"Orwellian" is an adjective describing a situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free and open society. It denotes an attitude and a brutal policy of draconian control by propaganda, surveillance, misinformation, denial of truth (doublethink), and manipulation of the past, including the "unperson"—a person whose past existence is expunged from the public record and memory, practised by modern repressive governments. Often, this includes the circumstances depicted in his novels, particularly Nineteen Eighty-Four but political doublespeak is criticized throughout his work, such as in Politics and the English Language.
|What "Orwellian" really means - Noah Tavlin, 5:31, TED Ed|
"Alternative facts" was a phrase used by U.S. Counselor to the President Kellyanne Conway during a Meet the Press interview on January 22, 2017, in which she defended White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer's false statement about the attendance numbers of Donald Trump's inauguration as President of the United States. When pressed during the interview with Chuck Todd to explain why Spicer would "utter a provable falsehood", Conway stated that Spicer was giving "alternative facts". Todd responded, "Look, alternative facts are not facts. They're falsehoods."Conway's use of the phrase "alternative facts" for demonstrable falsehoods was widely mocked on social media and sharply criticized by journalists and media organizations, including Dan Rather, Jill Abramson, and the Public Relations Society of America. The phrase was extensively described as Orwellian. Within four days of the interview, sales of the book 1984 had increased by 9,500%, which The New York Times and others attributed to Conway's use of the phrase, making it the number-one bestseller on Amazon.com.Conway later defended her choice of words, defining "alternative facts" as "additional facts and alternative information".Australian science fiction television
Science fiction television has been produced in Australia since the 1960s, as a homegrown response to imported overseas US and British shows.
Artransa Park productions made a number of programmes in collaboration with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation on shoestring budgets, these generally running for one season and being aired on ABC TV. They included The Stranger (1964–65), The Interpretaris (1968), Vega 4 (1967), and Phoenix Five (1970). Phoenix Five was the best known of these. It resembled US shows like Star Trek without the budget and effects, but with a psychedelic rock soundtrack.
There was also Alpha Scorpio and this led to Andra. Adapted from the novel by Louise Lawrence, Andra won a 1976 Penguin Award for its quality production. The ABC claims to retain copies of Andra in its archives, but controversy surrounds this claim. Insiders claim the tapes were wiped by accident when they were sent to Malaysia.
The ABC produced one further Science Fiction series, the drama Timelapse, featuring Robert Colby and John Meillon in an Orwellian future.
More recently, Australia's most well known Science Fiction show was Farscape, made with American co-production. It ran from 1999 to 2003, and was filmed at Sydney's Fox Studios.
A significant proportion of Australian produced science fiction programmes are made for the teens/young Adults market, including The Girl from Tomorrow, Watch This Space, the long-running Mr. Squiggle, Halfway Across the Galaxy and Turn Left, Parallax, and the Jonathan M. Shiff Productions programmes Ocean Girl, Thunderstone, and Cybergirl.
The Australian Children's Television Foundation, a government initiative, produces a number of Science Fiction children's shows, including Spellbinder (in collaboration with Poland), The Miraculous Mellops, and The Crash Zone. A number of these are adaptations of children's books.
In the late 1990s, Community TV in Melbourne (Channel 31) screened the independent science fiction series, Damon Dark, about a government agent who investigates UFO reports and hunts alien invaders, which has gone on to become a webseries for YouTube.
The forthcoming television version of Star Wars will be a Lucasfilm production shot in Sydney.Other shows like Time Trax, Roar, and Space: Above and Beyond were filmed in Australia, but used mostly US crew and actors.Communications Data Bill 2008
The Communications Data Bill was intended to create powers to collect data concerning people's phone, e-mail and web-browsing habits for mass surveillance in the United Kingdom. The government database would have included telephone numbers dialed, the websites visited and addresses to which e-mails are sent but not the text of e-mails or recorded telephone conversations.Since October 2007 telecommunication companies have been required to keep records of phone calls and text messages for twelve months. The bill would have extended the coverage to Internet website visited, email messages, and VOIP data.Chris Huhne, Liberal Democrat Home affairs spokesman said at the time: "The government's Orwellian plans for a vast database of our private communications are deeply worrying."The plans were not completed during the Labour administration, but intentions to gain access to more communications data lived on under the coalition elected in 2010 as the Communications Capabilities Development Programme run by the Home Office's Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism. In 2012, a new Draft Communications Data Bill was published.Cowgirl (song)
"Cowgirl" is a song recorded by Underworld, originally released as a single in 1994. The track is from the band's 1994 album dubnobasswithmyheadman.
