Oslo

Oslo (/ˈɒzloʊ/ OZ-loh, also US: /ˈɒsloʊ/ OSS-loh,[9][10] Norwegian: [²ʊʂlʊ] (listen), rarely [²ʊslʊ, ˈʊʂlʊ]) is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, and with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1877 and 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo.

Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping. It is an important centre for maritime industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and maritime insurance brokers. Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme.

Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008.[11] It was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine.[12] A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo.[13] In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)'s Worldwide Cost of Living study.[14]

As of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467.[4][15] The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million.[16] The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.[17] This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but also from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population,[18] and in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included.[19]

Oslo
Enerhaugen med St. Hallvard kirke
Victoria Terrasse
Oslo Opera Barcode 2014 2
14-09-02-oslo-RalfR-271
Jernbanetorget Oslo Norway Clarion Hotel Royal Christiania Oslo City Byporten shopping 2016-11-30
View from siloen
Flag of Oslo

Flag
Motto(s): 
Unanimiter et constanter (Latin)
"United and constant"
Oslo is located in Norway
Oslo
Oslo
Location within Norway
Oslo is located in Europe
Oslo
Oslo
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 59°55′0″N 10°44′0″E / 59.91667°N 10.73333°ECoordinates: 59°55′0″N 10°44′0″E / 59.91667°N 10.73333°E
CountryNorway
DistrictØstlandet
CountyOslo
Established1048
Government
 • MayorMarianne Borgen (SV)
 • Governing mayorRaymond Johansen (AP)
Area
 • Capital city, county and municipality480.76 km2 (185.62 sq mi)
 • Land454.08 km2 (175.32 sq mi)
 • Water26.68 km2 (10.30 sq mi)
Elevation
23 m (75 ft)
Population
(1 January 2018)[2][3][4]
 • Capital city, county and municipality673,469
 • Density1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,000,467
 • Metro1,588,457
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
0001 – 1299 [7]
Area code(s)(+47) 00
HDI (2017)0.968[8]
very high
Websitewww.oslo.kommune.no
Oslo kommune
Official logo of Oslo kommune

Oslo within
Norway
Oslo surrounded by Akershus county
Oslo surrounded by Akershus county
CountryNorway
CountyOslo
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNO-0301
Official language formNeutral

Urban region

As of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390.[2] The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus (municipalities of Asker, Bærum, Fet, Enebakk, Rælingen, Lørenskog, Nittedal, Skedsmo, Ski, Sørum, Gjerdrum, Oppegård); the total population of this agglomeration is 1,000,467.[20][15] The city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, and southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y" (on maps, satellite pictures, or from high above the city).

To the north and east, wide forested hills (Marka) rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality (bykommune) of Oslo and county [fylke] of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 (50 sq mi) is built-up and 7 km2 (2.7 sq mi) is agricultural. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi).

The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948 (and simultaneously transferred from Akershus county to Oslo county). Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county.

Boroughs

As defined in January 2004 by the city council[21][note]

Boroughs Inhabitants (2015)[22] Area in km² number
Alna 48,770 13.7 12
Bjerke 30,502 7.7 9
Frogner 55,965 8.3 5
Gamle Oslo 49,854 7.5 1
Grorud 27,283 8.2 10
Grünerløkka 54,701 4.8 2
Nordre Aker 49,337 13.6 8
Nordstrand 49,428 16.9 14
Sagene 39,918 3.1 3
St. Hanshaugen 36,218 3.6 4
Stovner 31,669 8.2 11
Søndre Nordstrand 37,913 18.4 15
Ullern 32,124 9 6
Vestre Aker 47,024 16.6 7
Østensjø 49,133 12.2 13
Overall 647,676 151.8

^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census.

Name and seal

After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. The old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was eventually included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" (literally "the Old town") to avoid confusion.[23][24][25] The Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo. The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo gate (Oslo street)[26] and Oslo hospital.[27]

Toponymy

The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate. It is certainly derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — originally the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists generally interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered equally likely.[28]

Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the very name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros (cf. Nidaros).[29] The name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his [idea about] etymology for Oslo.[30]

Seal

Oslo is one of very few cities in Norway, besides Bergen and Tønsberg, that does not have a formal coat of arms, but which uses a city seal instead.[31] The seal of Oslo shows the city's patron saint, St. Hallvard, with his attributes, the millstone and arrows, with a naked woman at his feet. He is seated on a throne with lion decorations, which at the time was also commonly used by the Norwegian kings.[32]

History

Oslo timeline (major events)
See also expanded timeline
CA. 1000 AD First traces of buildings. The St. Clement's Church is built.
CA. 1050 AD Oslo marked as a city. Mariakirken is built.
1152/53 AD The Cathedral school is established
1299 AD Oslo becomes the capital of Norway
CA. 1300 Construction of Akershus Fortress starts.
1350 AD Around 3/4 of the population dies under the Black Death.
1352 AD St. Hallvard's Cathedral and the other Sogne Churches are burned to the ground in a major fire
1624 AD Another major fire, the city is rebuilt and renamed Christiania by Christian IV.
1686 AD Fire ruins 1/4 of the city.
1697 AD Domkirken is finished and opened
1716 AD The city and the fortress conquered by Karl XII.
1813 The University is opened.
1825 The foundations of Slottet are finished.
1836 The National Gallery is finished.
1837 Christiania Theatre is opened. Christiania and Aker get a Mayor and kommunestyre.
1854 Oslo gets its first railway, which leads to Eidsvoll.
1866 Stortinget is completed.
1878 City expanded. Frogner, Majorstuen, Torshov, Kampen and Vålerengen are populated and rebuilt. 113 000 citizens.
1892 The first Holmenkollbakken is finished.
1894 The city gets its first electrical track.
1899 Nationaltheateret is finished.
1925 City renamed as Oslo.
1927 The Monolith is raised.
1928 Oslo first Metro line, Majorstuen-Besserud is opened.
1950 Oslo City Hall opened.
1963 The Munch Museum is opened.
1980 Metro line under the city, Oslo Central Station and Nationaltheatret Station opened.
1997 Population over 500 000.
1998 Rikshospitalet opened. New railway line to Gardermoen.
2000 The city celebrates thousand-years jubilee.
2008 Oslo Opera House is opened.
2011 Several buildings in the Regjeringskvartalet are heavily damaged during a terrorist attack, resulting in 8 deaths. 69 people are massacred on the nearby Utøya island.
2018 The city's urban area passed one million people for the first time.

According to the Norse sagas, Oslo was founded around 1049 by Harald Hardrada.[33] Recent archaeological research however has uncovered Christian burials which can be dated to prior to AD 1000, evidence of a preceding urban settlement. This called for the celebration of Oslo's millennium in 2000.

It has been regarded as the capital city since the reign of Haakon V of Norway (1299–1319), the first king to reside permanently in the city. He also started the construction of the Akershus Fortress and the Oslo Kongsgård. A century later, Norway was the weaker part in a personal union with Denmark, and Oslo's role was reduced to that of provincial administrative centre, with the monarchs residing in Copenhagen. The fact that the University of Oslo was founded as late as 1811 had an adverse effect on the development of the nation.

Oslo was destroyed several times by fire, and after the fourteenth calamity, in 1624, Christian IV of Denmark and Norway ordered it rebuilt at a new site across the bay, near Akershus Castle and given the name Christiania. Long before this, Christiania had started to establish its stature as a centre of commerce and culture in Norway. The part of the city built starting in 1624 is now often called Kvadraturen because of its orthogonal layout in regular, square blocks.[34] The last Black Death outbreak in Oslo occurred in 1654.[35] In 1814 Christiania once more became a real capital when the union with Denmark was dissolved.

Many landmarks were built in the 19th century, including the Royal Palace (1825–1848), Storting building (the Parliament) (1861–1866), the University, National Theatre and the Stock Exchange. Among the world-famous artists who lived here during this period were Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun (the latter was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature). In 1850, Christiania also overtook Bergen and became the most populous city in the country. In 1877 the city was renamed Kristiania. The original name of Oslo was restored in 1925.[36]

1000–1600

Under the reign of Olaf III of Norway, Oslo became a cultural centre for Eastern Norway. Hallvard Vebjørnsson became the city's patron saint and is depicted on the city's seal.

