Brotherhoods (Ukrainian: братства, bratstva; literally, "fraternities") were the secular unions of Eastern Orthodox citizens or lay brothers affiliated with individual churches in the cities throughout the Ruthenian part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth such as Lviv, Wilno, Lutsk, Vitebsk, Minsk, and Kiev. They adapted the structure of the Western medieval confraternities and trade guilds.
The Orthodox brotherhoods, first documented in 1463 (Lviv Dormition Brotherhood), were consolidated in the aftermath of the Union of Brest (1596) in order to oppose a rise in Roman Catholic proselytism, Jesuit expansionism and general Polonization. The brotherhoods attempted to stem the state-supported Catholic missionary activities by publishing books in the Cyrillic script and financing a net of brotherhood schools which offered education in the Ruthenian language. The famous Kiev Mohyla Academy grew out of one such school under the umbrella of the Brotherhood Monastery in Kiev. The Dormition Church, Lviv was financed by the brotherhood of the same name; its members also supported the Cossack risings in the east of Ukraine. The powerful Ostrogski family provided political support for their activities.
The activity of the Orthodox fraternities helped preserve the national culture of Ukraine and Belarus throughout the Counter-Reformation era. Most were closed in the course of the 18th century when Catholic proselytism was on the wane. Some were revived in the late 19th century in order to stem "atheist propaganda" of the Nihilists. The Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius promoted national awareness, helping the Ukrainians of Imperial Russia discover their national identity. The Ostrog bratstvo was reinstituted by Countess Bludova, an ardent admirer of the Ostrogski family.
Gavrilov's Night, (also known as Protests in Georgia) (Georgian: გავრილოვის ღამე)), refers to a series of anti-government protests in the country of Georgia that began on June 20, 2019, in front of the Parliament of Georgia. The protests were sparked after Sergei Gavrilov (Russian: Сергей Анатольевич Гаврилов), a member of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation of the Russian State Duma, sat in a chair reserved by protocol for the Head of Parliament and delivered a speech in Russian extolling the Orthodox brotherhood of Georgia and Russia. Earlier that week, Gavrilov had voted in favor of the independence of Abkhazia, an act that angered the Ukrainian ambassador to Georgia. His statement sparked massive protests that led to police actions, apologies from the government, resignations of top political leaders and the adoption of electoral reforms ahead of the upcoming 2020 elections.Berlin-Tegel Russian Orthodox Cemetery
The Berlin-Tegel Russian Orthodox Cemetery (German: Russischer Friedhof Berlin-Tegel) is the only Russian Orthodox burial ground in Berlin. It is located on Witte street in the Tegel locality of the Reinickendorf borough. It is owned and operated by the Brotherhood of St. Prince Vladimir (Bratstvo).Byzantine Rite Christianity in Canada
Byzantine Rite Christianity in Canada refers to all Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, and independent groups in Canada who use the Byzantine Rite.Bărboi Church
The Bărboi Church (Romanian: Biserica Bărboi), dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, is a Romanian Orthodox parish church located at 12 Bărboi Street, Iaşi, Romania.Church of Our Lady of the Sign, Vilnius
Our Lady of the Sign Church is an Eastern Orthodox church in the Žvėrynas district of Vilnius, built in 1903.
The idea of building a new Orthodox church in Vilnius came from Orthodox Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit, which also organised a collection of funds in the whole Russian Empire. The church, constructed in the most popular Neo-Byzantine style, was consecrated in 1903 by Iuvenaliy, the Orthodox archbishop of Vilnius. He also opened a school for poor children and a library which were to be run by the church's clergy. In order to commemorate the day, he granted to the newly established parish a copy of Our Lady of Kursk icon.
Unlike many other Orthodox churches in Vilnius, the church was not closed during World War I, nor during World War II. The Soviet government agreed to register it as a parish church in 1948. Before 1956, the church was robbed a few times, losing part of the icons from the original iconostasis which had to be replaced by a far humbler one. The church was fully restored inside and outside in 2009.Church of St. Alexander Nevsky, Vilnius
Saint Alexander Nevsky Church (Lithuanian: Šv. Aleksandro Neviškio cerkvė is an Eastern Orthodox church in the Naujininkai district of Vilnius dedicated to patron saint Alexander Nevsky. It was built in 1898 and closed by the Soviet government in 1959. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, it was given back to the Russian Orthodox Church, but due to the destruction of the interior of the building during the period of closure, it was not reopened as a church until 2012.Diocese of Kazan
Diocese of Kazan and Tatarstan (Russian: Казанская и Татарстанская епархия) is an eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church on the administrative boundaries of Kazan, Naberezhnye Chelny in the Republic of Tatarstan.Dosoftei
Dimitrie Barilă (Romanian pronunciation: [diˈmitri.e baˈrilə]), better known under his monastical name Dosoftei ([dosofˈtej]; October 26, 1624—December 13, 1693), was a Moldavian Metropolitan, scholar, poet and translator.
Born in Suceava, he attended the school of the "Trei Ierarhi" Monastery of Iaşi and then at the Orthodox Brotherhood school in Lviv, where he studied humanities and learned several languages.
In 1648 he became a monk at Probota Monastery, and was later bishop of Huşi (1658–1660) and Roman (1660–1671) to become Metropolitan bishop of Moldavia (1671–1674 and again 1675-1686). In 1686 he moved to Poland where he stayed for the rest of his life.
He was one of the most important ethnic Romanian scholars of the 17th century, the very first important Romanian language poet and the first translator into Romanian of epics, works on history, as well as religious scriptures Moldavia had. His most famous work is the Romanian psalter in verse.
The Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church canonized Dosoftei in July 2005, a fact that was proclaimed on October 14, 2005. His feast day is December 13.Finnish Orthodox Church
The Finnish Orthodox Church (Finnish: Suomen ortodoksinen kirkko; Swedish: Ortodoxa kyrkan i Finland), or Orthodox Church of Finland, is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox archdiocese of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The Church has a legal position as a national church in the country, along with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland.With its roots in the medieval Novgorodian missionary work in Karelia, the Finnish Orthodox Church was a part of the Russian Orthodox Church until 1923. Today the church has three dioceses and 60,000 members that account for 1.1 percent of the native population of Finland. The parish of Helsinki has the most adherents.Hedeon Balaban
Hedeon (Hryhorii) Balaban (1530 – 10 February 1607), or Gedeon Bałaban, was the bishop of Lviv from 1569 to 1607.
Balaban was born in 1530. He took the side of the Eastern Orthodox church against the Polish Roman Catholics, in particular the Roman Catholic archbishop of Lviv. He resisted introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582 and struggled against the Lviv Dormition Brotherhood on behalf of episcopal authority. Starting in 1590, he took part in negotiations over union with the Roman Catholic Church, but joined with Prince Kostiantyn Ostrozky at the Council of Berestia in 1596 in opposition to the Union of Brest. He maintained this position until his death.In 1599 he established a Greco-Slavic printing press with his nephew Fedir Balaban in Striatyn and then later in Krylos where he published various church books. Throughout his life, Balaban supported Orthodox brotherhood schools. He died on 10 February 1607 in Lviv.Herman of Alaska
Saint Herman of Alaska (Russian: Преподобный Герман Аляскинский, tr. Prepodobnyy German Alyaskinskiy; c. 1750s – November 15, 1836) was a Russian Orthodox monk and missionary to Alaska, which was then part of Russian America. His gentle approach and ascetic life earned him the love and respect of both the native Alaskans and the Russian colonists. He is considered by many Orthodox Christians as the patron saint of North America.Lay brother
A lay brother is a member of a religious order, particularly in the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church, who fulfills a role focused upon manual service and secular matters, and is distinguished from a choir monk or friar whose primary role is to pray in choir. In female religious institutes, the equivalent role is the lay sister. In male religious institutes, lay brothers are additionally distinguished from choir religious in that they do not receive holy orders and are therefore not clerics. Lay brother and lay sisters roles were originally created to allow those who were skilled in particular crafts or did not have the required education to study for holy orders to participate in and contribute to the life of a religious order.List of places of worship in Woking (borough)
There are more than 50 current and former places of worship in the borough of Woking, one of 11 local government districts in the English county of Surrey. The mostly urban area, centred on the Victorian railway town of Woking, is ethnically and demographically diverse. As well as churches and chapels representing England's main Christian denominations, Woking is home to Britain's oldest purpose built mosque, a Buddhist temple and an Eastern Orthodox church (part of a monastery and shrine to Edward the Martyr, who is buried there). Anglican parish churches in surrounding villages such as Pyrford, Old Woking and Byfleet are among the oldest buildings in the borough.
Eleven places of worship in the borough have listed status. A building is defined as "listed" when it is placed on a statutory register of buildings of "special architectural or historic interest" in accordance with the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990. The Department for Culture, Media and Sport, a Government department, is responsible for this; Historic England (formerly English Heritage), a non-departmental public body, acts as an agency of the department to administer the process and advise the department on relevant issues. There are three grades of listing status. Grade I, the highest, is defined as being of "exceptional interest"; Grade II* is used for "particularly important buildings of more than special interest"; and Grade II, the lowest, is used for buildings of "special interest". As of February 2001, there were four Grade I-listed buildings, eight with Grade II* status and 50 Grade II-listed buildings in Woking borough. The Shah Jahan Mosque was upgraded from Grade II* to Grade I status in March 2018.Lviv
Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів [lʲʋiu̯] (listen); Polish: Lwów [lvuf] (listen), Russian: Львов Lvov [lʲvof]; German: Lemberg; Latin: Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of 724,713 as of January 2019. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine.
Named in honour of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (also called the Kingdom of Ruthenia) from 1272 to 1349, when it was conquered by King Casimir III the Great who then became known as the King of Poland and Ruthenia. From 1434, it was the regional capital of the Ruthenian Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland. In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1918, for a short time, it was the capital of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Between the wars, the city was the centre of the Lwów Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic.
After the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, Lviv became part of the Soviet Union, and in 1944–46 there was a population exchange between Poland and Soviet Ukraine. In 1991, it became part of the independent nation of Ukraine.
Administratively, Lviv serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance.
Lviv was the centre of the historical regions of Red Ruthenia and Galicia. The historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet and German occupations during World War II largely unscathed. The city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv Polytechnic. Lviv is also the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra and the Lviv Theatre of Opera and Ballet. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.Lviv Dormition Brotherhood
Lviv Dormition Brotherhood (Ukrainian: Львівське успенське братство) also known as Lviv Stauropegion Brotherhood was an influential religious organization associated with the Dormition Church in Lviv and one of the oldest Brotherhood Orthodox organizations. It was first an association of Orthodox and then, from 1708, also Greek Catholic burghers in Lviv. Like other brotherhoods in Ukraine, it is also a military force tasked with defending the Orthodox church and the faith, particularly against Polish and Latin influences.Petre P. Carp
Petre P. Carp (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈpetre pe karp]; also Petrache Carp, Francized Pierre Carp, occasionally Comte Carpe; 28 or 29 June 1837 – 19 June 1919) was a Moldavian, later Romanian statesman, political scientist and culture critic, one of the major representatives of Romanian liberal conservatism, and twice the country's Prime Minister (1900–1901, 1910–1912). His youth was intertwined with the activity of Junimea club, which he co-founded with critic Titu Maiorescu as a literary society, and then helped transform it into a political club. He left behind a budding career as Junimea's polemicist and cultural journalist, joining the state bureaucracy of the United Principalities, the Romanian diplomatic corps, and ultimately electoral politics. A speaker for aristocratic sentiment and the Romanian gentry, Carp helped create the Conservative Party from the various "White" conservative clubs (1880), but also led a Junimist dissident wing against the Conservative mainstream leaders Lascăr Catargiu and Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino. He was a contributor to the Junimea platform Convorbiri Literare, and founder of the newspapers Térra (1868) and Moldova (1915).
Widely seen as unyielding and trenchant in his public stance, and respected as an orator, P. P. Carp stood against the majority current in various political debates. His entire discourse was an alternative to the protectionist, antisemitic and populist tendencies of "Red" Romanian liberalism. Welcoming Westernization and free trade, his vision of development nonetheless rested on gradualism and criticized modern experiments in governance. The two Carp administrations are remembered for their fiscal reforms, their encouragement of foreign investments, and their attempted clampdown on political corruption.
A Germanophile and a Russophobe, Carp gathered consensus for steering the Kingdom of Romania into the Triple Alliance, but his external policy became entirely unpopular by the start of World War I. During that time, he was the only prominent public figure to demand a declaration of war against the Entente Powers. He came out of retirement during the German occupation of Romania, when he inspired fellow Conservative Lupu Kostaki to set up a collaborationist territorial government. This final project caused his fall into disgrace once the legitimate government regained control.Rohatyn
Rohatyn (Russian: Рогатин, Ukrainian: Рогатин, Polish: Rohatyn, Yiddish: ראהאטין) is a city located on the Hnyla Lypa River in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, in western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Rohatyn Raion (district). Population: 7,983 (2016 est.).
Prior to World War II the town was located in Poland.Sextil Pușcariu
Sextil Iosif Pușcariu (January 4, 1877–May 5, 1948) was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian linguist and philologist. A native of Brașov educated in France and Germany, he was active in Transylvania's cultural life and worked as a Romanian-language professor at Czernowitz in Bukovina. A soldier for Austria-Hungary during World War I, he embraced the creation of Greater Romania at its conclusion, leading efforts to create a new university in Cluj and setting up a research institute in the same city dedicated to the study of his native language. Interested in a variety of disciplines, he published widely and brought new ideas into Romania, as well as overseeing two monumental projects related to the language: the composition of a dictionary, and the creation of an atlas.
Committed to ethnic nationalism and cultural conservatism, Pușcariu radicalized himself during the 1920s and '30s, emerging as a supporter of fascist politics. With the onset of World War II, he moved to Berlin, where he led a propaganda institute meant to promote Romanian culture in the German Reich, as well as counter Hungary's justifications for absorbing Northern Transylvania. After his return home, his health deteriorated while the authorities of the new Communist regime initiated legal proceedings. He died before he could be sentenced, and while his work was largely shunned for two decades, his legacy revived following the collapse of the regime.Zarvanytsia
Zarvanytsia (Ukrainian: Зарваниця) is a small village in the Eparchy of Ternopil-Zboriv. It has just over 300 citizens and is located in the Terebovlia region of Ternopil Oblast in western Ukraine, about 20 km (12 mi) SW from Terebovlia, 22 km (14 mi) N of Buchach and 18 km (11 mi) SE of Pidhaitsi, within an oxbow loop of the Strypa River. The village is known for its icon of the Mother of God, reputed to work miracles, and is a popular site of pilgrimage, attracting Ukrainians both from the country as well as the diaspora scattered around the world.