In Underworld's live performances, "Cowgirl" is often played with "Rez", as they share key elements and samples. The typical arrangement is to open with "Rez" and mix into "Cowgirl", with the "Rez" melody usually brought back at the climax. The track is usually labelled "Rez / Cowgirl" in fan-distributed bootlegs. This combination also appears on the live album Everything, Everything. Slant Magazine ranked the song number 27 in its 100 Greatest Dance Songs list, adding: "The jewel in the Orwellian dubnobasswithmyheadman’s crown was "Cowgirl"—everything, everything Underworld's thundering electronica has come to represent as a musical and political force."A key lyrical element in the song is Karl Hyde's repeated chant "Everything, everything."Desmond Briscoe
Harry Desmond Briscoe (21 June 1925 – 7 December 2006) was an English composer, sound engineer and studio manager. He was the co-founder and original manager of the pioneering BBC Radiophonic Workshop.
Born in Birkenhead, and a drama studio manager for the BBC in the 1950s, Briscoe began to develop an interest in the use of electronic and electroacoustic techniques as a source of material for productions. Along with Daphne Oram, he worked on the BBC Radio production of Samuel Beckett’s All That Fall (tx:13 January 1957), Giles Cooper's The Disagreeable Oyster (tx:15 August 1957), and Frederick Bradnum's Private Dreams and Public Nightmares (tx:7 October 1957). These works featured some of the earliest electronic effects used by the BBC and highlighted the need for a facility to provide such material.
In 1958, Briscoe and Oram founded the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, with a remit to provide material for use in BBC radio and television programmes. Some of his first work with the workshop involved providing sounds for the science-fiction serial Quatermass and the Pit (1958–59).To coincide with the opening of BBC Television Centre in 1960, his electronic arrangement of Eric Coates' Television March replaced the orchestral arrangement for the introduction to the 2.00pm BBC News bulletin. This was not met with universal approval, being described as "Orwellian" by one correspondent to the Radio Times, but it brought their work to wider notice on BBC Television.Under his direction the Workshop grew from being a small back room department to being one of the most acclaimed electronic studios in the world. He remained with the Workshop until 1983, although he stepped back from organisation duties in 1977. In 1983, with Roy Curtis-Bramwell, he wrote a retrospective of the Workshop entitled The First 25 Years: The BBC Radiophonic Workshop.
The 1969 BBC album Narrow Boats - Voices, Sounds and Songs of the Canals (REB 56M) was arranged and produced by Desmond Briscoe, and edited by Dick Mills of the Radiophonic Workshop, using recordings from the BBC Sound Archive.Dream Police (song)
"Dream Police" is a song written by Rick Nielsen and originally released in 1979 by the American rock band Cheap Trick. It is the first track on the group's album of the same name. The single peaked at #26 on the Billboard Hot 100. Nielsen has stated that the song "is an attempt to take a heavy thought - a quick bit of REM snatched right before waking up - and put into a pop format." Cheap Trick biographers Mike Hayes and Ken Sharp describe the song as "a magnificent tour-de-force, characterized by an addictively infectious chorus and jarring bursts of dissonance.Tom Maginnis of AllMusic described the song as "a tongue in cheek Orwellian nightmare" and that it represents "late-seventies power pop at its zenith." Maginnis also noted that "Dream Police" follows up on its B-side, "Heaven Tonight" (which had been released on a previous album), in that both songs represent dreams. Dave Marsh of Rolling Stone described the song as a "trash thriller like John Carpenter's Halloween," and also noted that it is "nearly as good as the earlier ones in which Cheap Trick used similar stylistic devices."In the 2007 book "Shake Some Action: The Ultimate Power Pop Guide", a section on Cheap Trick featured reviews on the top 20 stand-out tracks from the band. One track included was "Dream Police", where the author John M. Borack wrote "Entire careers have been built around lesser songs than this monster, which sits proudly alongside "Surrender" as the quintessential Cheap Trick song. Everything about it is perfect, from Zander's alternately cute and menacing vocal to Carlos's pounding drums to Nielsen's cracked spoken-word interlude. Oh, can't forget the instrumental build up heading back into the final chorus, which is pure genius."Entropy (anonymous data store)
Entropy was a decentralized, peer-to-peer communication network designed to be resistant to censorship, much like Freenet. Entropy was an anonymous data store written in the C programming language. It pooled the contributed bandwidth and storage space of member computers to allow users to anonymously publish or retrieve information of all kinds. The name Entropy was a backronym for "Emerging Network To Reduce Orwellian Potency Yield", referring to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four and its totalitarian thought police enslaving people by controlling their information.