In 1174, Hovedøya Abbey was built. The churches and abbeys became major owners of large tracts of land, which proved important for the city's economic development, especially before the Black Death.

On 25 July 1197, Sverre of Norway and his soldiers attacked Oslo from Hovedøya.[37]

During the Middle Ages, Oslo reached its heights in the reign of Haakon V of Norway. He started building Akershus Fortress and was also the first king to reside permanently in the city, which helped to make Oslo the capital of Norway.

In the end of the 12th century, Hanseatic League traders from Rostock moved into the city and gained major influence in the city. The Black Death came to Norway in 1349 and, like other cities in Europe, the city suffered greatly. The churches' earnings from their land also dropped so much that the Hanseatic traders dominated the city's foreign trade in the 15th century.

17th century

Over the years, fire destroyed major parts of the city many times, as many of the city's buildings were built entirely of wood. After the last fire in 1624, which lasted for three days, Christian IV of Denmark decided that the old city should not be rebuilt again. His men built a network of roads in Akershagen near Akershus Castle. He demanded that all citizens should move their shops and workplaces to the newly built city Christiania, named as an honor to the king.

The transformation of the city went slowly for the first hundred years. Outside the city, near Vaterland and Grønland near Old Town, Oslo, a new, unmanaged part of the city grew up filled with citizens of low class status.

18th century

In the 18th century, after the Great Northern War, the city's economy boomed with shipbuilding and trade. The strong economy transformed Christiania into a trading port.

19th century

In 1814 the former provincial town of Christiania became the capital of the independent Kingdom of Norway, in a personal union with Sweden. Several state institutions were established and the city's role as a capital initiated a period of rapidly increasing population. The government of this new state needed buildings for its expanding administration and institutions. Several important buildings were erected – The Bank of Norway (1828), the Royal Palace (1848), and the Storting (1866). Large areas of the surrounding Aker municipality were incorporated in 1839, 1859 an 1878. The 1859 expansion included Grünerløkka, Grønland and Oslo. At that time the area called Oslo (now Gamlebyen or Old Town) was a village or suburb outside the city borders east of Aker river.[38] The population increased from approximately 10 000 in 1814 to 230 000 in 1900. Christiania expanded its industry from 1840, most importantly around Akerselva. There was a spectacular building boom during the last decades of the 19th century, with many new apartment buildings and renewal of the city center, but the boom collapsed in 1899.

1900–present

The municipality developed new areas such as Ullevål garden city (1918–1926) and Torshov (1917–1925). City Hall was constructed in the former slum area of Vika, from 1931–1950. The municipality of Aker was incorporated into Oslo in 1948, and suburbs were developed, such as Lambertseter (from 1951). Aker Brygge was constructed on the site of the former shipyard Akers Mekaniske Verksted, from 1982–1998.

The name of city and municipality was Kristiania until 1 January 1925 when the name was changed to Oslo. Oslo was the name of an eastern suburb and the site of the city centre until the devastating 1624 fire. Christian, king of Denmark, ordered a new city built with his own name. Oslo remained a poor suburb outside the city border. In the early 1900s it was argued that a Danish king was inappropriate as the name of the capital of independent Norway.[39]

In the 2011 Norway terror attacks, Oslo was hit by a bomb blast that ripped through the Government quarter, damaging several buildings including the building that houses the Office of the Prime Minister. Eight people were killed in the bomb attack.

Medieval Oslo map

Map of medieval Oslo
by Amund Helland

Harbour of Christiania (JW Edy plate 50)

Port of Christiania c. 1800
by John William Edy

Christiania Norway in 1814 by MK Tholstrup

Christiania in 1814, by M. K. Tholstrup

Tallship Christiania Oslo Norway photo D Ramey Logan

Tallship Christiania in Oslo

Bjorvika skyline

The Barcode skyline in the harbour district

Railway between Christiania and Bergen - 1916

Railway between Christiania and Bergen, 1916.

Geography

Tettstedet Oslo 2005
A map of the urban areas of Oslo in 2005. The grey area in the middle indicates Oslo's city centre.

Oslo occupies an arc of land at the northernmost end of the Oslofjord. The fjord, which is nearly bisected by the Nesodden peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all other directions Oslo is surrounded by green hills and mountains. There are 40 islands within the city limits, the largest being Malmøya (0.56 km2 or 0.22 sq mi), and scores more around the Oslofjord. Oslo has 343 lakes, the largest being Maridalsvannet (3.91 km2 or 1.51 sq mi). This is also a main source of drinking water for large parts of Oslo.

Although Eastern Norway has a number of rivers, none of these flow into the ocean at Oslo. Instead Oslo has two smaller rivers: Akerselva (draining Maridalsvannet, which flows into the fjord in Bjørvika), and Alna. The waterfalls in Akerselva gave power to some of the first modern industry of Norway in the 1840s. Later in the century, the river became the symbol of the stable and consistent economic and social divide of the city into an East End and a West End; the labourers' neighbourhoods lie on both sides of the river, and the divide in reality follows Uelands street a bit further west. River Alna flows through Groruddalen, Oslo's major suburb and industrial area. The highest point is Kirkeberget, at 629 metres (2,064 ft). Although the city's population is small compared to most European capitals, it occupies an unusually large land area, of which two-thirds are protected areas of forests, hills and lakes. Its boundaries encompass many parks and open areas, giving it an airy and green appearance.

Climate

Oslo has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb)[40] with warm summers and cold winters. Due to oceanic influences, winters are less cold than more continental areas at same latitude. With -3°C isotherm, it is also reasonable for Oslo to be classified as a borderline oceanic climate. Oslo has a significant amount of rainfall during the year. This is true even for the driest month.[41] Because of the city's northern latitude, daylight varies greatly, from more than 18 hours in midsummer, when it never gets completely dark at night (no darker than nautical twilight), to around 6 hours in midwinter.[42]

July 1901 was the warmest month ever recorded with 24-hr monthly mean temperature at 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). The climate table below is for 1981–2010, while extremes (except average annual maximum and minimum temperatures) also includes earlier stations such as the Observatory downtown. Recent decades have seen warming, and 8 of the 12 monthly record lows are from before 1900, while the most recent is the November record low from 1965.

May 2018 saw hotter than average temperatures throughout the month.[43] On 30 May 2018 the city saw temperatures rise to 31.1°C, making it the hottest May temperature on Oslo records.[44][45] On 27th July 2018 the temperature in Oslo rose to 34.6 C, the hottest ever recorded since 1937, when the weather observations for Oslo have been conducted in the university area at Blindern. In January, three out of four days are below freezing (0 °C), on average one out of four days is colder than −10 °C.[46] The coldest temperature recorded is −29.6 °C (−21.3 °F), on 21 January 1841, while the coldest ever recorded at Blindern is −26 °C (−14.8 °F) in January 1941.

Parks and recreation areas

Oslo has a large number of parks and green areas within the city core, as well as outside it.

  • Frogner Park is a large park located a few minutes' walk away from the city centre. This is the biggest and best-known park in Norway, with a large collection of sculptures by Gustav Vigeland.
  • Bygdøy is a large green area, commonly called the Museum Peninsula of Oslo. The area is surrounded by the sea and is one of the most expensive districts in Norway.
  • Ekebergparken Sculpture Park is a sculpture park and a national heritage park with a panoramic view of the city at Ekeberg in the southeast of the city.
  • St. Hanshaugen Park is an old public park on a high hill in central Oslo. "St. Hanshaugen" is also the name of the surrounding neighbourhood as well as the larger administrative district (borough) that includes major parts of central Oslo.[49]
  • Tøyen Park stretches out behind the Munch Museum, and is a vast, grassy expanse. In the north, there is a lookout point known as Ola Narr. The Tøyen area also includes the Botanical Garden and Museum belonging to the University of Oslo.[50]

Oslo (with neighbouring Sandvika-Asker) is built in a horseshoe shape on the shores of the Oslofjord and limited in most directions by hills and forests. As a result, any point within the city is relatively close to the forest. There are two major forests bordering the city: Østmarka (literally "Eastern Forest", on the eastern perimeter of the city), and the very large Nordmarka (literally "Northern Forest", stretching from the northern perimeter of the city deep into the hinterland).

