In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc. This contrasts with orthodoxy, which emphasizes correct belief, and ritualism, the practice of rituals. The word is a neoclassical compound—ὀρθοπραξία (orthopraxia) meaning 'correct practice'.
While orthodoxies make use of codified beliefs, in the form of creeds, and ritualism more narrowly centers on the strict adherence to prescribed rites or rituals, orthopraxy is focused on issues of family, cultural integrity, the transmission of tradition, sacrificial offerings, concerns of purity, ethical system, and the enforcement thereof.
Typically, traditional or folk religions (paganism, animism) are more concerned with orthopraxy than orthodoxy, and some argue that equating the term "faith" with "religion" presents a Christian-biased notion of what the primary characteristic of religion is. This contrasts with the case of (for example) Hinduism, in which orthopraxy and ritualism are not easily disentangled. Judaism is also considered both a religion and orthopraxy as it guides its adherents in both practice and belief.
From the Greek orthos "straight" + praxis "action", first used in 1851, there are two versions of the term: "orthopraxis" and "orthopraxy". "Orthopraxy" is the older and more common term, and is parallel to "orthodoxy".
Although traditionally Christianity is seen as primarily orthodoxical (as in the Nicene Creed's "I believe in ..."), some Christian denominations and leaders today, from Roman Catholic to Evangelical Christians, have started to describe their religions as both orthodoxical and orthopraxic. The premise is correct belief compels correct action, and incorrect action is caused by incorrect beliefs.
Taking this combination of "correct belief" and "correct action" a step further, prosperity theology, found in charismatic and Pentecostal traditions, teaches correct religious belief and behavior receives material reward and physical healing, in addition to being a necessary component for accepting God's grace. Prosperity theology is a concept known as reciprocity when discussing traditional or ethnic religions such as that in Ancient Greece, but is limited to correct behavior over any one theological idea.
The applicability of biblical law in Christianity is disputed. Most Christians believe that some or all of the Ten Commandments are still binding or have been reinstituted in the law of Christ. A minority of Christians are Torah-observant and at the other extreme are antinomian and Christian anarchistic views.
Praxis is a key to understanding the Byzantine tradition, which is observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and some Eastern Catholic Churches. This is because praxis is the basis of the understanding of faith and works as conjoint, without separating the two. The importance of praxis, in the sense of action, is indicated in the dictum of Saint Maximus the Confessor: "Theology without action is the theology of demons."
Union with God, to which Christians hold that Jesus invited man, requires not just faith, but correct practice of faith. This idea is found in the Scriptures (1 Cor 11:2, 2 Thes 2:14) and the Church Fathers, and is linked with the term praxis in Byzantine theology and vocabulary. In the context of Orthodoxy, praxis is mentioned opposite theology, in the sense of 'theory and practice'. Rather, it is a word that means, globally, all that Orthodox do. Praxis is 'living Orthodoxy'.
Praxis is perhaps most strongly associated with worship. "Orthopraxis" is said to mean "right glory" or "right worship"; only correct (or proper) practice, particularly correct worship, is understood as establishing the fulness glory given to God. This is one of the primary purposes of liturgy (divine labor), the work of the people. Some Byzantine sources maintain that in the West, Christianity has been reduced "to intellectual, ethical or social categories," whereas right worship is fundamentally important in our relationship to God, forming the faithful into the Body of Christ and providing the path to "true religious education." A "symbiosis of worship and work" is considered to be inherent in Byzantine praxis.
In the case of Hinduism orthopraxy and ritualism are conflated. Emphasis on ritual vs. personal salvation (moksha) was a major division in classical Hindu philosophy, epitomized by Purva Mimamsa vs. Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanta).
Ritual (puja) continues to play a central role in contemporary Hinduism, but the enormous complexity of ancient ritual (yajna) only survives in a tiny minority of Shrauta practitioners. Even Hindus who diligently practice a subset of prescribed rituals are called orthoprax, to contrast them with other Hindus who insist on the importance of correct belief or understanding. The correctness of one's interpretation of the scripture is then considered less important than following traditions. For example, Srinivasa Ramanujan was a well-known example of an orthoprax Hindu.
In terms of "proper conduct" and other ethical precepts within the Hindu framework, the core belief involves the divinity of each individual soul (jivatma). Each person harbors this "indwelling God (divinity)"; thus, conduct which unifies society and facilitates progress is emphasized. Self-centered existence is discouraged as a result of this jivatma concept. The Uttara Mimamsa philosophical school explicates this concept eloquently. Moreover, within the context of Uttara Mimamsa the role of puja (ritual) also involves bringing the individual jivatma closer to the Paramatma (the Transcendent Divinity or God). Individuals who have attained this merging then become the spiritual guides to the community. Later developments within the Hindu religious and philosophic tradition thus try to unify these concepts of ritual, proper conduct, and personal salvation instead of leaving them in mutually conflicting terms. The movement inspired by Pandurang Shastri Athavale termed Swadhyaya seems to be one manifestation of this syncretism. However, other movements within the contemporary Hindu scene are also moving towards this union of external activity and internal development.
Islam generally stresses orthopraxy over orthodoxy, but since the practice is held to come from doctrine, this is essentially orthodoxy applied to practice.
Jain orthopraxy is based on two factors: Jain siddhanta (teachings of the Tirthankara) and kriya (practices prevalent at the time of the Tirthankaras). According to Jains, the Tirthankaras based their teachings and philosophy after knowing the realities on this universe (like dravya and tattva). Based on these realities, they propounded true and eternal principles like ahimsa, truth, karma etc. that govern the universe. Jain rituals were codified on the basis of these principles to give effect to the teachings of the Tirthankaras.
Judaism attaches primary importance to the practice of the mitzvot, and that each act of daily life comply with the ethical and ritual teachings of the Torah. However, these gestures are intended to be motivated by the system of values and ethics of which they are a part, so that orthodoxy is not seen as simply a way of thinking according to established dogmas.
Moreover, Maimonides codifies his 13 principles of faith as a binding theological dogma, and according to Maimonides some laws of the Torah require the acceptance of certain basic beliefs, such as the first and second positive commandments in Maimonides' Sefer Hamitzvot, which mandate the belief in God and his indivisible unity, or the recitation of the Shema. Maimonides' codification of Jewish law even contains a section entitled Yesodei HaTorah, which delineates the required beliefs of Judaism.
And yet, there is a small group of Jews in the orthodox world who argue that the nature of Judaism is orthoprax, such as Jeffrey Radon, a teacher of Jewish studies who has an internet site, Orthoprax Judaism, devoted to Jewish studies in a democratic spirit,. Jeffrey Radon is also the author of two books - one on the orthoprax nature of the Hebrew Bible "Reconciling a Contradictory Abraham", and the other on the orthoprax nature of the Jewish tradition "Exposing the Distortion of Orthodox Dogma and Ideology". Radon argues that Maimonides codification of principles of belief as a binding theological dogma was not only an innovation but a distortion of the ancient Jewish tradition based upon the Bible and the Talmud (and that Maimonides was aware that his codification of a binding dogma was a distortion, and he codified such a dogma only for the unlearned Jewish masses to strengthen them as Christians and Muslims had codified such dogma) as there is no binding theological dogma in the Bible or in the Talmudic literature (and fundamental beliefs of the Bible or Talmudic literature do not have the status of binding dogma), and the commandments of the Torah as the basis of Jewish law are according to Jewish tradition commandments of doing and not doing (and not of believing or not believing). Israel Drazin, a former army chaplain and rabbi recently came out in support of the idea that the nature of Judaism is orthoprax.
British Traditional Wicca is highly orthopraxic, with "traditions" (as denominations in Wicca are called) being precisely that—defined by what is traditionally done, rather than shared beliefs. Other Neopagans may or may not share this quality, as noted by James R. Lewis, who draws a distinction between "Religious Neo-Pagans" and "God/dess Celebrants." Lewis states the majority of the Neopagan movement is strongly opposed to Religionist traditions that incorporate any form of orthopraxy or orthodoxy. In fact, many Neopagan organizations, when discussing orthopraxy, limit themselves solely to ritualism.
Reconstructionist religions make full use of orthopraxy, defining their practices as a lifestyle, and identifying correct action as living life in accord with specific ideals and principles, rather than focusing solely on ritual or promoting a single cosmology, metaphysical idea, or theological theory as absolute truth.
(1) the study of religious or magical rites and ceremonies; (2) exaggerated emphasis on the importance of rites or ritualistic forms in worship
The pagan religion was about orthopraxy, doing the customs correctly. Your "believerhood" at a temple had more to do with entering the temple and walking three times about the idol and making your image and reciting the inscription on the wall, which was how they did it in the Roman temples.
Proper behavior in Asatru consists of maximizing one's virtues and minimizing one's vices.
(Celtic Recostructionism is) grounded in traditional Celtic virtues which should be embraced, adopted, and integrated into one’s daily life.
We have included the ancient Roman Virtues as an accompaniment to spiritual practice as we feel that they are conducive to the fulfillment of one's higher self.
We do not just strive for a superficial return to the 'ancient ways', but on the contrary, for the return of a different kind of person, Hellenic Man, who will be governed by humanistic values, as were first expressed and exhibited by our ancestors. A type of man who will journey on the path of Virtue.
Practicing Kemetic Orthodoxy requires a commitment to preserving the cultural heritage established in the past which Kemetic Orthodoxy continues to represent, even in places and times well removed from its original practice.
Our concern is with humanity and the natural world, and we leave open questions relating to the absolute nature of the Gods, Absolute Reality, and Divine Truth to individual personal interpretation.
Aki Nawaz (born Haq Nawaz Qureshi) is a British singer and musician and part of the band Fun-Da-Mental. He is best known for his controversial lyrics.Ali-Illahism
Ali Illahism (Persian: علیاللّهی) is a syncretic religion which has been practiced in parts of Iranian Luristan which combines elements of Shia Islam with older religions. It centers on the belief that there have been successive incarnations of the Deity throughout history, and Ali Ilahees reserve particular reverence for Ali, the son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who is considered one such incarnation. Various rites have been attributed as Ali Ilahian, similarly to the Yezidis, Ansaris, and all sects whose doctrine is unknown to the surrounding Muslim and Christian population. Observers have described it as an agglomeration of the customs and rites of several earlier religions, including Zoroastrianism, historically because travelogues were "evident that there is no definite code which can be described as Ali Illahism".Sometimes Ali-Illahism is used as a general term for the several denominations that venerate or deify Ali, like the Kaysanites, the Alawis or the Ahl-e Haqq/Yarsanis, others to mean the Ahl-e Haqq.Charismatic Episcopal Church
The Charismatic Episcopal Church, more officially known as the International Communion of the Charismatic Episcopal Church (ICCEC), is an international Christian denomination established as an autocephalous communion in 1992. The ICCEC states that it is not a splinter group of any other denomination or communion, but is a convergence of the sacramental, evangelical, and charismatic traditions that it perceives in the church from the apostolic era until present times.
The founders of the ICCEC drew inspiration from a diverse group of 20th century Christian church leaders and thinkers, particularly Alexander Schmemann (Orthodox, Russian diaspora), Lesslie Newbigin (Church of South India), Robert E. Webber (Anglican), Robert Jenson (Lutheran), and Thomas Oden (United Methodist); from the patristic fathers of the undivided Christian East and West; and from the doctrine and life of the early medieval priest-monks and bishops of Ireland, Scotland, England, and Gaul (represented by Caesarius of Arles, Columba of Iona, Aidan of Lindisfarne, Chad of Mercia, and Patrick), whom they saw as embodying a fatherly, sacramental, and Spirit-expectant leadership for their congregations.
The ICCEC's founding congregations were independent churches with roots in the Charismatic, Pentecostal, Wesleyan and Third Wave Evangelical movements. The ICCEC claims its apostolic succession via Timothy Michael Barker, the leader of the International Free Catholic Communion and the Rebiban line via the schismatic Roman Catholic bishop Carlos Duarte Costa, who founded the Catholic Apostolic National Church of Brazil.
The Charismatic Episcopal Church believes orthodoxy and orthopraxy to be the essence of the apostolic faith of the New Testament Church and holds the ancient Apostles' and Nicene Creeds as their official doctrinal statements. The ICCEC is not, nor has it ever been, affiliated with the Episcopal Church (ECUSA). The word episcopal is used to describe its hierarchy of bishops (see table). Many churches in the ICCEC, however, claim an Anglican identity and many use the American Book of Common Prayer (1979). A new sacramentary, now in broad trial use, contains modified Roman, Anglican, and Eastern rites.
Pentecostal scholar H. Vinson Synan reports that the ICCEC is the first church emerging from the Pentecostal-Charismatic revivals of the last century to use the term "Charismatic" in its official name.Christian theological praxis
Christian theological praxis is a term used by most liberation theologians to express how the Gospel of Jesus Christ is to be lived in the world.Christianity and Judaism
Christianity is rooted in Second Temple Judaism, but the two religions diverged in the first centuries of the Christian Era. Christianity emphasizes correct belief (or orthodoxy), focusing on the New Covenant as mediated through Jesus Christ, as recorded in the New Testament. Judaism places emphasis on correct conduct (or orthopraxy), focusing on the Mosaic covenant, as recorded in the Torah and Talmud.
Christians believe in individual salvation from sin through receiving Jesus Christ as their Lord (God) and savior. Jews believe in individual and collective participation in an eternal dialogue with God through tradition, rituals, prayers and ethical actions. Christianity generally believes in a Triune God, one person of whom became human. Judaism emphasizes the Oneness of God and rejects the Christian concept of God in human form.Eros
In Greek mythology, Eros (UK: , US: ; Ancient Greek: Ἔρως, "Desire") is the Greek god of love. His Roman counterpart was Cupid ("desire"). Normally, he is described as one of the children of Aphrodite and Ares and, with some of his siblings, was one of the Erotes, a group of winged love gods. In some traditions, he is described as one of the primordial gods.Gil Fronsdal
Gil Fronsdal is a Norwegian-born, American Buddhist teacher, writer and scholar based in Redwood City, California. He has been practicing Buddhism of the Sōtō Zen and Vipassanā sects since 1975, and is currently teaching the practice of Buddhism in the San Francisco Bay Area. Having been taught by the Vipassanā practitioner Jack Kornfield, Fronsdal is part of the Vipassanā teachers' collective at Spirit Rock Meditation Center. He was ordained as a Sōtō Zen priest at the San Francisco Zen Center in 1982, and was a Theravāda monk in Burma in 1985. In 1995, he received Dharma transmission from Mel Weitsman, the abbot of the Berkeley Zen Center.He is the guiding teacher of the Insight Meditation Center (IMC) of Redwood City. He has a PhD in Buddhist Studies from Stanford University. His many dharma talks available on line contain basic information on meditation and Buddhism, as well as subtle concepts of Buddhism explained at the level of the lay person.Fronsdal has been credited with identifying "what is perhaps the basic formula of success for any Buddhist group in America: 'spiritual' practice (that is, meditation) removed from Asian cultural expressions". Fronsdal has also been noted for his "analysis of the transformed role of sila (morality) in the western Insight Meditation Movement" and his view that the popularity of vipassana meditation in middle-class America is related to its message of "orthopraxy" (right action) and its lack of cultural and historical "baggage". His work has also been cited as a means by which First Nations people might "change the reality of internalized oppression to the reality of peace" while his 2005 translation of the Dhammapada has been included in a suggested reading list for teaching college students about happiness.
In a 2011 discussion of the meaning of mindfulness, the American Theravada Buddhist monk Bhikkhu Bodhi cited Fronsdal in the following passage as "neatly" summarizing the difference between traditional Buddhist practice and that being taught in the West: Rather than stressing world-renunciation, they [Western lay teachers] stress engagement with, and freedom within the world. Rather than rejecting the body, these Western teachers embrace the body as part of the holistic field of practice. Rather than stressing ultimate spiritual goals such as full enlightenment, ending the cycles of rebirth, or attaining the various stages of sainthood, many Western teachers tend to stress the immediate benefits of mindfulness and untroubled, equanimous presence in the midst of life’s vicissitudes.This approach has been described as having traditional forms of Buddhism "being expanded upon rather than rejected", with Fronsdal cited as calling on Vipassana teachers "to study traditional Buddhism, not in order to adopt it wholesale but to be more conscious about what is and is not adopted and to take more responsibility for assumptions and intentions underlying innovation". As such, Fronsdal is recognized as presenting meditation as "the heart of the Buddhist path" with the traditional Buddhist values of loving-kindness, ethics, and generosity as key elements in a mindfulness-based, spiritual life among practitioners who are more likely to describe their involvement as "spiritual" rather than "religious".In 2008 Peter Dale Scott, the Canadian-born poet and professor emeritus of English at the University of California, Berkeley, published a poem dedicated to Fronsdal entitled Breathing exercise: a how-to poem.Hellenism (religion)
Hellenism (Greek: Ἑλληνισμός, Ἑllēnismós), the Hellenic ethnic religion (Ἑλληνικὴ ἐθνική θρησκεία), also commonly known as Hellenismos, Hellenic Polytheism, Dodekatheism (Δωδεκαθεϊσμός), or Olympianism (Ὀλυμπιανισμός), comprises various religious movements that revive or reconstruct ancient Greek religious practices, which have publicly emerged since the 1990s.
The Hellenic religion is a traditional religion and way of life, revolving around the Greek Gods, primarily focused on the Twelve Olympians, and embracing ancient Hellenic values and virtues.