Entropy was designed to be compatible with the similar Freenet system. As such, any Freenet client could be configured to run on the Entropy network. However, Entropy and Freenet data stores are not compatible with each other and therefore do not share data.
Entropy featured a news interface, for reading and posting on the latest frost message boards from within the client.Gary Botting
Gary Norman Arthur Botting (born 19 July 1943) is a Canadian legal scholar and criminal defense lawyer as well as a poet, playwright, novelist, and critic of literature and religion, in particular Jehovah's Witnesses. The author of 40 published books, he is one of the country's leading authorities on extradition law.
He is said to have had "more experience in battling the extradition system than any other Canadian lawyer."Heather Botting
Heather Denise Botting, née Harden, also known as Lady Aurora, born 21 September 1948, is a professor of anthropology at the University of Victoria in British Columbia. The original high priestess of Coven Celeste, she is a founding elder of the Canadian Aquarian Tabernacle Church and was the first recognized Wiccan chaplain in a public university.Interception Modernisation Programme
The Interception Modernisation Programme (IMP) is a UK government initiative to extend the government's capabilities for lawful interception and storage of communications data. It has been widely reported that the IMP's eventual goal is to store details of all UK communications data in a central database.The proposal is similar to the NSA Call Database (MAINWAY) established by GCHQ's American counterpart NSA and the Titan traffic database established by the Swedish National Defence Radio Establishment.In 2008 plans were being made to collect data on all phone calls, emails, chatroom discussions and web-browsing habits as part of the IMP, thought likely to require the insertion of 'thousands' of black box probes into the country’s computer and telephone networks. The proposals were expected to be included in the Communications Data Bill 2008. The "giant database" would include telephone numbers dialed, the websites visited and addresses to which e-mails are sent "but not the content of e-mails or telephone conversations." Chris Huhne, the Liberal Democrat Home affairs spokesman said: "The government's Orwellian plans for a vast database of our private communications are deeply worrying."The Home Office denied reports that a prototype of the IMP had already been built.Reports in April 2009 suggest that the government has changed its public stance to one of using legal measures to compel communications providers to store the data themselves, and making it available for government to access, with then Home Secretary Jacqui Smith stating that "there are absolutely no plans for a single central store."The new plans are thought to involve spending £2bn on paying ISPs to install deep packet inspection equipment within their own networks, and obliging them to perform the cross-correlation and profiling of their users' behaviour themselves, in effect achieving the original goals of the IMP by different means.
A detailed analysis was published by the Policy Engagement Network of the London School of Economics on 16 June 2009. The All Party Privacy Group held a hearing on IMP in the House of Commons on 1 July 2009.The UK's new coalition government has apparently revived the IMP in their recent Strategic Defence and Security Review. The new version of the IMP is known as the Communications Capabilities Development Programme.Jazz in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia’s jazz roots were established by Jaroslav Ježek and Rudolf Antonín Dvorský in the 1920s and 1930s. Ježek’s influence in this realm is particularly noted and by the time he immigrated to the United States in 1939, his compositions blending jazz and classical music were among the most popular music. After the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Nazis, however, jazz was banned and it was not until 1947 when the Australian jazz pianist Graeme Bell and his Dixieland Jazz Band performed at a World Youth Festival in Prague that the jazz movement was revived.