  • Sognsvann is a lake in Oslomarka, located at the land border, just north of Oslo. Sognsvann was drinking water for Oslo from 1876 to 1967.

The lake's altitude above sea level is 183 metres. The water is in a popular hiking area. Near the water itself, it is great for barbecues, swimming, beach volleyball and other activities.

The municipality operates eight public swimming pools.[51] Tøyenbadet is the largest indoor swimming facility in Oslo and one of the few pools in Norway offering a 50-metre main pool. Another in that size is the outdoor pool Frognerbadet.

Cityscape

Holmenkollen Jump Tower 01
Holmenkollen ski jump

Oslo's cityscape is being redeveloped as a modern city with various access-points, an extensive metro-system with a new financial district and a cultural city. In 2008, an exhibition was held in London presenting the award-winning Oslo Opera House, the urban regeneration scheme of Oslo's seafront, Munch/Stenersen and the new Deichman Library. Most of the buildings in the city and in neighbouring communities are low in height with only the Plaza, Posthuset and the highrises at Bjørvika considerably taller.[52]

Architecture

Fjordbyen
Fjordbyen is a large construction project in the seaside of central Oslo, stretching from Bygdøy in the west to Ormøya in the east. Some areas include: Bjørvika, Aker brygge, Tjuvholmen, the cental station area

Oslo's architecture is very diverse. The architect Carl Frederik Stanley (1769–1805), who was educated in Copenhagen, spent some years in Norway around the turn of the 19th century. He did minor works for wealthy patrons in and around Oslo, but his major achievement was the renovation of the Oslo Katedralskole, completed in 1800. [53] He added a classical portico to the front of an older structure, and a semicircular auditorium that was sequestered by Parliament in 1814 as a temporary place to assemble, now preserved at Norsk Folkemuseum as a national monument.

When Christiania was made capital of Norway in 1814, there were practically no buildings suitable for the many new government institutions. An ambitious building program was initiated, but realised very slowly because of economic constraints. The first major undertaking was the Royal Palace, designed by Hans Linstow and built between 1824 and 1848. Linstow also planned Karl Johans gate, the avenue connecting the Palace and the city, with a monumental square halfway to be surrounded by buildings for University, the Parliament (Storting) and other institutions. Only the university buildings were realised according to this plan. Christian Heinrich Grosch, one of the first architects educated completely within Norway, designed the original building for the Oslo Stock Exchange (1826–1828), the local branch of the Bank of Norway (1828), Christiania Theatre (1836–1837), and the first campus for the University of Oslo (1841–1856). For the university buildings, he sought the assistance of the renowned German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. German architectural influence persisted in Norway, and many wooden buildings followed the principles of Neoclassicism. In Oslo, the German architect Alexis de Chateauneuf designed Trefoldighetskirken, the first neo-gothic church, completed by von Hanno in 1858.

A number of landmark buildings, particularly in Oslo, were built in the Functionalist style (better known in the US and Britain as Modernist), the first being Skansen restaurant (1925–1927) by Lars Backer, demolished in 1970. Backer also designed the restaurant at Ekeberg, which opened in 1929. Kunstnernes Hus art gallery by Gudolf Blakstad and Herman Munthe-Kaas (1930) still shows the influence of the preceding classicist trend of the 1920s. The redevelopment of Oslo Airport (by the Aviaplan consortium) at Gardermoen, which opened in 1998, was Norway's largest construction project to date.

14-09-02-oslo-RalfR-393

Oslo Harbour

Oslo (11634147396)

A typical city block of Oslo

Astrup Fearnley 009

Art gallery of Astrup Fearnley Museum

Bydel Bjerke, Linderud & Veitvet fra Kalbakken

Highly populated urban area of Bjerke

Bjorvika mars2013

Downtown Oslo skyline

Politics and government

Oslo city council 2015–2019
Labour Party 20 (+0)
Conservative Party 19 0(−3)
Green Party 05 (+4)
Liberal Party 04 (−1)
Progress Party 04 (+0)
Socialist Left Party 03 (−1)
Red Party 03 (+1)
Christian Democratic Party 01 0(+0)
Total 59[54]

Oslo is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government. Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister, are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet, a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament, the Storting.

Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo is represented in the Storting by nineteen members of parliament. The Conservative Party is the most represented party in Oslo with six members, the Labour Party has five, the Progress Party, the Liberals and the Socialist Left Party have two each ; the Green Party and the Red Party have one each.

The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986. The supreme authority of the city is the City Council (Bystyret), which currently has 59 seats. Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees, each having its own areas of responsibility. The largest parties in the City Council after the 2015-elections are the Labour Party and the Conservatives, with 20 and 19 representatives respectively.

2015 elections

The Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but following the implementation of parliamentarism, the mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting at the national level. The current Mayor of Oslo is Marianne Borgen.

Since the local elections of 2015, the city government has been a coalition of the Labour Party, the Green Party and the Socialist Left. Based mostly on support from the Red Party, the coalition maintains a workable majority in the City Council.

The Governing Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City government. The post was created with the implementation of parliamentarism in Oslo and is similar to the role of the prime minister at the national level. The current governing mayor is Raymond Johansen.[54][55]

Economy

Oslo at night
Office buildings and apartments in Bjørvika, part of the redesign of former dock and industrial land in Oslo known as The Barcode Project.

Oslo has a varied and strong economy and was ranked number one among European large cities in economic potential in the fDi Magazine report European Cities of the Future 2012.[12] It was ranked 2nd in the category of business friendliness, behind Amsterdam.

Oslo is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately 1980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector. Some of them are the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers.[56] Det Norske Veritas, headquartered at Høvik outside Oslo, is one of the three major maritime classification societies in the world, with 16.5% of the world fleet to class in its register.[57] The city's port is the largest general cargo port in the country and its leading passenger gateway. Close to 6,000 ships dock at the Port of Oslo annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers.

The GDP of Oslo totalled 64 billion(€96,000 per capita) in 2016, which amounted to 20% of the national GDP.[58] This compares with NOK166 billion (US$17 billion) in 1995. The metropolitan area, bar Moss and Drammen, contributed 25% of the national GDP in 2003 and was also responsible for more than one quarter of tax revenues. In comparison, total tax revenues from the oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounted to about 16%.[59]

Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world.[60] As of 2006, it is ranked tenth according to the Worldwide Cost of Living Survey provided by Mercer Human Resource Consulting[61] and first according to the Economist Intelligence Unit.[60] The reason for this discrepancy is that the EIU omits certain factors from its final index calculation, most notably housing. In the 2015 update[62] of the EIU’s Worldwide Cost of Living survey, Oslo now ranks as the third most expensive city in the world.[63] Although Oslo does have the most expensive housing market in Norway, it is comparably cheaper than other cities on the list in that regard. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city. Oslo hosts 2654 of the largest companies in Norway. Within the ranking of Europe's largest cities ordered by their number of companies Oslo is in fifth position. A whole group of oil and gas companies is situated in Oslo.

According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August 2006,[64] Oslo and London were the world's most expensive cities.

