-season league which is designated Rookie Advanced. The Osprey have won the Pioneer League championship four times; in 1999, 2006, 2012 and 2015.

The Osprey have played in Missoula since 1999. Previously, the franchise played in Lethbridge, Alberta from 1992 to 1998, and in Pocatello, Idaho from 1987 to 1991.

Osprey, Florida

Osprey is a census-designated place (CDP) in Sarasota County, Florida, United States. The population was 6,100 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Bradenton–Sarasota–Venice Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Osprey-class submersible

Osprey class submersible is a class of submersible of the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) specially designed to perform torpedo retrieving missions at test ranges. This class submersible was highly classified when it originally entered service in 1989, and it was not until more than a decade later in the mid of the first decade of the 21st century when it was revealed to the public, when one of the design team members, the deputy general designer Mr. Sun Xin (孙欣), was publicized in a 2006 interview to disclose some characteristics of the submersible. This class is currently consisted of two boats, Osprey 1 (鱼鹰1号, Yu Ying Yi Hao) and Osprey 2 (鱼鹰2号, Yu Ying Er Hao).

Osprey Osprey I

The Osprey GP2 Osprey, also known as the Air Skimmer, Sea Skimmer, or Pereira GP2 Osprey, was a single-seat flying boat designed by Eut Tileston under contract to George Pereira, a private builder. After the release of Pereira's amphibious Osprey II some years later, this aircraft became known retrospectively as the Osprey I. The original plane was designed to be water launched only. Initial test flights were performed in the Sacramento Delta. A single example was evaluated by the United States Navy as the X-28. Pereira formed Osprey Aircraft to market the plans to homebuilders, including plans for a trailer that allows the pilot to launch and recover the aircraft single-handed. These plans are still marketed by Osprey Aircraft as of March 2017.The Navy became interested in the project through a Naval Air Development Center study into patrol missions in Southeast Asia. The study required that the aircraft be capable of flight under visual flight rules (VFR), be lightweight, cost less than 5,000 US dollars, and be able to be manufactured in Southeast Asia. After examining Pereira's Osprey in 1971, the Navy purchased the aircraft and commenced testing it as the X-28A in the fall of that year. Although the Osprey met most of the requirements of the program, the program itself was cancelled without any further military examples produced. The sole X-28 is now on display in the Kalamazoo Aviation History Museum.

Osprey Publishing

Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history. Predominantly an illustrated publisher, many of their books contain full-colour artwork plates, maps and photographs, and the company produces over a dozen ongoing series, each focusing on a specific aspect of the history of warfare. Osprey has published over 2,300 books. They are best known for their Men-at-Arms series, running to over 500 titles, with each book dedicated to a specific historical army or military unit. Osprey is an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing.

RNAS Portland (HMS Osprey)

RNAS Portland (ICAO: EGDP) was an air station of the Royal Navy, situated at the Isle of Portland, Dorset, England. It was established in 1917 on the western edge of Portland Harbour as HMS Sarepta. From 1959 the station shared the name HMS Osprey, the anti-submarine establishment based at Portland, with helicopters used for research and development in anti-submarine techniques. RNAS Portland remained operational until 1999.

SS Black Osprey

SS Black Osprey was a cargo ship for the American Diamond Lines and the British Cairn Line. She was formerly known as SS West Arrow when she was launched for the United States Shipping Board (USSB) during World War I. The ship was inspected by the United States Navy for possible use as USS West Arrow (ID-2585) but was neither taken into the Navy nor ever commissioned under that name.

West Arrow was built in 1918 for the USSB, as a part of the West boats, a series of steel-hulled cargo ships built on the West Coast of the United States for the World War I war effort. Information about her early career is largely absent, but by the 1920s, news reports revealed that the ship was sailing on the North Atlantic. By the mid-1920s, West Arrow was sailing for American Diamond on their cargo service to Rotterdam and Antwerp. In 1935, American Diamond changed the ship's name to Black Osprey and the ship continued in Rotterdam service.