When this movement began, the Stalinists were opposed to it, but as Josef Škvorecký writes in his The Bass Saxophone, “Its name was Dixieland. A type of the cannibal-music with roots so patently folkloristic and often (the blues) so downright proletarian that even the most Orwellian falsifier of facts would be hard put to deny them”. Similar to the situation during World War II, jazz was developed by Africans and as such, regarded as trash. As this movement grew, it became increasingly intertwined with the growth of the dissident movement.
Among the underground intellectuals, jazz was the genre that was most identified with. As the cultural scene in Czechoslovakia heated up, the jazz scene expanded along with it. In 1964, the First Prague International Jazz Festival was held, bringing hip bands of the time. When the Prague Spring occurred, jazz continued its success as an independent form that attracted the youth in all their rebellion. It was the music that was played at clubs and numerous individual bands formed. As one sees in Škvorecký’s The Cowards, the day revolved around practicing jazz with the group and heroic daydreams. Even though the novel is set at the end of WWII, the books publishing in 1958 is clearly demonstrative of the excitement for jazz that is present at the time Škvorecký writes the novel.Joycean
A text is deemed Joycean when it is reminiscent of the writings of James Joyce, particularly Ulysses or Finnegans Wake. Joycean fiction exhibits a high degree of verbal play, usually within the framework of stream of consciousness. Works that are "Joycean" may also be technically eclectic, employing multiple technical shifts as a form of thematic or subject development. In this latter respect, it is not merely an opaque or evident technique, such as is characteristic of avant garde prose, but technical shifts that are meant to be recognized by the reader and considered as part of the narrative itself. More than anything, however, Joycean has come to denote a form of extreme verbal inventiveness which tends to push the English language towards multi-lingual polysemy or impenetrability. Joycean word play frequently seeks to imply linguistic and literary history on a single plane of communication. It therefore denies readers the simple denotative message traditional in prose in favor of the ambiguity and equivocal signification of poetry.
This is one of a whole series of adjectives based on authors' names, such as Brechtian, Kafkaesque, Orwellian and Pinteresque.Keep the Car Running
"Keep the Car Running" is a song by Canadian indie rock band Arcade Fire. It is the second single released from the band's second album, Neon Bible in the UK (while "Black Mirror" is the first in the US). This song was #22 on Rolling Stone's list of the 100 Best Songs of 2007. In October 2011, NME placed it at number 61 on its list "150 Best Tracks of the Past 15 Years".The single was released on 19 March 2007, on 7" vinyl with the B-side, "Broken Window", in the UK under Rough Trade Records. It peaked on the UK Singles Chart at number 56. The single was released in the US on 8 May 2007, under Merge Records. It is alternatively titled "Keep the Car Running/Broken Window". It peaked at number 32 on the Billboard Hot Modern Rock Tracks chart.
The band performed the song during their 24 February 2007 appearance on Saturday Night Live.
The lyrics of the song describe a man living in an Orwellian society. The man is afraid of death, but as the song progresses it becomes clear that he is afraid not of death, but of being forgotten ('the same place animals go when they die') He sings about keeping the car running, which is to say keep on remembering a time before a dictatorship.List of Newspeak words
A list of words from the fictional language Newspeak that appears in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Some of these words may not strictly be Newspeak, as many of the examples come from the internal jargon of the Ministry of Truth (which is said to be "not actually Newspeak, but consisting largely of Newspeak words").
artsem – artificial insemination
bb – Big Brother
bellyfeel – a blind, enthusiastic acceptance of an idea
blackwhite – the ability to believe that black is white, to know that black is white, and to forget that one has ever believed the contrary
crimestop – to rid oneself of unwanted thoughts, i.e., thoughts that interfere with the ideology of the Party. This way, a person avoids committing thoughtcrime
crimethink – Thoughtcrime, thoughts that are unorthodox or outside the official government platform (or the crime of thinking such thoughts)
dayorder – Order of the day
doubleplusgood - Replaces excellent, best and benevolent
doubleplusungood - Replaces terrible and worst
doublethink – the act of simultaneously accepting two mutually contradictory beliefs as correct
duckspeak – Voicing political orthodoxies without thinking, lit. "to quack like a duck"
equal – Only in the sense of physically equal, like equal height/size, etc. It does not mean socially – politically or economically – equal, since there is no such concept as political equality in Ingsoc's permanent oligarchical hierarchy. In keeping with doublethink, Ingsoc is also classless and egalitarian, so there is also no concept of social inequality.
