Os Pinos (Galician pronunciation: [ʊs ˈpinʊs]; "The Pines") is the official anthem of Galicia, in Spain. The lyrics were written by Eduardo Pondal (the two first parts of his poem Queixumes dos pinos, "Lamentations of the Pines") and the music by Pascual Veiga. It was composed in Havana, Cuba, where it was performed for the first time in 1907. It was officially adopted by the Galician authorities in 1977.
|English: The Pines|
National anthem of Galicia, Spain
|Lyrics||Eduardo Pondal, 1907|
|Music||Pascual Veiga, 1907|
In WC1982, at the Poland vs Italy match at Vigo, Os Pinos was played mistakenly instead of Mazurek Dąbrowskiego; however, Mazurek Dąbrowskiego was played after the Italian anthem beside the Spanish one.
An anthem is a musical composition of celebration, usually used as a symbol for a distinct group, particularly the national anthems of countries. Originally, and in music theory and religious contexts, it also refers more particularly to short sacred choral work (still frequently seen in Sacred Harp and other types of shape note singing) and still more particularly to a specific form of Anglican church music.Anthems of the autonomous communities of Spain
Several of the 17 autonomous communities of the Kingdom of Spain, plus the 2 autonomous cities, have their own anthems, ranging from quasi-national anthems of the historical nationalities to regional anthems and songs, with some virtually unknown even in their own communities. Below is a list of those songs.Breogán
Breogán (also spelt Breoghan, Bregon or Breachdan) is a character in the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Christian history of Ireland and the Irish (or Gaels). He is supposedly the son of Brath, and is described as an ancestor of the Gaels. The Lebor Gabála purports to be an account of how the Gaels descend from Adam through the sons of Noah and how they came to Ireland.
It tells us that they spent 440 years wandering the Earth and underwent a series of trials and tribulations, which is based on the tale of the Israelites in the Old Testament. Eventually, they sail to Iberia and conquer it. There, one of their leaders, Breogán, founds a city called Brigantia and builds a great tower. From the top of the tower, his son Íth glimpses Ireland. The Gaels, including some of Breogán's sons, sail to Ireland from Brigantia and agree to divide it between them and the Tuatha Dé Danann, the Irish pagan gods, who take the Otherworld. Brigantia likely refers to A Coruña in present-day Galicia and Breogán's tower is likely based on the Tower of Hercules (which was built at A Coruña by the Romans) or the Tower of Babel. The idea that the Irish Gaels came from Hispania may be based on the similarity of the names Iberia and Hibernia and the names Galicia and Gael. Medieval pseudo-historians made similar claims about other nations based on their names. A similar story about a monk who voyaged to a marvelous island he saw from the top of the tower of Brigantia was written in the first years of the eleventh century in Galicia. The story, preserved in two 14th-century manuscripts, is known as Trezenzonii de Solistitionis Insula Magna ("Trezenzonius' Great Island of the Solstice"). His son was Bile, who was in turn the father of Milesius (also called Míl Espáine, soldier of Hispania or Spain), said to be the ancestor of the Irish people. Although this is generally regarded as myth, the conquering of Ireland by people coming from the Iberian peninsula in prehistoric times fits in with a genetic study conducted in 2006 at Oxford University, which concluded that the majority of people in the British Isles are actually descended from neolithic farmers coming from the coastal north regions of Spain.The Lebor Gabála was a hugely popular and influential work. Galicia itself is sometimes described poetically as the "Home" or "Nation" of Breogán (in Galician, the fogar or nazón de Breogán). The land is so described in the anthem of Galicia, "Os Pinos".
A large statue of Breogán stands near the Tower of Hercules in Coruña. The professional basketball club of the Galician city of Lugo is called CB Breogán in its honor. In the Spanish capital Madrid, there is a park called Parque de Breogán, named after this legendary figure.Eduardo Pondal
Eduardo María González-Pondal Abente (February 8, 1835 – March 8, 1917) was a Galician (Spain) poet, who wrote in both Galician and Spanish.
Of Hidalgo origin, Pondal was the youngest of a family of seven. From 1884 onwards he studied Latin in a school in Vilela de Nemiña which belonged to his cleric relative, Cristobal Lago. In 1848, he moved to Santiago de Compostela to study Philosophy and, afterwards, Medicine at University.
As a student, he was a regular at Liceo de Santo Agostiño, a place where literary debates took place. There, he was discovered as a poet during the banquet of Conxo. It was a banquet organized by liberal students in 1856 to honor "the third state", and where students rubbed shoulders with laborers. The toasts are retrospectively considered to have an important political meaning.
In 1860, Pondal completed his studies and began working as a doctor for the Spanish Army at Ferrol. He also published A Campana de Anllóns, his first poem in the Galician language.
In 1861, he opted for an official job working for the Crown. He got the job in Asturias, but he left it, and his career as a doctor.
He would soon retire and come back to the house of his family, where he lived with regular trips to Santiago de Compostela and A Coruña (Corunna), where he visited a library called A Cova Céltica, debating with Martínez Salazar, Manuel Murguía, Florencio Vaamonde, Martelo Paumán, Urbano Lugris and others. Through Murguía, Pondal would get to know James Macpherson's poetry, and decided to become the "bardo" (bard) of the Galician nation, becoming the guide and interpreter of the route it would follow.