Environment

Oslo is a compact city. It is easy to move around by public transportation and rentable city bikes are accessible to all, all over the city centre. In 2003, Oslo received The European Sustainable City Award and in 2007 Reader's Digest ranked Oslo as number two on a list of the world's greenest, most liveable cities.[65][66]

Education

Universitetet i Oslo sentrum
The faculty of Law, University of Oslo.
BI Norwegian School of Management Nydalen Oslo
Norwegian School of Management (BI) main building.
UiO 004
University of Oslo Library

Institutions of higher education

The level of education and productivity in the workforce is high in Norway. Nearly half of those with education at tertiary level in Norway live in the Oslo region, placing it among Europe's top three regions in relation to education. In 2008, the total workforce in the greater Oslo region (5 counties) numbered 1,020,000 people. The greater Oslo region has several higher educational institutions and is home to more than 73,000 students. The University of Oslo is the largest institution for higher education in Norway with 27,400 students and 7,028 employees in total.[72]

Culture

Oslo has a large and varied number of cultural attractions, which include several buildings containing artwork from Edvard Munch and various other international artists but also several Norwegian artists. Several world-famous writers have either lived or been born in Oslo. Examples are Knut Hamsun and Henrik Ibsen. The government has recently invested large amounts of money in cultural installations, facilities, buildings and festivals in the City of Oslo. Bygdøy, outside the city centre is the centre for history and the Norwegian Vikings' history. The area contains a large number of parks and seasites and many museums. Examples are the Fram Museum, Vikingskiphuset and the Kon-Tiki Museum. Oslo hosts the annual Oslo Freedom Forum, a conference described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum."[73] Oslo is also known for giving out the Nobel Peace Prize every year.

Food

Grønland, the central areas around Youngstorget and Torggata, Karl Johans gate (the main pedestrian thoroughfare), Aker Brygge and Tjuvholmen, Sørenga, and the boroughs of Frogner, Majorstuen, St. Hanshaugen / Bislett, and Grünerløkka all have a high concentration of cafes and restaurants. There are several food markets, the largest being Mathallen Food Hall at Vulkan with more than 30 specialty shops, cafés, and eateries.[74]

As of March 2018 six Oslo restaurants were mentioned in the Michelin Guide. Maaemo is the only Norwegian restaurant ever to have been awarded three Michelin stars. Statholdergaarden, Kontrast, and Galt each have one star. Only two restaurants in Oslo have a BIB gourmand mention: Restaurant Eik and Smalhans.

Museums, galleries

Oslo houses several major museums and galleries. The Munch Museum contains The Scream and other works by Edvard Munch, who donated all his work to the city after his death.[75] The city council is currently planning a new Munch Museum which is most likely to be built in Bjørvika, in the southeast of the city.[76] The museum will be named Munch/Stenersen.[76] 50 different museums are located around the city.[77]

Folkemuseet is located on the Bygdøy peninsula and is dedicated to Folk art, Folk Dress, Sami culture and the viking culture. The outdoor museum contains 155 authentic old buildings from all parts of Norway, including a Stave Church.[78]

The Vigeland Museum located in the large Frogner Park, is free to access and contains over 212 sculptures by Gustav Vigeland including an obelisk and the Wheel of Life.[79] Another popular sculpture is Sinnataggen, a baby boy stamping his foot in fury. This statue is very well known as an icon in the city.[80] There is also a newer landscaped sculpture park, Ekebergparken Sculpture Park, with works by Norwegian and international artists such as Salvador Dalí.[81]

Telemarkstunet Norsk Folkemuseum 0
Historic buildings at Norsk Folkemuseum

The Viking Ship Museum features three Viking ships found at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune and several other unique items from the Viking age.[82]

The Oslo City Museum holds a permanent exhibition about the people in Oslo and the history of the city.[83]

The Kon-Tiki Museum houses Thor Heyerdahl's Kontiki and Ra2.[84]

The National Museum holds and preserves, exhibits and promotes public knowledge about Norway's most extensive collection of art.[85] The Museum shows permanent exhibitions of works from its own collections but also temporary exhibitions that incorporate work loaned from elsewhere.[85] The National Museums exhibition avenues are the National Gallery, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the National Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the National Museum of Architecture.[85] A new National Museum in Oslo will open in 2020 located at Vestbanen behind the Nobel Peace Center.[86]

The Nobel Peace Center is an independent organisation opened on 11 June 2005 by the King Harald V as part of the celebrations to mark Norway's centenary as an independent country.[87] The building houses a permanent exhibition, expanding every year when a new Nobel Peace Prize winner is announced, containing information of every winner in history. The building is mainly used as a communication centre.[87]

Music and events

A large number of festivals are held in Oslo, such as Oslo Jazz festival, a six-day jazz festival which has been held annually in August for the past 25 years.[88] Oslo's biggest rock festival is Øyafestivalen or simply "Øya". It draws about 60,000 people to the Tøyen Park east in Oslo and lasts for four days.[89]

The Oslo International Church Music Festival[90] has been held annually since 2000. The Oslo World Music Festival showcases people who are stars in their own country but strangers in Norway. The Oslo Chamber Music Festival is held in August every year and world-class chambers and soloists gather in Oslo to perform at this festival. The Norwegian Wood Rock Festival is held every year in June in Oslo.

The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is headed by the Institute; the award ceremony is held annually in The City Hall on 10 December.[91] Even though Sami land is far away from the capital, the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History marks the Sami National Day with a series of activities and entertainment.

The World Cup Biathlon in Holmenkollen is held every year and here male and female competitors compete against each other in Sprint, Pursuit and Mass Start disciplines.[92]

Other examples of annual events in Oslo are Desucon, a convention focusing on Japanese culture[93] and Færderseilasen, the world's largest overnight regatta with more than 1100 boats taking part every year.[94]

Rikard Nordraak, composer of the Norwegian national anthem, was born in Oslo in 1842.

Norway's principal orchestra is the Oslo Philharmonic, based at the Oslo Concert Hall since 1977. Although it was founded in 1919, the Oslo Philharmonic can trace its roots to the founding of the Christiania Musikerforening (Christiania Musicians Society) by Edvard Grieg and Johan Svendsen in 1879.[95]

Oslo has hosted the Eurovision Song Contest twice, in 1996 and 2010.

Performing arts

Nationaltheatret Oslo Front at Night
The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway[96]

Oslo houses over 20 theatres, such as the Norwegian Theatre and the National Theatre located at Karl Johan Street. The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway and is situated between the royal palace and the parliament building, Stortinget.[96] The names of Ludvig Holberg, Henrik Ibsen and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson are engraved on the façade of the building over the main entrance. This theatre represents the actors and play-writers of the country but the songwriters, singers and dancers are represented in the form of a newly opened Oslo Opera House, situated in Bjørvika. The Opera was opened in 2008 and is a national landmark, designed by the Norwegian architectural firm, Snøhetta. There are two houses, together containing over 2000 seats. The building cost 500 million euro to build and took five years to build and is known for being the first Opera House in the world to let people walk on the roof of the building. The foyer and the roof are also used for concerts as well as the three stages.[97]

Literature

Most great Norwegian authors have lived in Oslo for some period in their life. For instance, Nobel Prize-winning author Sigrid Undset grew up in Oslo, and described her life there in the autobiographical novel Elleve år (1934; translated as The longest years; New York 1971).

The playwright Henrik Ibsen is probably the most famous Norwegian author. Ibsen wrote plays such as Hedda Gabler, Peer Gynt, A Doll's House and The Lady from the Sea. The Ibsen Quotes project completed in 2008 is a work of art consisting of 69 Ibsen quotations in stainless steel lettering which have been set into the granite sidewalks of the city's central streets.[98]

In recent years, novelists like Lars Saabye Christensen, Tove Nilsen, Jo Nesbø and Roy Jacobsen have described the city and its people in their novels. Early 20th-century literature from Oslo include poets Rudolf Nilsen and André Bjerke.

Media

The newspapers Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Verdens Gang, Dagens Næringsliv, Finansavisen, Dagsavisen, Morgenbladet, Vårt Land, Nationen and Klassekampen are published in Oslo. The main office of the national broadcasting company NRK is located at Marienlyst in Oslo, near Majorstuen, and NRK also has regional services via both radio and television. TVNorge (TVNorway) is also located in Oslo, while TV 2 (based in Bergen) and TV3 (based in London) operate branch offices in central Oslo. There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies. A number of magazines are produced in Oslo. The two dominant companies are Aller Media and Hjemmet Mortensen AB.

Sports

LIverpool VS Lyn Bislett Stadion
Bislett Stadium during a friendly between Lyn Oslo and Liverpool F.C.
Kavringen brygge, Oslo
Public beach within the city

Oslo is home to the Holmenkollen National Arena and Holmenkollbakken, the country's main biathlon and Nordic skiing venues. It hosts annual world cup tournaments, including the Holmenkollen Ski Festival. Oslo hosted the Biathlon World Championships in 1986, 1990, 2000, 2002 and 2016. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been hosted in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011, as well as the 1952 Winter Olympics.