facecrime – An indication that a person is guilty of thoughtcrime based on their facial expression
free – Meaning Negative freedom (without) in a physical sense, only in statements like "This dog is free from lice", as the concepts of "political freedom" and "intellectual freedom" do not exist in Newspeak
full – (the adverb fullwise appears in the Records Department's written orders)
good – (Can also be used as a prefix vaguely meaning "orthodox")
goodthink – thoughts that are approved by the Party and follow its policies, ideals and interpretations. It is the opposite of crimethink
goodsex – intercourse between man and wife, for the sole purpose of begetting children and without physical pleasure
ingsoc – English Socialism
joycamp – Forced labour camp
malquoted – flaws or inaccurate presentations of Party or Big Brother-related matters by the press. See misprints below
miniluv – "Ministry of Love" (secret police, interrogation and torture)
minipax – "Ministry of Peace" (Ministry of War, cf: 'Department of Defense' vs 'War Department')
minitrue – "Ministry of Truth" (propaganda and altering history, culture and entertainment)
miniplenty – "Ministry of Plenty" (keeping the population in a state of constant economic hardship)
misprints – Errors or mispredictions which need to be rectified in order to prove that the Party is always right. See malquoted above
oldspeak – English; perhaps any language that is not Newspeak
oldthink – Ideas inspired by events or memories of times prior to the Revolution
ownlife – the tendency to enjoy being solitary or individualistic
plusgood – replaces the words better and great. Refers to good compliance with Party orthodoxy.
pornosec – subunit of the Fiction Department of the Ministry of Truth that produces pornography
prolefeed – The steady stream of mindless entertainment to distract and occupy the masses
recdep – "Records Department" (division of the Ministry of Truth that deals with the rectification of records; department in which Winston works)
rectify – used by the Ministry of Truth as a euphemism for the deliberate alteration (or 'correction') of the past
ref – To refer (to)
sec – Sector
sexcrime – any and all sexual activity which is not specifically goodsex
speakwrite – An instrument used by Party members to note or "write" down information by speaking into an apparatus as a faster alternative to an "ink pencil". It is, for example, used in the Ministry of Truth by the protagonist Winston Smith. Speakwrites are also apparently able to record everything that is spoken into the device
telescreen – television and security camera-like devices used by the ruling Party in Oceania to keep its subjects under constant surveillance
thinkpol – the Thought Police
thoughtcrime – the criminal act of holding unspoken beliefs or doubts that oppose or question Ingsoc
Unperson – someone of whom, after his or her execution, any evidence [up to and including memories] that he or she ever existed was erased [or derided as potentially dangerous falsehoods].
upsub – submit to higher authority. In one scene in the novel, Winston Smith is instructed to alter a document to conform with the Party line, and submit it to his superiors before filing it: rewrite fullwise upsub antefilingThe Man with the Magic Box
The Man with the Magic Box (Polish: Człowiek z magicznym pudełkiem) is a science fiction dystopia thriller film directed by Polish film director Bodo Kox. The film is set in 2030 of Orwellian Poland and involves elements of time travel to the times of Communist Poland of 1950s.The Zero Theorem
The Zero Theorem is a 2013 British-French-Romanian science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam, written by Pat Rushin, and starring Christoph Waltz, Lucas Hedges, Mélanie Thierry, and David Thewlis. The story centres on Qohen Leth (Waltz), a reclusive computer genius working on a formula to determine whether life holds any meaning.
Gilliam has given conflicting statements about whether his personal view is that the film serves as the third part of a satirical dystopian trilogy or "Orwellian triptych" begun with 1985's Brazil and continued with 1995's 12 Monkeys.The film began production in October 2012.Thoughtcrime
A thoughtcrime is an Orwellian neologism used to describe an illegal thought. The term was popularized in the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell, first published in 1949, wherein thoughtcrime is the criminal act of holding unspoken beliefs or doubts that oppose or question Ingsoc, the ruling party. In the book, the government attempts to control not only the speech and actions, but also the thoughts of its subjects. To entertain unacceptable thoughts is known as crimethink (or wrongthink) in Newspeak, the ideologically purified dialect of the party. Crimestop is a way to avoid crimethink by immediately purging dangerous thoughts from the mind.