He published Rumores de los pinos in 1877, a compilation of 21 poems in Galician and Spanish, which would become the basis for Queixumes dos pinos (1886). One of the poems in Galician, "Os pinos" (literally "The Pines") would become the lyrics for the Galician national anthem, with music by Pascual Veiga.
Pondal considered himself a "poet of freedom", wanting to raise his people. He imagined a past of freedom and independence, which he tried to recover with his poetry, renewing History. Unfortunately, Galician-Celtic mythology was almost completely lost in those days, so Pondal had to guess and re-invent it, based on Ossian's poetry, quotations from the Leabhar Gabala and Murguia's analysis. Pondal created a fragmentary mythology, using as his archetypes o Heroe (the hero) and o Bardo (the bard). He invented historic characters, like Ourens (trying to create a hero whose name would become the basis for the city of Ourense). Due to the poetic nature of his epic, Pondal's mythology would never become as complete or exhaustive as J. R. R. Tolkien's.
Pondal tried to restore the Galician language in a time in which it lacked social status. Nature and women are the keys of his production. From a linguistic perspective, Pondal tried to mix the populist style of the Galician of his time, with different scholarly terms in the lexicon and syntax.
He tried to write a long epic poem, Os Eoas, based on the discovery of the Americas, but he was never satisfied with his work and only published a first draft in 1858.
Pondal died in La Luguesa hotel in A Coruña on 8 March 1917. He was buried in San Amaro cemetery.
Galician Literature Day (Día das Letras Galegas) was dedicated to Pondal in its third year, 1965.Galicia (Spain)
Galicia (; Galician: Galicia [ɡaˈliθjɐ], Galiza [ɡaˈliθɐ]; Spanish: Galicia; Portuguese: Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the northwest Iberian Peninsula, it includes the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra.
Galicia is bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Cantabrian Sea to the north. It had a population of 2,701,743 in 2018 and a total area of 29,574 km2 (11,419 sq mi). Galicia has over 1,660 km (1,030 mi) of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, Cortegada, and the largest and most populated, A Illa de Arousa.
The area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, and takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, and was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD. In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga (Portugal); this kingdom was incorporated into that of the Visigoths in 585. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was occasionally ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and later to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century. The Governor also presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia. This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia. This resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and currently in force, providing Galicia with self-government.
The interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape; mountain ranges rise to 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in the east and south. The coastal areas are mostly an alternate series of rías and cliffs. The climate of Galicia is usually temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers; it is usually classified as Oceanic. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize. In 2018, the nominal gross domestic product was €62,900 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €23,300. Galicia is characterised, unlike other Spanish regions, by the absence of a metropolis dominating the territory. Indeed, the urban network is made up of 7 main cities (the four provincial capitals A Coruña, Pontevedra, Ourense and Lugo, the political capital Santiago de Compostela and the industrial cities Vigo and Ferrol) and other small towns. The population is largely concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, and in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo, Pontevedra, and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Lugo and Ourense. The political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817 (2016), while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227 (2014).Two languages are official and widely used today in Galicia: the native Galician, a Romance language closely related to Portuguese with which it shares the Galician-Portuguese medieval literature; and Spanish, usually known locally as Castilian. While most Galicians are bilingual, a 2013 survey reported that 51% of the Galician population spoke Galician most often on a day-to-day basis, while 48% most often used Spanish.Galicians
Galicians (Galician: galegos, Spanish: gallegos) are a Celtic-Romance ethnic group whose historic homeland is Galicia, in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. Two Romance languages are widely spoken and official in Galicia: the native Galician and, mainly because of political language suppression (one initiated by the Catholic Monarchs, the other with the dictatorship of General Franco), Castilian.List of anthems of non-sovereign states, regions, and territories
This is a list of anthems of non-sovereign states, regions, and dependent territories. U.S. states are omitted; their regional anthems can be found at List of U.S. state songs.Los Pinos (disambiguation)
Los Pinos is the official residence and office of the President of Mexico.
Los Pinos may also refer to:
Los Pinos Airstrip, in Baja California, Mexico
Los Pinos, New Mexico, a ghost town in the US
Los Pinos, Uruguay, a villageRepublic of Galicia
The Galician Republic (Galician: República Galega) was a European state. The republic was an ephemeral passage in the history of Galicia. It lasted only a few hours on 27 June 1931, a day ahead of the election to the Second Spanish Republic's Constitutional Assembly. On that date, left-nationalist leaders Pedro Campos Couceiro and Antón Alonso Ríos declared that full independence from Spain was the only way for Galicia to overcome its secular backwardness and to regain its national dignity. The temporary cancellation of railway construction connecting Zamora with Ourense was the immediate trigger of the events; however, the historic marginalization of the country – then overwhelmingly rural and Galician-speaking – was at the core of the movement, which negotiations between Spanish forces and the Galician instigators eventually defused. A number of leftist organizations and champions of Galician national sovereignty still celebrate the date.
National anthems of Europe