In 2017, Hellenism was legally recognized as a "known religion" in Greece, granting it certain religious freedoms in that country, including the freedom to open houses of worship and for clergy to officiate weddings.Iatromantis
Iatromantis is a Greek word whose literal meaning is most simply rendered "physician-seer," or "medicine-man". The iatromantis, a form of Greek shaman, is related to other semimythical figures such as Abaris, Aristeas, Epimenides, and Hermotimus.
In the classical period, Aeschylus uses the word to refer to Apollo and to Asclepius, Apollo's son.According to Peter Kingsley, iatromantis figures belonged to a wider Greek and Asian shamanic tradition with origins in Central Asia. A main ecstatic, meditative practice of these healer-prophets was incubation (ἐγκοίμησις, enkoimesis). More than just a medical technique, incubation reportedly allowed a human being to experience a fourth state of consciousness different from sleeping, dreaming, or ordinary waking: a state that Kingsley describes as “consciousness itself” and likens to the turiya or samādhi of the Indian yogic traditions. Kingsley identifies the Greek pre-Socratic philosopher Parmenides as an iatromantis. This identification has been described by Oxford academic Mitchell Miller as "fascinating" but also as "very difficult to assess as a truth claim".Jewish views on sin
Judaism regards the violation of any of the 613 commandments as a sin. Judaism teaches that to sin is a part of life, since there is no perfect man and everyone has an inclination to do evil "from his youth". Sin has many classifications and degrees. Some sins are punishable with death by the court, others with death by heaven, others with lashes, and others without such punishment, but no sins committed with willful intentions go without consequence. Sins committed out of lack of knowledge are not considered sins, since a sin can't be a sin if the one who did it didn't know it was wrong. Unintentional sins are considered less severe sins.Sins between people are considered much more severe in Judaism than sins between man and God. Yom Kippur, the main day of repentance in Judaism, can atone for sins between man and God, but not for sins between man and his fellow, that is until he has appeased his friend. Eleazar ben Azariah derived [this from the verse]: "From all your sins before God you shall be cleansed" (Book of Leviticus, 16:30) – for sins between man and God Yom Kippur atones, but for sins between man and his fellow Yom Kippur does not atone until he appeases his fellow.When the Temple yet stood in Jerusalem, people would offer Karbanot (sacrifices) for their misdeeds. The atoning aspect of karbanot is carefully circumscribed. For the most part, karbanot only expiate unintentional sins, that is, sins committed because a person forgot that this thing was a sin or by error. No atonement is needed for violations committed under duress or through lack of knowledge, and for the most part, karbanot cannot atone for a malicious, deliberate sin. In addition, karbanot have no expiating effect unless the person making the offering sincerely repents of his or her actions before making the offering, and makes restitution to any person who was harmed by the violation.The completely righteous (means a man who did nothing wrong in his life) enjoy in this life and in the life after. The not completely righteous or completely wicked suffer for their sins in this world in order to atone for their sins through the humiliation, poverty, and suffering that God sends them. If the repentance is not complete in this world, the suffering will continue in the life after (hell). After the repentance is complete they join the righteous. The completely wicked (a man who did nothing good in his life) cannot correct their sins in this world or in the other, and hence do not suffer for them here, but in gehinom (hell). The very evil do not repent even at the gates of hell. Such people prosper in this world to receive their reward for any good deed, but cannot be cleansed by and hence cannot leave gehinom, because they don't or can't repent. This world can therefore seem unjust where the righteous suffer, while the wicked prosper. Many great thinkers have contemplated this, but God's justice is long, precise and just.Mormon spectrums of orthodoxy and practice
Various spectrums of beliefs or practice within Mormonism accounts for categories of Mormons possessing faith or skepticism regarding various and sundry doctrines of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the mainstream LDS Church), or pertaining to issues of orthopraxy/heteropraxy, among those identifying as Mormon. Also, people partake of Mormon culture to some degree as a result of having been raised in the LDS Church or else having converted and spent a large portion of one's life as an active member of the LDS Church. Such "cultural" Mormons may or may not be actively involved with the church. In some cases may not even be, or have ever been, official members of the church.
Many cultural Mormons possess a strongly Mormon identity and abide with an appreciation for the lessons and the love they have received in the course of long church membership. Cultural Mormons do not necessarily hold anti-Mormon sentiments and often support the goals of the church. Many retain a sense of Mormon identity for life.
Both secular Mormons and progressive Mormons are sometimes referred to as on the left side of the religious spectrums; the more typical mainstream Mormons, in the center; and religious Mormons dissidents who disagree with certain changes to "original teachings" within Mormonism, on the right. Segments of the right include both fundamentalist Mormons and dissidents who participate in the Remnant movement.Organized religion
Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established. Organized religion is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices.Ortho
Ortho is a Greek prefix meaning “straight”, “upright”, “right” or “correct”.
Ortho may refer to:
arene substitution patterns, two substituents that occupy adjacent positions on an aromatic ring
Chlordane, an organochlorine compound that was used as a pesticideIn medicine:
Orthomyxovirus, a family of viruses to which influenza belongs
Orthodontics, a specialty of dentistry concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions
Orthopedic, the study of the musculoskeletal system
Ortho-DOT, a psychedelic drug
Ortho-cept and Ortho Tri-cyclen, kinds of oral contraceptive drugIn theology:
Orthodoxy, right (correct) belief
Orthopraxy, right (correct) actionIn business:
Ortho Pharmaceutical, which merged into Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical before being bought by Johnson & Johnson
Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, another subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson
Ortho, a lawn care and pesticide company owned by The Scotts Miracle-Gro CompanyOrthodoxy
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion. In the Christian sense the term means "conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church." The first seven ecumenical councils were held between the years of 325 and 787 with the aim of formalizing accepted doctrines.
In some English-speaking countries, Jews who adhere to all the traditions and commandments as legislated in the Talmud are often called Orthodox Jews, although the term "orthodox" historically first described Christian beliefs.Pharmakos
A pharmakós (Greek: φαρμακός, plural pharmakoi) in Ancient Greek religion was the ritualistic sacrifice or exile of a human scapegoat or victim.Polytheistic reconstructionism
Polytheistic reconstructionism (or simply Reconstructionism) is an approach to modern paganism first emerging in the late 1960s to early 1970s, which gathered momentum starting in the 1990s. Reconstructionism attempts to re-establish historical polytheistic religions in the modern world, in contrast with neopagan syncretic movements like Wicca, and "channeled" movements like Germanic mysticism or Theosophy.
While the emphasis on historical accuracy may imply historical reenactment, the desire for continuity in ritual traditions (orthopraxy) is a common characteristic of religion in general, as seen in Anglican ritualism, or in much Christian liturgy.Praxis (process)
Praxis (from Ancient Greek: πρᾶξις, romanized: praxis) is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized. "Praxis" may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practicing ideas. This has been a recurrent topic in the field of philosophy, discussed in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, Francis Bacon, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, Martin Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, Paulo Freire, Ludwig von Mises, and many others. It has meaning in the political, educational, spiritual and medical realms.Tujia people
The Tujia (Northern Tujia: Bifzivkar, IPA: /pi˧˥ tsi˥ kʰa˨˩/; Southern Tujia: Mongrzzir /mõ˨˩ dzi˨˩/; Chinese: 土家族; pinyin: Tǔjiāzú), with a total population of over 8 million, is the eighth-largest ethnic minority in the People's Republic of China. They live in the Wuling Mountains, straddling the common borders of Hunan, Hubei and Guizhou Provinces, and Chongqing Municipality.
The endonym Bizika means "native dwellers". In Chinese, Tujia means also "local", as distinguished from the Hakka (客家; Kèjiā) whose name implies wandering.Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition
The Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition (Chinese: 儒宗神教 Rúzōng Shénjiào), also called the Luandao (鸾道 "Phoenix Way" or 鸾门 Luánmén, "Phoenix Gate") or Luanism (鸾教 Luánjiào) or—from the name of its cell congregations—the phoenix halls or phoenix churches (鸾堂 luántáng), is a Confucian congregational religious movement of the Chinese traditional beliefs.The first phoenix hall was established in Magong, the capital of the Penghu Islands, in 1853, and from there the movement spread throughout mainland China and Taiwan. Other names of the movement are Rumen (儒门 "Confucian Gate[way]) or Holy Church of the Confucian Tradition (儒宗圣教 Rúzōng Shèngjiào).The aim of the phoenix halls is to honour the gods through Confucian orthopraxy (rú 儒 style), spreading morality through public lectures and divinely-inspired books (善书 shànshū). The Confucian Way of the Gods is defined as Houtiandao (后天道 "Way of Later Heaven" or "Way of the Manifested") by the antagonistic Xiantiandao (先天道 "Way of Former Heaven" or "Way of the Primordial") traditions, which claim to be closer to the God of the universe.