After the outbreak of World War II, Black Osprey, still under the registry of the still-neutral United States, was detained twice by British authorities, before the U.S.-established "Neutrality Zone" ended Black Osprey's Dutch service in late 1939. Sailing under charter to the Isthmian Line in 1940, Black Osprey called at various ports in the Pacific Ocean. American Diamond sold Black Osprey to the British Ministry of War Transport in late 1940. During the ship's first transatlantic crossing under the British flag, she was sunk by German submarine U-96 on 18 February 1941, with the loss of 25 men. The 11 survivors were picked up by a Norwegian ship and landed in at Barry.

Steven Zaloga

Steven J. Zaloga (born February 1, 1952) is an American historian, defense consultant, and an author on military technology. He received a bachelor's degree cum laude at Union College and a masters degree at Columbia University, both in history.

He has published many books dealing with modern military technology, and especially Soviet and CIS tanks and armoured warfare. He is a senior analyst at the Teal Group.He is also a noted scale armor modeler and is a host/moderator of the World War II Allied Discussion group at Missing-Lynx.com, a modelling website. He is a frequent contributor to the UK-based modeling magazine Military Modelling. He is a member of the Armor Modeling and Preservation Society.

Travel Air 2000

The Travel Air 2000/3000/4000 (originally, the Model A, Model B and Model BH and later marketed as a Curtiss-Wright product under the names CW-14, Speedwing, Sportsman and Osprey), were open-cockpit biplane aircraft produced in the United States in the late 1920s by the Travel Air Manufacturing Company. During the period from 1924–1929, Travel Air produced more aircraft than any other American manufacturer, including over 1,000 biplanes (some estimates range from 1,200 to nearly 2,000).

USS Osprey (AMS-28)

USS Osprey (AMS-28/YMS-422) was a YMS-1-class minesweeper of the YMS-135 subclass built for the United States Navy during World War II. She was the third U.S. Navy ship to be named for the osprey.

University of North Florida

The University of North Florida (UNF) is a public university in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. A member institution of the State University System of Florida, the university is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award baccalaureate, masters and doctorate degrees to its students. Its campus comprises 1,300 acres surrounded by a natural preserve on Jacksonville's Southside. The current president is Dr. David Szymanski.

UNF opened in 1972, with Thomas G. Carpenter serving as its first president. Initially designated an upper division college for juniors and seniors, it began admitting freshmen in 1984. UNF is organized into five colleges which offer 53 undergraduate degree programs, 28 graduate degree programs and 7 doctoral degree programs, with noted business, coastal biology, nursing, nutrition, and music programs. Doctoral programs offered through the Brooks College of Health at UNF include Doctorate in Clinical Nutrition, BSN-DNP in Family Nurse Practitioner, BSN-DNP in Nurse Anesthetist, Post-MSN Doctor of Nursing Practice, Post-MSN Doctor of Nursing Practice in Psych-Mental Health and Doctor of Physical Therapy. The College of Education and Human Services offers doctoral degrees in Specialist in Educational Leadership and Doctorate of Education in Educational Leadership. Most students reside off campus, though there are six areas of on-campus housing. In 2006, the Social Sciences building became the first facility to be LEED-certified in northeast Florida, as well as the first "green" building on campus. As of 2010, there are five buildings on campus that have been certified by the U.S. Green Building Council.

UNF has 220 clubs and organizations for students as well as an active Student Government and Greek life. The student-run newspaper The Spinnaker is published monthly. Its intercollegiate athletics teams are known as the Ospreys, and are currently members of the Atlantic Sun Conference in NCAA Division I.

Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy

The Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy is a centre for the sport of sailing on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, on the south coast of England. The academy building is located in Osprey Quay on the northern tip of the island, and the waters of Portland Harbour and Weymouth Bay, adjacent to the site, are the main areas used for sailing. Local, national and international sailing events have been held at the site since it was opened in 2000, and in 2005 WPNSA was selected to host the sailing events at the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

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