Oslo is the home of several football clubs in the Norwegian league system. Vålerenga, Lyn and Skeid have won both the league and the cup, while Mercantile and Frigg have won the cup.

Ullevål Stadion is the home arena for the Norwegian national football team and the Football Cup Final. The stadium has previously hosted the finals of the UEFA Women's Championship in 1987 and 1997, and the 2002 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship.[99] Røa IL is Oslo's only team in the women's league, Toppserien. Each year, the international youth football tournament Norway Cup is held on Ekebergsletta and other places in the city.

Due to the cold climate and proximity to major forests bordering the city, skiing is a popular recreational activity in Oslo. The Tryvann Ski Resort is the most used ski resort in Norway.[100] The most successful ice hockey team in Norway, Vålerenga Ishockey, is based in Oslo. Manglerud Star is another Oslo-team who play in the top league.

Bislett Stadium is the city's main track and field venue, and hosts the annual Bislett Games, part of IAAF Diamond League. Bjerke Travbane is the main venue for harness racing in the country. Oslo Spektrum is used for large ice hockey and handball matches. Nordstrand HE and Oppsal IF plays in the women's GRUNDIGligaen in handball, while Bækkelaget HE plays in the men's league. Jordal Amfi, the home of the ice hockey team Vålerenga Ishockey, and the national team. The 1999 IIHF World Championship in ice hockey were held in Oslo, as have three Bandy World Championships, in 1961, 1977 and 1985. The UCI Road World Championships in bicycle road racing were hosted 1993.

Oslo was bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, but later withdrew on 2 October 2014.

Tourism

In 2018 Oslo is named one of Lonely Planet's Top Ten Cities. The travel guide's best-selling yearbook Best in Travel has selected Oslo as one of the ten best cities in the world to visit in 2018, citing the Norwegian capital's "innovative architecture and unmissable museums alongside cool bars, bistros and cafés".[101]

Crime

Norges Høyesterett Supreme Court of Norway
Norway Supreme Court

Oslo Police District is Norway's largest police district with over 2,300 employees. Over 1,700 of those are police officers, nearly 140 police lawyers and 500 civilian employees. Oslo Police District has five police stations located around the city at Grønland, Sentrum, Stovner, Majorstuen and Manglerud. The National Criminal Investigation Service is located in Oslo, which is a Norwegian special police division under the NMJP. PST is also located in the Oslo District. PST is a security agency which was established in 1936 and is one of the non-secret agencies in Norway.

Oslo police stated that the capital is one of Europe's safest. Statistics have shown that crime in Oslo is on the rise, and some media have reported that there are four times as many thefts and robberies in Oslo than in New York City per capita.[102][103] According to the Oslo Police, they receive more than 15,000 reports of petty thefts annually. Fewer than one in a hundred cases get solved.[104]

On 22 July 2011, Oslo was the site of one of two terrorist attacks: the bombing of Oslo government offices.[105]

Transport

Airports around Oslo Airport IATA/ICAO Passengers (2013)
OslDomEn Gardermoen OSL/ENGM 22,956,540
Sandefjord Lufthavn Torp TRF/ENTO 1,856,897
Incheckning Moss Airport, Rygge Rygge
(closed 2016)
RYG/ENRY 1,849,294

Oslo has Norway's most extensive public transport system, managed by Ruter.[106] This includes the six-line Oslo Metro,[107] the world's most extensive metro per resident, the six-line Oslo Tramway[108] and the eight-line Oslo Commuter Rail.[109] The tramway operates within the areas close to the city centre, while the metro, which runs underground through the city centre, operates to suburbs further away; this includes two lines that operate to Bærum, and the Ring Line which loops to areas north of the centre.[110] Oslo is also covered by a bus network consisting of 32 city lines, as well as regional buses to the neighboring county of Akershus.[111]

Oslo Central Station acts as the central hub,[112] and offers rail services to most major cities in southern Norway as well as Stockholm and Gothenburg in Sweden.[113] The Airport Express Train operates along the high-speed Gardermoen Line. The Drammen Line runs under the city centre in the Oslo Tunnel.[114] Some of the city islands and the neighbouring municipality of Nesodden are connected by ferry.[115] Daily cruiseferry services operate to Copenhagen and Frederikshavn in Denmark, and to Kiel in Germany.[116]

Many of the motorways pass through the downtown and other parts of the city in tunnels. The construction of the roads is partially supported through a toll ring. The major motorways through Oslo are European Route E6 and E18. There are three beltways, the innermost which are streets and the outermost, Ring 3 which is an expressway.

The main airport serving the city is Gardermoen Airport, located in Ullensaker, 47 kilometres (29 mi) from the city centre of Oslo.[117] It acts as the main international gateway to Norway,[118] and is the sixth-largest domestic airport in Europe.[119] Gardermoen is a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Widerøe. Oslo is also served by a secondary airport, which serve some low-cost carriers, such as Ryanair: Torp Airport, 110 kilometres (68 mi) from the city.[120]

GMB BFM 71104 1

Flytoget – the Airport Express Train – a high-speed rail service connecting the city with its main airport at Gardermoen

Nationaltheatret station Oslo

A Metro train leaving Nationaltheatret Station

CyclePickandDrop

A rental bicycle station in the city center

Akrobaten gang og sykkelbro

"Akrobaten" (The Acrobat) Bridge over Oslo Central Station

14-09-02-oslo-RalfR-457

Buses at Jernbanetorget

Demographics

Oslo population
Population of Oslo from 1801–2006, with yearly data from 1950–2006.
Historical population
YearPop.±%
15002,500—    
18018,931+257.2%
185531,715+255.1%
1890151,239+376.9%
1951434,365+187.2%
1961475,663+9.5%
YearPop.±%
1971481,548+1.2%
1981452,023−6.1%
1991461,644+2.1%
2001508,726+10.2%
2011599,230+17.8%
2017672,061+12.2%
Source: Statistics Norway.[20][121]
Number of minorities (1st and 2nd gen.)
in Oslo by country of origin in 2017
[122]
Nationality Population (2017)
 Pakistan 23,010
 Poland 16,624
 Somalia 15,137
 Sweden 13,018
 Iraq including Kurdistan federal region 8,215
 Sri Lanka 7,064
 Morocco 6,830
 Iran including Kordestan province 6,306
 Turkey 6,298
 Vietnam 6,276
 Philippines 6,164
 India 5,671
 Afghanistan 3,852
 Germany 3,813
 Russia 3,802
 Denmark 3,787
 Bosnia-Herzegovina 3,436
 Ethiopia 3,346
 Eritrea 3,277
 United Kingdom 3,059
 Lithuania 3,057
 China 2,988
 Romania 2,941
 Kosovo 2,876
 France 2,315

The population of Oslo was by 2010 increasing at a record rate of nearly 2% annually (17% over the last 15 years), making it the fastest-growing Scandinavian capital.[123] In 2015, according to Statistics Norway annual report, there were 647,676 permanent residents in the Oslo municipality, of which 628,719 resided in the city proper. There were also 1,000,467 in the city's urban area[3][20][15] and an estimated 1.71 million in the Greater Oslo Region, within 100 km (62 mi) of the city centre.[16]

According to the most recent census 432,000 Oslo residents (70.4% of the population) were ethnically Norwegian, an increase of 6% since 2002 (409,000).[124] Oslo has the largest population of immigrants and Norwegians born to immigrant parents in Norway, both in relative and absolute figures. Of Oslo's 624,000 inhabitants, 189,400 were immigrants or born to immigrant parents, representing 30.4 percent of the capital's population. All suburbs in Oslo were above the national average of 14.1 percent. The suburbs with the highest proportions of people of immigrant origin were Søndre Nordstrand, Stovner and Alna, where they formed around 50 percent of the population.[125]

Pakistanis make up the single largest ethnic minority, followed by Poles, Somalis, and Swedes. Other large immigrant groups are people from Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Turkey, Morocco, Iraq & Kurdistan region and Iran & Kordestan province.[126][127][128][129]

In 2013, 40% of Oslo's primary school pupils were registered as having a first language other than Norwegian or Sami.[130] The western part of the city is predominantly ethnic Norwegian, with several schools having less than 5% pupils with an immigrant background. The eastern part of Oslo is more mixed, with some schools up to 97% of immigrant background.[131] Schools are also increasingly divided by ethnicity, with white flight being present in some of the northeastern suburbs of the city.[132][133] In the borough of Groruddalen in 2008 for instance, the ethnic Norwegian population decreased by 1,500, while the immigrant population increased by 1,600.[134]

Oslo has numerous religious communities. In 2017, 50.0% of the population were members of the Church of Norway, lower than the national average of 70.6%.[137] Members of other Christian denominations make up 8.1% of the population. Islam was followed by 8.7% and Buddhism by 0.5% of the population. Adherents of other religions formed 0.9% of the population. Life stance communities, mainly the Norwegian Humanist Association, were represented by 2.9% of the population. 28.9% of the Oslo population were unaffiliated with any religion or life stance community.[135][136]

Notable residents

International relations

Twin towns – partner cities – and regions

Oslo has cooperation agreements with the following cities/regions:[141]

Oslo was formerly twinned with Madison, Wisconsin, Tel Aviv and Vilnius, but has since abolished the concept of twin cities.

Christmas trees as gifts

Oslo has a tradition of sending a Christmas tree every year to the cities of Washington, D.C.; New York; London; Edinburgh; Rotterdam; Antwerp and Reykjavík.[142] Since 1947, Oslo has sent a 65-to-80-foot-high (20-to-24-metre), 50 to 100-year-old spruce, as an expression of gratitude toward Britain for its support of Norway during World War II.[143][144]

See also

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External links

1952 Winter Olympics

The 1952 Winter Olympics (Norwegian: Vinter-OL 1952), officially known as the VI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les VIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), took place in Oslo, Norway, from 14 to 25 February 1952.

Discussions about Oslo hosting the Winter Olympic Games began as early as 1935; the city wanted to host the 1948 Games, but World War II made that impossible. Instead, Oslo won the right to host the 1952 Games in a contest that included Cortina d'Ampezzo in Italy and Lake Placid in the United States. All of the venues were in Oslo's metropolitan area except for the alpine skiing events, which were held at Norefjell, 113 km (70 mi) from the capital. A new hotel was built for the press and dignitaries, along with three dormitories to house athletes and coaches, creating the first modern athlete's village. The city of Oslo bore the financial burden of hosting the Games in return for the revenue they generated.

The Games attracted 694 athletes representing 30 countries, who participated in four sports and 22 events. Japan and Germany made their returns to winter Olympic competition, after being forced to miss the 1948 Games in the aftermath of World War II. Germany was represented solely by West German athletes because East Germany declined to compete as a unified team. Portugal and New Zealand made their Winter Olympic debuts, and for the first time women were allowed to compete in cross-country skiing.

Norwegian truck driver Hjalmar Andersen won three out of four speed skating events to become the most decorated athlete at the Games. Germany resumed its former prominence in bobsleigh, with wins in the four- and two-man events. Dick Button of the United States performed the first triple jump in international competition to claim his second consecutive men's figure skating Olympic title. The 1952 Games featured one demonstration sport, bandy, but only three Nordic countries competed in the tournament. Norway dominated the overall medal count with 16 medals, seven of them gold. The Games closed with the presentation of a flag that would be passed from one Winter Olympics host city to the next. The flag, which became known as the "Oslo flag", has been displayed in the host city during each subsequent Winter Games.

2011 Norway attacks

The 2011 Norway attacks, referred to in Norway as 22 July (Norwegian: 22. juli) or as 22/7, were two sequential lone wolf domestic terrorist

attacks by Anders Behring Breivik against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp, in which 77 people were killed.

The first attack was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST). The bomb was placed inside of a van next to the tower block housing the office of the Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg. The explosion killed eight people and injured at least 209 people, twelve severely.The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by the AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party (AP). Breivik, dressed in a homemade police uniform and showing false identification, took a ferry to the island and opened fire at the participants, killing 69 and injuring at least 110, 55 seriously. Among the dead were friends of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg, and the stepbrother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit.The attack was the deadliest in Norway since World War II. A survey found that one in four Norwegians knew someone affected. The European Union, NATO and several countries expressed their support for Norway and condemned the attacks. The 2012 Gjørv Report concluded that Norway's police could have prevented the bombing and caught Breivik faster at Utøya, and that measures to prevent further attacks and "mitigate adverse effects" should have been implemented.The Norwegian Police arrested Anders Behring Breivik, a 32-year-old Norwegian right-wing extremist, on Utøya island and charged him with both attacks. His trial took place between 16 April and 22 June 2012 in Oslo District Court, where Breivik admitted carrying out the attacks, but denied criminal guilt and claimed the defense of necessity (jus necessitatis). On 24 August, Breivik was convicted as charged and sentenced to 21 years of preventive detention in prison, the maximum sentence allowed in Norway. The sentence can be extended indefinitely as long as the prisoner is deemed a threat to society.

Akershus

Akershus [²ɑːkəʂˌhʉːs] (listen) is a county in Norway, bordering Hedmark, Oppland, Buskerud, Oslo, and Østfold; it also has a short border with Sweden (Värmland). Akershus, with a little over 614,000 inhabitants, is the second most populated county by population after Oslo. The county is named after Akershus Fortress. The county administration is in Oslo, which is not part of the county per se.

Anders Behring Breivik

Anders Behring Breivik (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈɑnːəʂ ˈbeːrɪŋ ˈbræɪviːk] (listen); born 13 February 1979), since 2017 legally Fjotolf Hansen and also known by his pseudonym Andrew Berwick, is a Norwegian far-right terrorist who committed the 2011 Norway attacks. On 22 July 2011, he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo, then shot dead 69 participants of a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp on the island of Utøya. In July 2012, he was convicted of mass murder, causing a fatal explosion, and terrorism.Breivik was arrested as a juvenile and rejected from the Norwegian Armed Forces. At the age of 20 he joined the anti-immigration/right-wing Progress Party, and chaired the local Vest Oslo branch of the party's youth organization during 2002. He left the Progress Party in 2006 and went on to join a gun club and the Freemasons while also founding a company which he used to finance his planned terrorist attacks.

On the day of the attacks, Breivik electronically distributed a compendium of texts entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence, describing his militant ideology. In them, he stated his opposition to Islam and blamed feminism for a European "cultural suicide." The text called for the deportation of all Muslims from Europe and Breivik wrote that his main motive for the attacks was to publicize his manifesto.Two teams of court-appointed forensic psychiatrists examined Breivik before his trial. The first team diagnosed Breivik with paranoid schizophrenia but after this initial finding was criticized, a second evaluation concluded that he was not psychotic during the attacks but did have narcissistic personality disorder.His trial began on 16 April 2012, with closing arguments made on 22 June 2012. On 24 August 2012, Oslo District Court delivered its verdict, finding Breivik sane and guilty of murdering 77 people. He was sentenced to 21 years in prison, in a form of preventive detention that required a minimum of 10 years incarceration and the possibility of one or more extensions for as long as he is deemed a danger to society. This is the maximum penalty in Norway. Breivik announced that he did not recognize the legitimacy of the court and therefore did not accept its decision—he claimed he "cannot" appeal because this would legitimize the authority of the Oslo District Court. In 2016, Breivik sued the Norwegian Correctional Service, claiming that his solitary confinement violated his human rights. Subsequent court ruling found that his rights had not been violated, despite an earlier ruling, and in June 2017, Breivik filed a complaint with the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), which dismissed his case in June 2018.Since his imprisonment, Breivik has identified himself as a fascist and a Nazi, who practices Odinism and uses counterjihadist rhetoric to support ethno-nationalists.

Edvard Munch

Edvard Munch (; Norwegian: [ˈɛdvɑʈ ˈmʊŋk] (listen); 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter, whose best known work, The Scream, has become one of the most iconic images of world art.

His childhood was overshadowed by illness, bereavement and the dread of inheriting a mental condition that ran in the family. Studying at the Royal School of Art and Design in Kristiania (today’s Oslo), Munch began to live a bohemian life under the influence of nihilist Hans Jæger, who urged him to paint his own emotional and psychological state ('soul painting'). From this would presently emerge his distinctive style.

Travel brought new influences and new outlets. In Paris, he learned much from Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, especially their use of colour. In Berlin, he met Swedish dramatist August Strindberg, whom he painted, as he embarked on his major canon The Frieze of Life, depicting a series of deeply-felt themes such as love, anxiety, jealousy and betrayal, steeped in atmosphere.

But it was back in Kristiania that his legendary work The Scream was conceived. According to Munch, he was out walking at sunset, when he ‘heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature’. That agonised face is widely identified with the angst of modern man. Between 1893 and 1910, he made two painted versions and two in pastels, as well as a number of prints. One of the pastels would eventually command the fourth highest nominal price paid for a painting at auction.

As his fame and wealth grew, his emotional state remained as insecure as ever. He briefly considered marriage, but could not commit himself. A breakdown in 1908 forced him to give up heavy drinking, and he was cheered by his increasing acceptance by the people of Kristiania and exposure in the city’s museums. His later years were spent working in peace and privacy. Although his works were banned in Nazi Germany, most of them survived World War II, ensuring him a secure legacy.

Eurovision Song Contest 2010

The Eurovision Song Contest 2010 was the 55th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Oslo, Norway, following Alexander Rybak's win at the 2009 contest in Moscow, Russia with the song "Fairytale". It was the third time Norway had hosted the contest, having previously done so in 1986 and 1996. The contest was broadcast from the Telenor Arena in Bærum, Greater Oslo, Norway. The 2010 winner was Germany with Lena singing "Satellite", written by American Julie Frost and Denmark's John Gordon. It was Germany's first win in twenty-eight years, its second since the Contest's inception, and its first win as a unified country. It was also the first time a "Big Four" country won the contest since the rule's introduction in 2000.

The semi-finals took place on 25 and 27 May 2010 while the final took place on 29 May 2010. The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) announced that the voting system used in the semi-finals would change from previous years to balance jury voting with televoting. A return of accompaniment by orchestra was also proposed, but did not happen.

Thirty-nine countries took part in the contest, with Georgia returning after a one-year hiatus, and Andorra, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Montenegro withdrawing. Lithuania originally announced its withdrawal from the competition, but was later among the 39 participants confirmed by the EBU. A global financial crisis affected how the event was run; several countries elected not to compete due to budget cuts, and host broadcaster NRK sold its broadcast rights for the 2010 FIFA World Cup to TV 2 and Viasat to finance the event.Notably it was also the first time since the introduction of the semi-finals in 2004 that Sweden failed to qualify for the final. The last time Sweden was absent from the Eurovision final was in 1976.

Jens Stoltenberg

Jens Stoltenberg (born 16 March 1959) is a Norwegian politician who has been serving as the 13th Secretary General of NATO since 2014. A member of the Labour Party, he was Prime Minister of Norway from 2000 to 2001 and from 2005 to 2013.

In 2011, Stoltenberg received the United Nations Foundation's Champion of Global Change Award, chosen for his extraordinary effort toward meeting the Millennium Development Goals and bringing fresh ideas to global problems.The mission of Jens Stoltenberg as secretary general of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was extended for another two years. Stoltenberg has been responsible for the past five years and is set to lead NATO until 2022.

Norway

Norway (Norwegian: Norge (Bokmål) or Noreg (Nynorsk); Northern Sami: Norga; Southern Sami: Nöörje; Lule Sami: Vuodna), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land.

Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres (148,729 sq mi) and a population of 5,312,300 (as of August 2018). The country shares a long eastern border with Sweden (1,619 km or 1,006 mi long). Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, and the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea.

Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013 when she replaced Jens Stoltenberg. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution. The kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years. From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, and from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War.

Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the European Union and the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and a part of the Schengen Area.

Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, and its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals. The Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, and fresh water. The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East.The country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP (PPP) per capita list (2015 estimate) which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven. It has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position also held previously between 2001 and 2006. It also had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and currently ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, and the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world.

Norwegian Campaign

The Norwegian Campaign was the attempted Allied liberation of the Scandinavian nation of Norway from Nazi Germany during the early stages of World War II and directly following the German invasion and occupation of the Norwegian mainland and government. It took place from April 9, 1940, until June 10, 1940. The Allied campaign did not succeed, and it resulted in the fleeing of King Haakon VII along with the remainder of the royal family to Great Britain.

In April, the United Kingdom and France came to Norway's aid with an expeditionary force. Despite moderate success in the northern parts of Norway, the Allies were eventually compelled to withdraw by Germany's invasion of France in May, and the Norwegian government sought exile in London. The campaign ended with the occupation of Norway by Germany, and the continued fighting by exiled Norwegian forces from abroad. The 62 days of fighting made Norway the nation that withstood a German land invasion for the second longest period of time, after the Soviet Union.

Norwegian Football Cup

The Norwegian Football Cup (Norwegian: Norgesmesterskapet i fotball for herrer) is the main knockout cup competition in Norwegian football. It is run by the Football Association of Norway and has been contested since 1902, making it the oldest football tournament in the country. The tournament is commonly known as Cupen ("The Cup") or NM, an acronym formed from Norgesmesterskap ("Norwegian Championship"). These terms are used to describe both the men's and women's competitions. The equivalent competition for women's teams is the Norwegian Women's Football Cup.

The Norwegian Football Cup is a national championship, meaning that while the Eliteserien may be the most prestigious competition to win, it is the winners of the Cup who are awarded the title "Norwegian football champions". This differs from, for example, English football, where the winners of the FA Premier League are the ones who become English champions.

Winners receive the King's trophy. Winners also qualify for the Europa League second qualifying round and a place in the Mesterfinalen, the Norwegian super cup match. The current Norwegian champions and holders of the cup are Rosenborg, who defeated Strømsgodset 4–1 in the 2018 final. Odd and Rosenborg are the most successful clubs with 12 titles each.

Olympic symbols

The Olympic symbols are icons, flags, and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to elevate the Olympic Games. Some—such as the flame, fanfare, and theme—are more commonly used during Olympic competition, but others, such as the flags, can be seen throughout the years. The Olympic flag was created under the guidance of Baron Coubertin in 1913 and was released in 1914. But it was first hoisted in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium at the 1920 Summer Olympics in the main stadium. Five rings equal the Five continents of the world.

Oslo Accords

The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; and the Oslo II Accord, signed in Taba, Egypt, in 1995. The Oslo Accords marked the start of the Oslo process, a peace process aimed at achieving a peace treaty based on United Nations Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338, and at fulfilling the "right of the Palestinian people to self-determination." The Oslo process started after secret negotiations in Oslo, resulting in the recognition by the PLO of the State of Israel and the recognition by Israel of the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people and as a partner in negotiations.

The Oslo Accords created a Palestinian Authority tasked with limited self-governance of parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip; and acknowledged the PLO as Israel's partner in permanent-status negotiations about remaining questions. The most important questions relate to the borders of Israel and Palestine, Israeli settlements, the status of Jerusalem, Israel's military presence in and control over remaining territories after Israel's recognition of Palestinian autonomy, and the Palestinian right of return. The Oslo Accords, however, did not create a Palestinian state.

Oslo Airport, Gardermoen

Oslo Airport (Norwegian: Oslo Lufthavn; IATA: OSL, ICAO: ENGM) is the main international airport serving Oslo, Norway, the capital and most populous city in the country. A hub for Scandinavian Airlines and Widerøe, and an operating base for Norwegian Air Shuttle, it connects to 26 domestic and 152 international destinations. 28,5 million passengers traveled through the airport in 2018, making it the second-busiest commercial airport in the Nordic countries, and the nineteenth-busiest in Europe.

The airport is located 19 nautical miles (35 km; 22 mi) northeast of Oslo, at Gardermoen in the municipality of Ullensaker, in Akershus county. It has two parallel roughly north–south runways measuring 3,600 metres (11,811 ft) and 2,950 metres (9,678 ft) and 71 aircraft stands, of which 50 have jet bridges. The airport is connected to the city center by the high-speed railway Gardermoen Line served by mainline trains and Flytoget. The percentage of passengers using public transport to get to and from the airport is one of the highest in the world at nearly 70%. The ground facilities are owned by Oslo Lufthavn AS, a subsidiary of the state-owned Avinor. Also at the premises is Gardermoen Air Station, operated by the Royal Norwegian Air Force. An expansion with a new terminal building and a third pier opened in late April 2017. Oslo is also served by the low-fare airport Torp in Sandefjord, situated 119 km to the south of downtown Oslo.

The airport location was first used by the Norwegian Army from 1940, with the first military airport facilities being built during the 1940s. The airport remained a secondary reserve and airport for chartered flights to Oslo Airport, Fornebu until 8 October 1998, when the latter was closed and an all-new Oslo Airport opened at Gardermoen, costing 11.4 billion Norwegian kroner (NOK).

Oslo Central Station

Oslo Central Station (Norwegian: Oslo sentralstasjon, abbreviated Oslo S) is the main railway station in Oslo, and the largest railway station within the entire Norwegian railway system. It is the terminus of Drammen Line, Gardermoen Line, Gjøvik Line, Hoved Line and Østfold Line. It serves express, regional and local rail services by four companies. The railway station is operated by Bane NOR while its real estate subsidiary, Bane NOR Eiendom owns the station, and was opened in 1980.

Oslo Central was built on the site of the older Oslo East Station (Oslo Østbanestasjon, Oslo Ø), the combining of the former east and west stations being made possible by the opening of the Oslo Tunnel. Oslo Central has nineteen tracks, thirteen of which have connections through the Oslo Tunnel. The station has two buildings, the original Oslo East building and the newer main building for Oslo Central. Each building houses a large shopping centre. The square in front of the station is called Jernbanetorget.

Oslo Metro

The Oslo Metro (Norwegian: Oslo T-bane or Oslo Tunnelbane or simply T-banen) is the rapid transit system of Oslo, Norway, operated by Sporveien T-banen on contract from the transit authority Ruter. The network consists of five lines that all run through the city centre, with a total length of 85 kilometres (53 mi), serving 101 stations of which 17 are underground or indoors. In addition to serving 14 out of the 15 boroughs of Oslo (except St. Hanshaugen), two lines run to Kolsås and Østerås, in the neighboring municipality of Bærum. In 2016, the system had an annual ridership of 118 million.The first rapid transit line, the Holmenkoll Line, opened in 1898, with the branch Røa Line opening in 1912. It became the first Nordic underground railway in 1928 when the underground line to Nationaltheatret was opened. After 1993 trains ran under the city between the eastern and western networks in the Common Tunnel, followed by the 2006 opening of the Ring Line. All the trains are operated with MX3000 stock. These replaced the older T1000 stock between 2006 and 2010.

Oslo Stock Exchange

Oslo Stock Exchange (Norwegian: Oslo Børs) (OSE: OSLO) is the only independent stock exchange within the Nordic countries and offers Norway’s only regulated markets for securities trading today. The stock exchange offers a full product range including equities, derivatives and fixed income instruments.

University of Oslo

The University of Oslo (Norwegian: Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Norwegian: Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the Times Higher Education listed the University of Oslo at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university.The university has approximately 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. Its faculties include (Lutheran) Theology (with the Lutheran Church of Norway having been Norway's state church since 1536), Law, Medicine, Humanities, Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, Dentistry, and Education. The university's original neoclassical campus is located in the centre of Oslo; it is currently occupied by the Faculty of Law. Most of the university's other faculties are located at the newer Blindern campus in the suburban West End. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area.

The university was founded in 1811 and was modeled after the University of Copenhagen and the recently established University of Berlin. It was originally named for King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway and received its current name in 1939. The university is informally also known as Universitetet ("the university"), having been the only university in Norway, until 1946 and was commonly referred to as "The Royal Frederick's" (Det Kgl. Frederiks), prior to the name change.

The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in the university's Atrium, from 1947 to 1989, making it the only university in the world to be involved in awarding a Nobel Prize. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the Atrium. Five researchers affiliated with the university have been Nobel laureates.

Vålerenga Fotball

Vålerenga Fotball (Norwegian pronunciation: [²voːlərəŋɑ] or [²voːɽəŋɑ] (listen)) is a Norwegian association football club from Oslo and a part of the multi-sport club Vålerengens IF. Founded in 1913, the club is named after the neighbourhood of Vålerenga. Vålerenga's home ground is Intility Arena, located in Valle-Hovin. Vålerenga are five-time league champions and four-time Norwegian Football Cup champions, having last won the league in 2005 and the cup in 2008.

West Bank Areas in the Oslo II Accord

The Oslo II Accord divided the Israeli-occupied West Bank into three administrative divisions: Areas A, B and C. The distinct areas were given different statuses, according to their governance pending a final status accord: Area A is exclusively administered by the Palestinian Authority; Area B is administered by both the Palestinian Authority and Israel; and Area C, which contains the Israeli settlements, is administered by Israel. Areas A and B were chosen in such a way as to just contain Palestinians, by drawing lines around Palestinian population centers at the time the Agreement was signed; all areas surrounding Areas A and B were defined as Area C.Area A comprises approximately 18% of the West Bank and Area B about 22%, together home to some 2.8 million Palestinians. As of 2015, Area C is home to 150,000 Palestinians in 532 residential areas. It is also home to 389,250 Israelis, in 135 settlements, as well as 100 outposts unrecognized by the Israeli government. Area C forms a contiguous territory, administered via the Judea and Samaria Area administration. In contrast, under the Oslo Accords Areas A and B were subdivided into 165 separate units of land that have no territorial contiguity.

Climate data for Oslo Blindern (1981–2010 normals; extremes since 1937)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.5
(54.5)
13.8
(56.8)
21.5
(70.7)
25.4
(77.7)
31.1
(88.0)
33.7
(92.7)
34.6
(94.3)
34.2
(93.6)
26.4
(79.5)
21.0
(69.8)
14.4
(57.9)
12.6
(54.7)
34.6
(94.3)
Average high °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
0.5
(32.9)
4.4
(39.9)
10.1
(50.2)
16.5
(61.7)
20.0
(68.0)
22.3
(72.1)
20.9
(69.6)
15.7
(60.3)
9.4
(48.9)
3.9
(39.0)
0.0
(32.0)
10.3
(50.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.0
(33.8)
5.9
(42.6)
11.6
(52.9)
15.3
(59.5)
17.7
(63.9)
16.6
(61.9)
11.9
(53.4)
6.6
(43.9)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
6.8
(44.2)
Average low °C (°F) −5.3
(22.5)
−5.3
(22.5)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.7
(35.1)
6.7
(44.1)
10.5
(50.9)
13.0
(55.4)
12.2
(54.0)
8.0
(46.4)
3.8
(38.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
−4.7
(23.5)
3.2
(37.8)
Record low °C (°F) −26.0
(−14.8)
−24.9
(−12.8)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−14.9
(5.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
0.7
(33.3)
3.7
(38.7)
3.7
(38.7)
−3.3
(26.1)
−8.0
(17.6)
−16.0
(3.2)
−20.8
(−5.4)
−26.0
(−14.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.9
(2.16)
41.0
(1.61)
50.4
(1.98)
46.9
(1.85)
54.1
(2.13)
70.5
(2.78)
84.7
(3.33)
97.8
(3.85)
80.6
(3.17)
90.4
(3.56)
79.1
(3.11)
52.4
(2.06)
802.7
(31.60)
Average precipitation days 9.8 7.3 8.5 8.1 8.5 10.1 10.9 10.9 9.4 10.9 10.7 9.2 114.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 45.7 78.7 130.5 163.8 243.5 229.7 242.1 210.9 147.3 89.6 65.9 39.4 1,687.1
Source #1: Météo Climat [47]
Source #2: Météo Climat [48]

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