The term has been adopted into the English language to describe beliefs contrary to accepted norms and has retrospectively been used to describe some theological concepts such as disbelief or idolatry, or a rejection of strong philosophical or social principles.Tribal Machine
Tribal Machine is an industrial rock band from Victoria, led by musician and author Sever Bronny.USA Freedom Corps
USA Freedom Corps was a White House office and fifth policy council (along with Domestic, Economic, National Security, and Homeland Security) within the Executive Office of the President of the United States under George W. Bush, who as President served as its chair. Bush announced its creation during his 2002 State of the Union Address, and the Corps was officially established the next day (30 January), describing itself as a "Coordinating Council... working to strengthen our culture of service and help find opportunities for every American to start volunteering."A USA Freedom Corps Network and online clearinghouse promoted individual volunteer service opportunities within the United States and abroad and connected Americans to opportunities to serve in federal programs, such as AmeriCorps, Peace Corps, and Senior Corps, or to find local service opportunities by zip code and interest. The council and office were also involved with U.S. federal government service programs and provided new support for these existing programs. AmeriCorps grew from 50,000 to 75,000 in 2004. The Peace Corps reached its highest levels in more than 30 years. Freedom Corps also created new programs such as the Citizen Corps for homeland security, Volunteers for Prosperity for international volunteering, and a President's Council on Service and Civic Participation, which promoted the new President's Volunteer Service Award.
Henry C. Lozano was Deputy Assistant to the President and Director of USA Freedom Corps from September 11, 2007 until July 25, 2008. He was preceded by Desiree Thompson Sayle and succeeded by Alison T. Young. The first director of the program was John Bridgeland, previously director of the Domestic Policy Council on George W. Bush's White House staff.
The USA Freedom Corps also announced it has begun to work "with educators and others to help increase civic awareness and participation" across the United States and hosted a White House Summit on American History, Civics and Service, resulting in new initiatives to support civic education at the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Archives. In his 2003 State of the Union Address, President Bush also announced that his USA Freedom Corps would provide new support school-based and community-based mentoring, including mentoring children of prisoners, working in partnership with his faith-based initiative. The goal to reach 100,000 children of prisoners with mentors was met.
Created within months of the 2001 September 11 attacks, the body sought in part to encourage volunteer participation in homeland security.
USA Freedom Corps put in place the first annual measurement of volunteer service at the Census Bureau. Volunteering rose from 59.8 million Americans from September 2001 to 65.4 million Americans by September 2005, sustaining the wave of volunteering that occurred after the terrorist attacks of 9/11.In a commentary on the right-wing website NewsMax.com, Miguel A. Faria Jr. attacked the program as statist and collectivist, a "bureaucratic boondoggle" that might evolve into "compulsory service," and the name "USA Freedom Corps" as an instance of Orwellian Newspeak. Meanwhile, in a piece on the left-wing magazine American Prospect's site, Jeremy Lott critically linked the announcement of the Corps' creation to the controversial Operation TIPS, a program encouraging citizens to report 'suspicious activity'.The Corps came to international attention on January 3, 2005, when George W. Bush named former presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton to lead a major campaign, through the Corps, to raise funds from private individuals and businesses to provide humanitarian support for victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. President Obama followed the USA Freedom Corps model by tapping Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton to lead the fundraising efforts in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
Key components of the USA Freedom Corps have been continued under the administration of President Obama, including the Volunteers for Prosperity program that was authorized under the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act; the Citizen Corps for homeland security and its component programs—Volunteers in Police Service, Medical Reserve Corps, Community Emergency Response Teams, Fire Corps, and Citizen Corps Councils—the President's Volunteer Service Award; and the White House USA Freedom Corps office, now called the White House Office of Social Innovation and Civic Participation. The White House Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, which was under the USA Freedom Corps, was also continued by President Obama as the Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships.