Orphanage

Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton along with three other women started the first ever orphanage in New York. It is called the Graham Windham. You can find it in Greenwich Village. Historically, an orphanage was a residential institution, or group home, devoted to the care of orphans and other children who were separated from their biological families. Examples of what would cause a child to be placed in orphanages are when the biological parents were deceased, the biological family was abusive to the child, there was substance abuse or mental illness in the biological home that was detrimental to the child, or the parents had to leave to work elsewhere and were unable or unwilling to take the child. The role of legal responsibility for the support of children whose parent(s) have died or are otherwise unable to provide care differs internationally.

The use of government-run orphanages has been phased out in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and in the European Union member-states during the latter half of the 20th century but continue to operate in many other regions internationally. While the term "orphanage" is no longer typically used in the United States, nearly every US state continues to operate residential group homes for children in need of a safe place to live and in which to be supported in their educational and life-skills pursuits. Homes like the Milton Hershey School[1] in Pennsylvania, Mooseheart[2] in Illinois and the Crossnore School and Children's Home[3] in North Carolina continue to provide care and support for children in need. While a place like the Milton Hershey School houses nearly 2,000 children, each child lives in a small group-home environment with "house parents"[4] who often live many years in that home. Children who grow up in these residential homes have higher rates of high school and college graduation than those who spend equivalent numbers of years in the US Foster Care system, wherein only 44 to 66 percent of children graduate from high school.[5][6]

Research from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is often cited as demonstrating that residential institutions negatively impact the wellbeing of children. The BEIP selected orphanages in Bucharest, Romania that raised abandoned children in socially and emotionally deprived environments in order to study the changes in development of infants and children after they had been placed with specially trained foster families in the local community.[7] This powerful study demonstrated how the lack of loving attention typically provided to children by their parents or caregivers is pivotal for optimal human development, specifically of the brain; adequate nutrition is not enough.[8] Further research of children who were adopted from institutions in Eastern European countries to the US demonstrated that for every 3.5 months that an infant spent in the institution, they lagged behind their peers in growth by 1 month.[9] Further, a meta-analysis of research on the IQs of children in orphanages found lower IQs among the children in many institutions, but this result was not found in the low-income country setting.[10]

Worldwide, residential institutions like orphanages can often be detrimental to the psychological development of affected children. In countries where orphanages are no longer in use, the long-term care of unwarded children by the state has been transitioned to a domestic environment, with an emphasis on replicating a family home. Many of these countries, such as the United States, utilize a system of monetary stipends paid to foster parents to incentivize and subsidize the care of state wards in private homes. A distinction must be made between foster care and adoption, as adoption would remove the child from the care of the state and transfer the legal responsibility for that child's care to the adoptive parent completely and irrevocably, whereas in the case of foster care, the child would remain a ward of the state with the foster parent acting only as caregiver.

Most children who live in orphanages are not orphans; four out of five children in orphanages have at least one living parent and most having some extended family.[11] Developing countries and their governments rely on kinship care to aid in the orphan crisis, because it is cheaper to financially help extended families in taking in an orphaned child then it is to institutionalize them.[12] Additionally, developing nations are lacking in child welfare and their well-being because of lack of resources. Research that is being collected in the developing world shows that these countries focus purely on survival indicators instead of a combination of their survival and other positive indicators like a developed nation would do.[13] This speaks to the way that many developed countries treat an orphan crisis, as the only focus is to obtain a way to insure their survival. In the developed nations orphans can expect to find not only a home but also these countries will try an ensure a secure future as well. Furthermore, orphans in developing nations are seen as a problem that needs to be solved, this also makes them vulnerable to exploitation or neglect. In Pakistan, alternative care for orphans often falls on to extended families and Pakistan society as the government feels puts the burden of caring for orphans on them. Although it is very common for Pakistan citizens to take in orphans because of their culture and religion only orphans whose parents have passed away are taken in. This neglects a population of children who need alternative care either due to abuse or parents who are unable to care for their child because of poverty, mental, or physical issues.[14]

A few large international charities continue to fund orphanages, but most are still commonly founded by smaller charities and religious groups.[15] Especially in developing countries, orphanages may prey on vulnerable families at risk of breakdown and actively recruit children to ensure continued funding. Orphanages in developing countries are rarely run by the state.[15][16] However, not all orphanages that are state-run are less corrupted; the Romanian orphanages, like those in Bucharest, were founded due to the soaring population numbers catalyzed by dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, who banned abortion and birth control and incentivized procreation in order to increase the Romanian workforce.[17]

Today’s residential institutions for children, also described as congregate care, include group homes, residential child care communities, children's homes, refuges, rehabilitation centers, night shelters, and youth treatment centers.

9403 - Venezia - Calle della Pietà - Lapide della ex ruota degli esposti -1548- - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 12-Aug-2007
Plaque where once stood the ruota ("wheel"), the place to abandon children at the side of the Chiesa della Pietà, the church of an orphanage in Venice. The plaque cites on a Papal bull by Paul III dated November 12, 1548, threatens "ex-communication and maledictions" for all those who – having the means to rear a child – choose to abandon him/her instead. Such excommunication may not be cancelled until the culprit refunds all freights incurred to raise the baby.
Berlin Pankow orphanage
Former Jewish orphanage in Berlin-Pankow

History

Jan de Bray 001
Caring for orphans, by Dutch artist Jan de Bray, 1663

The Romans formed their first orphanages around 400 AD. Jewish law prescribed care for the widow and the orphan, and Athenian law supported all orphans of those killed in military service until the age of eighteen. Plato (Laws, 927) says: "Orphans should be placed under the care of public guardians. Men should have a fear of the loneliness of orphans and of the souls of their departed parents. A man should love the unfortunate orphan of whom he is guardian as if he were his own child. He should be as careful and as diligent in the management of the orphan's property as of his own or even more careful still."[18] The care of orphans was referred to bishops and, during the Middle Ages, to monasteries. As soon as they were old enough, children were often given as apprentices to households to ensure their support and to learn an occupation.

In medieval Europe, care for orphans tended to reside with the Church. The Elizabethan Poor Laws were enacted at the time of the Reformation, and placed public responsibility on individual parishes to care for the indigent poor.

Foundling Hospitals

Foundling Hospital
The Foundling Hospital. The building has been demolished.

The growth of sentimental philanthropy in the 18th century led to the establishment of the first charitable institutions that would cater to orphans. The Foundling Hospital was founded in 1741 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram in London, England, as a children's home for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children." The first children were admitted into a temporary house located in Hatton Garden. At first, no questions were asked about child or parent, but a distinguishing token was put on each child by the parent.[19]

On reception, children were sent to wet nurses in the countryside, where they stayed until they were about four or five years old. At sixteen, girls were generally apprenticed as servants for four years; at fourteen, boys were apprenticed into variety of occupations, typically for seven years. There was a small benevolent fund for adults.

In 1756, the House of Commons resolved that all children offered should be received, that local receiving places should be appointed all over the country, and that the funds should be publicly guaranteed. A basket was accordingly hung outside the hospital; the maximum age for admission was raised from two months to twelve, and a flood of children poured in from country workhouses. Parliament soon came to the conclusion that the indiscriminate admission should be discontinued. The hospital adopted a system of receiving children only with considerable sums. This practice was finally stopped in 1801; and it henceforth became a fundamental rule that no money was to be received.[20]

19th century

Children at crumpsall workhouse circa 1895
A group of orphans at Crumpsall Workhouse in the 19th century.

By the early nineteenth century, the problem of abandoned children in urban areas, especially London, began to reach alarming proportions. The workhouse system, instituted in 1834, although often brutal, was an attempt at the time to house orphans as well as other vulnerable people in society who could not support themselves in exchange for work. Conditions, especially for the women and children, were so bad as to cause an outcry among the social reform-minded middle-class; some of Charles Dickens' most famous novels, including Oliver Twist, highlighted the plight of the vulnerable and the often abusive conditions that were prevalent in the London orphanages.

Clamour for change led to the birth of the orphanage movement. In England, the movement really took off in the mid-19th century although orphanages such as the Orphan Working Home in 1758 and the Bristol Asylum for Poor Orphan Girls in 1795, had been set up earlier. Private orphanages were founded by private benefactors; these often received royal patronage and government oversight.[21] Ragged schools, founded by John Pounds and the Lord Shaftesbury were also set up to provide pauper children with basic education.

Orphanages were also set up in the United States from the early 19th century; for example, in 1806, the first private orphanage in New York (the Orphan Asylum Society, now Graham Windham) was co-founded by Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, widow of Alexander Hamilton, one of the founding fathers of the United States.[22] Under the influence of Charles Loring Brace, foster care became a popular alternative from the mid-19th century.[23] Later, the Social Security Act of 1935 improved conditions by authorizing Aid to Families with Dependent Children as a form of social security.

Drbarnardo
Thomas John Barnardo, the founder of the Barnardos Home for orphaned children.

A very influential philanthropist of the era was Thomas John Barnardo, the founder of the charity Barnardos. Becoming aware of the great numbers of homeless and destitute children adrift in the cities of England and encouraged by the 7th Earl of Shaftesbury and the 1st Earl Cairns, he opened the first of the "Dr Barnardo’s Homes" in 1870. By his death in 1905, he had established 112 district homes, which searched for and received waifs and strays, to feed, clothe and educate them.[24] The system under which the institution was carried on is broadly as follows: the infants and younger girls and boys were chiefly "boarded out" in rural districts; girls above fourteen years of age were sent to the industrial training homes, to be taught useful domestic occupations; boys above seventeen years of age were first tested in labour homes and then placed in employment at home, sent to sea, or emigrated; boys of between thirteen and seventeen years of age were trained for the various trades for which they might be mentally or physically fitted.[24]

Deinstitutionalization

Deinstitutionalisation of orphanages and childrens homes program began in the 1950s, after a series of scandals involving the coercion of birth parents and abuse of orphans (notably at Georgia Tann's Tennessee Children's Home Society). Many countries accepted the need to de-institutionalize the care of vulnerable children—that is, close down orphanages in favor of foster care and accelerated adoption. Foster care is where children are taken from homes due to the lack of care or abuse of their parents, where orphanages take in children with no parents or children whose parents have dropped them off for a better life, typically due to income. [25] Moreover, as it is no longer common for birth parents in Western countries to give up their children, and as far fewer people die of diseases or violence while their children are still young, the need to operate large orphanages has decreased.

Major charities are increasingly focusing their efforts on the re-integration of orphans in order to keep them with their parents or extended family and communities. Orphanages are no longer common in the European community, and Romania in particular has struggled greatly to reduce the visibility of its children's institutions to meet conditions of its entry into the European Union.

Some have stated it is important to understand the reasons for child abandonment, then set up targeted alternative services to support vulnerable families at risk of separation[26] such as mother and baby units and day care centres.[27]

Comparison to alternatives

Orphanages, especially larger ones, have had some well publicised examples of poor care.[28][29] In large institutions children, but particularly babies, may not receive enough eye contact, physical contact, and stimulation to promote proper physical, social or cognitive development.[30][31] In the worst cases, orphanages can be dangerous and unregulated places where children are subject to abuse and neglect.[28][32][33]

One significant study, which disputes this, was carried out by Duke University. Their researchers concluded that institutional care in America in the 20th century produced the same health, emotional, intellectual, mental, and physical outcomes as care by relatives, and better than care in the homes of strangers.[34] One explanation for this is the prevalence of permanent temporary foster care. This is the name for a long string of short stays with different foster care families.[34] Permanent temporary foster care is highly disruptive to the child and prevents the child from developing a sense of security or belonging. Placement in the home of a relative maintains and usually improves the child's connection to family members.[34][35]

Another alternative are group homes which are used for short-term placements. They may be residential treatment centers, and they frequently specialize in a particular population with psychiatric or behavioral problems, e.g., a group home for children and teens with autism, eating disorders, or substance abuse problems or child soldiers undergoing decommissioning.

Criticism

Most of the children living in institutions around the world have a surviving parent or close relative, and they most commonly entered orphanages because of poverty.[36] It is speculated that, flush with money, orphanages are increasing and push for children to join even though demographic data show that even the poorest extended families usually take in children whose parents have died.[36] Experts and child advocates maintain that orphanages are expensive and often harm children's development by separating them from their families and that it would be more effective and cheaper to aid close relatives who want to take in the orphans.[36]

Children living in orphanages for prolonged periods get behind in development goals, have worse mental health. Orphanage children are not included in statistics making it easy to traffic them or abuse them in other ways. There are campaigns to include orphanage children and street children in progress statistics.[37]

Scams

Visitors to developing countries can be taken in by orphanage scams, which can include orphanages created for the day[38] or orphanages set up as a front to get foreigners to pay school fees of orphanage directors' extended families.[39] Alternatively the children whose upkeep is being funded by foreigners may be sent to work, not to school, the exact opposite of what the donor is expecting.[40] The worst even sell children.[41][42][43] In Cambodia some are bought from their parents for very little and passed on to westerners who pay a large fee to adopt them.[44] This also happens in China.[45] In Nepal, orphanages can be used as a way to remove a child from their parents before placing them for adoption overseas, which is equally lucrative to the owners who receive a number of official and unofficial payments and "donations".[46][47] In other countries, such as Indonesia, orphanages are run as businesses, which will attract donations and make the owners rich; often the conditions orphans are kept in will deliberately be poor to attract more donations.[48]

Worldwide

Europe

The orphanages and institutions remaining in Europe tend to be in Eastern Europe and are generally state-funded.

Albania

There are approximately 10 small orphanages in Albania; each one having only 12-40 children residing there.[49]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

SOS Children's Villages giving support to 240 orphaned children.[50]

Bulgaria

The Bulgarian government has shown interest in strengthening children's rights.

In 2010, Bulgaria adopted a national strategic plan for the period 2010–2025 to improve the living standards of the country's children. Bulgaria is working hard to get all institutions closed within the next few years and find alternative ways to take care of the children.

Support is sporadically given to poor families and work during daytime; correspondingly, different kinds of day centers have started up, though the quality of care in these centers is poorly measured and difficult to monitor. A smaller number of children have also been able to be relocated into foster families".[51][52]

There are 7000[52] children living in Bulgarian orphanages wrongly classified as orphaned. Only 10 percent of these are orphans, with the rest of the children placed in orphanages for temporary periods when the family is in crisis.[53]

Estonia

As of 2009, there are 35 orphanages, which house approximately 1300 orphaned children.[54][55]

Hungary

A comprehensive national strategy for strengthening the rights of children was adopted by Parliament in 2007 and will run until 2032.

Child flow to orphanages has been stopped and children are now protected by social services. Violation of children's rights leads to litigation.[56]

Lithuania

In Lithuania there are 105 institutions. 41 percent of the institutions each have more than 60 children. Lithuania has the highest number of orphaned children in Northern Europe.[57][58]

Poland

Children's rights enjoys a relatively strong protection in Poland. Orphaned children are now protected by social services.

Social Workers' opportunities have increased by establishing more foster homes and aggressive family members can now be forced away from home, instead of re-placing the child/children.[59]

Moldova

More than 8800 children are being raised in state institutions, but only three percent of them are orphans.[60]

Romania

The Romanian child welfare system is in the process of being revised and has reduced the flow of infants into orphanages.[61]

According to Baroness Emma Nicholson, in some counties Romania now has "a completely new, world class, state of the art, child health development policy." Dickensian orphanages remain in Romania,[62] but by 2020 Romanian institutions are to be replaced by family care services, as children in need will be protected by social services.[63] As of 2017, there were 18,197 children in old-style residential centers,[64] a significant decrease from about 100,000 in 1990.[65]

Serbia

There are many state orphanages "where several thousand children are kept and which are still part of an outdated child care system". The conditions for them are bad because the government does not pay enough attention in improving the living standards for disabled children in Serbia's orphanages and medical institutions.[66]

Slovakia

The Committee made recommendations, such as proposals for the adoption of a new "national 14" action plan for children for at least the next five years, and the creation of an independent institution for the protection of child rights.[67]

Sweden

One of the first orphanages in Sweden was the Stora Barnhuset (1633-1922) in Stockholm,[68] which remained the biggest orphanage in Sweden for centuries. In 1785, however, a reform by Gustav III of Sweden stipulated that orphans should first and foremost always be placed in foster homes when that was possible.

In Sweden there are 5,000 children in the care of the state. None of them are currently living in an orphanage, because there is a social service law which requires that the children reside in a family home.

United Kingdom

During the Victorian era, child abandonment was rampant, and orphanages were set up to reduce infant mortality. Such places were often so full of children that "killing nurses" often administered Godfrey's Cordial, a special concoction of opium and treacle, to soothe baby colic.[69]

Orphaned children were placed in either prisons or the poorhouse/workhouse, as there were so few places in orphanages, or else they were left to fend for themselves on the street. Such places as were available could only be obtained by procuring votes for admission, placing them out of reach of poor families.

Known orphanages are:

Founded in Name Location Founder
1741 Foundling Hospital London Thomas Coram
1795 Bristol Asylum for Poor Orphan Girls (Blue Maids' Orphanage) nr Stokes Croft turnpike, Bristol
1800 St Elizabeth's Orphanage of Mercy Eastcombe, Glos
1813 London Asylum for Orphans
London Orphan Asylum
Hackney, London
Watford 1871
Cobham 1945
Rev Andrew Reed
1822 Female Orphan Asylum Brighton Francois de Rosaz
1827 Infant Orphan Asylum
Royal Infant Orphanage
Royal Wanstead School
Royal Wanstead Children's Foundation
Wanstead Rev Andrew Reed
1829 Sailor Orphan Girls School London
1831 Jews' Orphan Asylum
Norwood Jewish Orphanage 1928
Norwood Home for Jewish Children 1956
Goodmans Fields, Whitechapel, London 1831
West Norwood 1866
1836 Ashley Down orphanage Bristol George Müller
1844 Asylum for Fatherless Children
Reedham Orphanage
Richmond
Stoke Newington
Stamford Hill
Purley 1846
Rev Andrew Reed
1854 Wolverhampton Orphan Asylum Goldthorn Hill, Wolverhampton John Lees
1856 Wiltshire Reformatory Warminster
1860 Major Street Ragged Schools Liverpool Canon Thomas Major Lester
1861 St. Philip Neri's orphanage for boys Birmingham Oratorians
1861 Adult Orphan Institution St Andrew's Place, Regent's Park, London
1861 British Orphan Asylum Clapham, London
1861 Female Orphan Asylum Westminster Road, London
1861 Female Orphan Home Charlotte Row, St Peter Walworth, London
1861 Merchant Seamen's Orphan Asylum Bromley St Leonard, Bow, London
1861 Orphan Working School Haverstock Hill, Kentish Town, London
1861 Orphanage Eagle House, Hammersmith, London
1861 The Orphanage Asylum Christchurch, Marylebone, London
1861 The Sailors' Orphan Girls' School & Home Hampstead, London
1861 Sunderland Orphan Asylum Sunderland
1862 Swansea Orphan Home for Girls Swansea
1863 British Seaman’s Orphan Boys' Home
British Seaman's Boys' Home
Brixham William Gibbs
1865 The Boys' Home Regent's Park London
1866 Dr Barnardo's various Dr Thomas Barnardo
1866 National Industrial Home for Crippled Boys London
1867 Peckham Home for Little Girls London Maria Rye
1868 The Boys' Refuge Bisley
1868 Royal Albert Orphanage Worcester
1868 Worcester Orphan Asylum Worcester
1868 St Francis' Boy's Home Shefford, Bedfordshire
1869 Ely Deaconesses Orphanage Bedford Rev Thomas Bowman Stephenson
1869 Orphanage and Almshouses Erdington Josiah Mason
1869 The Neglected Children of Exeter Exeter
1869 Alexandra Orphanage for Infants Hornsey Rise, London
1869 Stockwell Orphanage London Charles Spurgeon
1869 New Orphan Asylum Upper Henwick, Worcs
1869 Wesleyan Methodist National Children's Homes
National Children's Homes
NCH Action for Children
Action for Children
various Rev Thomas Bowman Stephenson
1870 Fegans Homes London James William Condell Fegan
1870 Manchester and Salford Boys' and Girls' Refuge Manchester
1870 18 Stepney Causeway
The William Baker Memorial Technical School for Boys 1922
London
Goldings estate, Hertford 1922
Dr Barnardo
1871 Wigmore West Bromwich and Walsall WJ Gilpin
1872 Middlemore Home Edgbaston Dr John T. Middlemore
1872 St Theresa Roman Catholic Orphanage for Girls Plymouth Sisters of Charity
1873 The Orphan Homes Ryelands Road, Leominster Henry S. Newman[70][71]
1874 Cottage Homes for Children West Derby Mrs Nassau Senior
1875 Aberlour Orphanage Aberlour, Scotland Rev Charles Jupp
1877 All Saints Boys' Orphanage Lewisham, London
1880 Birmingham Working Boy's Home (for boys over the age of 13) Birmingham Major Alfred V. Fordyce
1881 The Waifs and Strays' Society[72]
Church of England Incorporated Society for Providing Homes for Waifs and Strays 1893
Church of England Children's Society 1946
The Children's Society 1982
East Dulwich, London Edward de Montjoie Rudolf
1881 Catholic Childrens Protection Society Liverpool James Nugent & Bishop Bernard O'Reilly
1881 Dorset County Boys Home Milborne St Andrew
1881 Brixton Orphanage Brixton Road, Lambeth, London
1881 Orphanage Infirmary West Square, London Road, Southwark, London
1881 Orphans' Home South Street. London Road, Southwark, London
1882 St Michael's Home for Friendless Girls Salisbury
1890 St Saviour's Home Shrewsbury
1890 Orphanage of Pity Warminster
1890 Wolverhampton Union Cottage homes Wolverhampton
1892 Calthorpe Home For Girls Handsworth, Birmingham The Waifs and Strays' Society[73]
1899 Northern Police Orphanage
St George's House, Harrogate
Harrogate Catherine Gurney
1899 Inglewood Children's Home Otley, Leeds
1918 Painswick Orphanage Painswick
unknown Clio Boys' Home Liverpool
unknown St Philip's Orphanage, (RC Institution for Poor Orphan Children) Brompton, Kensington

Sub-Saharan Africa

Malawi AIDS Orphans.jpeg
AIDS orphans in Malawi

The majority of African orphanages (especially in Sub-Saharan Africa) appear to be funded by donors, often from Western nations, rather than by domestic governments.

Ethiopia

"For example, in the Jerusalem Association Children's Home (JACH), only 160 children remain of the 785 who were in JACH's three orphanages." / "Attitudes regarding the institutional care of children have shifted dramatically in recent years in Ethiopia. There appears to be general recognition by MOLSA and the NGOs with which Pact is working that such care is, at best, a last resort, and that serious problems arise with the social reintegration of children who grow up in institutions, and deinstitutionalization through family reunification and independent living are being emphasized."[74]

Ghana

A 2007 survey sponsored by OAfrica (previously OrphanAid Africa) and carried out by the Department of Social Welfare came up with the figure of 4,800 children in institutional care in 148 orphanages.[75] The government is currently attempting to phase out the use of orphanages in favor of foster care placements and adoption. At least eighty-eight[76] homes have been closed since the passage of the National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. The website www.ovcghana.org details these reforms.

Kenya

A 1999 survey of 36,000 orphans found the following number in institutional care: 64 in registered institutions and 164 in unregistered institutions.[77]

Malawi

There are about 101 orphanages in Malawi. There is a UNICEF/Government driven program on de-institutionalisation, but few orphanages are yet involved in the program.

Amitofo Care Centre (“ACC”), a charitable, non-governmental and nonprofit making orphanage organization, which comprises an administration centre, children’s dormitories, youth dormitories, preparatory school, Yuan Tong Primary and Secondary schools, library, activity centre, medical center, religious centre, Community Bases Organization (CBO), etc. - is founded and directed by a Buddhist monk from the East with an aspiration and mission to directly rear and care for need and vulnerable children of Africa within the humanitarian and educational umbrella. The main principles of ACC are based on local African culture, Chinese culture, Western culture, and Buddhist philosophy which are delivered to the needy and vulnerable children. This is considered a unique and remarkable characteristic of ACC although it must be stressed that none of the orphans have taken refuge to Buddhism, as we respect their religious freedom and will allow them to choose their own as they enter adulthood.

Rwanda

Out of 400,000 orphans, 5,000 are living in orphanages.[78] The Government of Rwanda are working with Hope and Homes for Children to close the first institution and develop a model for community-based childcare which can be used across the country and ultimately Africa[79]

Tanzania

"Currently, there are 52 orphanages in Tanzania caring for about 3,000 orphans and vulnerable children."[80] A world bank document on Tanzania showed it was six times more expensive to institutionalise a child there than to help the family become functional and support the child themselves.

Nigeria

Kwashiorkor 6903
Nigerian orphanage in the late 1960s

In Nigeria, a rapid assessment of orphans and vulnerable children conducted in 2004 with UNICEF support revealed that there were about seven millions orphans in 2003 and that 800,000 more orphans were added during that same year. Out of this total number, about 1.8 million are orphaned by HIV/AIDS. With the spread of HIV/AIDS, the number of orphans is expected to increase rapidly in the coming years to 8.2 million by 2010.[81]

South Africa

Since 2000, South Africa does not license orphanages any more but they continue to be set up unregulated and potentially more harmful. Theoretically the policy supports community-based family homes but this is not always the case. One example is the homes operated by Thokomala.[82]

Zambia

A 1996 national survey of orphans revealed no evidence of orphanage care. The breakdown of care was as follows: 38% grandparents 55% extended family 1% older orphan 6% non-relative Recently a group of students started a fundraising website for an orphanage in Zambia.[77][83]

Zimbabwe

There are 39 privately run children's charity homes, or orphanages, in the country, and the government operates eight of its own. Privately run Orphanages can accommodate an average of 2000 children, though some are very small and located in very remote areas, hence can take in less than 150 children. Statistics on the total number of children in orphanages nationwide are unavailable, but caregivers say their facilities were becoming unmanageably overwhelmed almost on a daily basis. Between 1994 and 1998, the number of orphans in Zimbabwe more than doubled from 200,000 to 543,000, and in five years, the number is expected to reach 900,000. (Unfortunately, there is no room for these children.)[84]

Togo

In Togo, there were an estimated 280,000 orphans under 18 years of age in 2005, 88,000 of them orphaned by AIDS.[85][85] Ninety-six thousand orphans in Togo attend school.[85]

Sierra Leone

[86]

  • Children (0–17 years) orphaned by AIDS, 2005, estimate 31,000[87]
  • Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes, 2005, estimate 340,000[87]
  • Orphan school attendance ratio, 1999–2005 71,000[87]

Senegal

  • Children (0–17 years) orphaned by AIDS, 2005, estimate 25,000[88]
  • Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes, 2005, estimate 560,000[88]
  • Orphan school attendance ratio, 1999–2005 74,000[88]

South Asia

Nepal

There are at least 602 child care homes housing 15,095 children in Nepal[89] "Orphanages have turned into a Nepalese industry there is rampant abuse and a great need for intervention."[43][90] Many do not require adequate checks of their volunteers, leaving children open to abuse.[89]

Afghanistan

Flickr - DVIDSHUB - PRT donates clothing, blankets to Khowst orphanage (Image 2 of 5)
PRT donates clothing, blankets to Khowst orphanage in Afghanistan

"At Kabul's two main orphanages, Alauddin and Tahia Maskan, the number of children enrolled has increased almost 80 percent since last January, from 700 to over 1,200 children. Almost half of these come from families who have at least one parent, but who can't support their children."[91] The non-governmental organisation Mahboba's promise assists orphans in contemporary Afghanistan.[92] Nowadays the number of orphanages had changed. There are approximately 19 orphanages only in Kabul.[93]

Bangladesh

"There are no statistics regarding the actual number of children in welfare institutions in Bangladesh. The Department of Social Services, under the Ministry of Social Welfare, has a major programme named Child Welfare and Child Development in order to provide access to food, shelter, basic education, health services and other basic opportunities for hapless children." (The following numbers mention capacity only, not actual numbers of orphans at present.)

9,500 – State institutions 250 – babies in three available "baby homes" 400 – Destitute Children's Rehabilitation Centre 100 – Vocational Training Centre for Orphans and Destitute Children 1,400 -Sixty-five Welfare and Rehabilitation Programmes for Children with Disability

The private welfare institutions are mostly known as orphanages and madrassahs. The authorities of most of these orphanages put more emphasis on religion and religious studies. One example follows: 400 – Approximately – Nawab Sir Salimullah Muslim Orphanage.[94]

Maldives

Orphans, Children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes, 2010, estimate 51.[95]

India

Tirurangadi Orphanage (1)
Tirurangadi Orphanage, India.

India is in top 10 and also has a very large number of orphans as well as destitute child population. Orphanages operated by the state are generally known as juvenile homes. In addition there is a vast number of privately run orphanages running into thousands spread across the country. These area run by various trusts, religious groups, individual citizens, citizens groups, NGO's etc.

While some of these places endeavour to place the children for adoption a vast majority just care and educate them till they are of legal majority age and help place them back on their feet. Prominent organizations in this field include BOYS TOWN, SOS children's villages etc.

There have been scandals especially with regard to adoption. Since government rules restrict funds unless there are a certain number of residents, some orphanages make sure the resident numbers remain high at the cost of adoption.

Pakistan

According to a UNICEF report in 2016 there are around 4.2 million orphaned children in Pakistan.[96] Pakistan has had sizable economic growth from 1950-1999 yet they aren't performing well in multiple social indicators like education and health, and this is mainly due to the corrupt and unstable government.[97] Pakistan heavily relies on the nonprofit sector and zakat to finance social issues such as aid for orphans. Zakat is a financial obligation on Muslims which requires one to donate 2.5% of the family's income to charity, and it is specifically mentioned in the Quran to take care of orphans.[98] With the new use of zakat money from donations to investments it has a lot of potential in benefiting the development as well as the ultimate goal of poverty alleviation.[99] Pakistan government relies on the this public sector on taking care of local issues so that they do not have the burden. Furthermore, only 6 percent of cash revenues are contributed to non-profits in Pakistan, and they are heavily favored by the government because its saves them money as non-profits are taking care of issues such as orphan care.[100]

East and Southeast Asia

Taiwan

The number of orphanages and orphans drastically dropped from 15 institutions and 2,216 persons in 1971 to 9 institutions and 638 persons by the end of 2001.

Thailand

There are still a substantial number of NGO's and informal Orphanages in Thailand, particularly in Northern Thailand near the borders of Laos and Myanmar, e.g. around Chiang Rai. Very few of the children in these establishments are orphans, most have living parents. They attract funding from well meaning tourists. Often protecting the children from trafficking/abuse is cited but the names and photographs of the children are published in marketing material to attract more funding.[101] The reality is that the safest environment for these children is almost always with their parents or in their villages with familial connections where strangers are rarely seen and immediately recognized. A very few of these orphanages, go so far as to abduct or forcibly remove children from their homes, often across the border in Myanmar. The parents in local hill tribes may be encouraged to "buy a place" in the orphanage for vast sums, being told their child will have a better future.[102] Some childrens homes claim to always try to repatriate children with their families, but the local managers & director of the homes know of no such procedures or processes.[103]

South Korea

"There are now 17,000 children in public orphanages throughout the country and untold numbers at private institutions."[104]

Cambodia

There are numerous NGOs focusing their efforts on assisting Cambodia's orphans: one group, World Orphans, constructed 47 orphanages housing over 1500 children in a three-year period.[105] The total number of orphans is much higher, but unknown: "There are no accurate figures available on how many orphans there are in Cambodia." One charity named "CHOICE Cambodia" is run by expats based in the capital city of Phnom Penh; it helps support extremely poor and homeless people and helps families stay together rather than have their children put into orphanages where they might get exploited.

China

"Currently there are 50,000 children in Chinese orphanages, while the number of abandoned children shows no sign of slowing. Official figures show that fewer than 20,000 of China's orphans are now in any form of institutional care."[106] Chinese official records fail to account for most of the country's abandoned infants and children, only a small proportion of whom are in any form of acknowledged state care.[106] The most recent figure provided seems implausibly low for a country with a total population of 1.2 billion.[106] Even if it were accurate, however, the whereabouts of the great majority of China's orphans would still be a complete mystery, leaving crucial questions about the country's child welfare system unanswered and suggesting that the real scope of the catastrophe that has befallen China's unwanted children may be far larger than the evidence in this report documents.

Laos

"It is stated that there are 20,000 orphaned children in Laos. There are only three orphanages in the whole country providing places for a total of 1,000 of these children." No Title. By Anneli Dahlbom One of the largest orphanages in Laos is in the town of Phonsavan. It is an S.O.S. orphanage and there are over 120 orphans living in the facility.[107]

Middle East and North Africa

Aleppo Armenian orphanage 1923
Orphan girls at the Aleppo Armenian orphanage, 1923

Egypt

"The [Mosques of Charity] orphanage houses about 120 children in Giza, Menoufiya and Qalyubiya." "We [Dar Al-Iwaa] provide free education and accommodation for over 200 girls and boys." "Dar Al-Mu'assassa Al-Iwaa'iya (Shelter Association), a government association affiliated with the Ministry of Social Affairs, was established in 1992. It houses about 44 children." There are also 192 children at The Awlady, 30 at Sayeda Zeinab orphanage, and 300 at My Children Orphanage.

Note: There are about 185 orphanages in Egypt. The above information was taken from the following articles: "Other families" by Amany Abdel-Moneim. Al-Ahram Weekly (5/1999). "Ramadan brings charity to Egypt's orphans". Shanghai Star (13 December 2001). "A Child by Any Other Name" by Réhab El-Bakry. Egypt Today (11/2001).

Orphanage Project in Egypt—www.littlestlamb.org

Sudan

There is still at least one orphanage in Sudan although efforts have been made to close it.[108]

Bahrain

The "Royal Charity Organization"[109] is a Bahraini governmental charity organization founded in 2001 by King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah to sponsor all helpless Bahraini orphans and widows. Since then almost 7,000 Bahraini families are granted monthly payments, annual school bags, and a number of university scholarships. Graduation ceremonies, various social and educational activities, and occasional contests are held each year by the organization for the benefit of orphans and widows sponsored by the organization.

Iraq

UNICEF maintains the same number at present. "While the number of state homes for orphans in the whole of Iraq was 25 in 1990 (serving 1,190 children); both the number of homes and the number of beneficiaries has declined. The quality of services has also declined."

A 1999 study by UNICEF "recommended the rebuilding of national capacity for the rehabilitation of orphans." The new project "will benefit all the 1,190 children placed in orphanages."

Palestinian Territory

"In 1999, the number of children living in orphanages witnessed a considerable drop as compared to 1998. The number dropped from 1,980 to 1,714 orphans. This is due to the policy of child re-integration in their household adopted by the Ministry of Social Affairs."

Former Soviet Union

Moscow Orphanage asv2018-01
The Moscow Orphanage (founded in 1763, constructed in the 1770s)

In the post-Soviet countries, orphanages are better known as "children's homes" (Детскиe домa). After reaching school age, all children enroll at internats (Школа-интернат) (boarding schools).

Russia

Over 700,000 orphans live in Russia, increasing at the rate of 113,000 per year. UNICEF estimates that 95% of these children are "social orphans", meaning that they have at least one living parent who has given them up to the state.[110][111][112][113] In 2011 Russian authorities registered 88,522 children who became orphans that year (down from 114,715 in 2009).[114]

There are few webpages for Russian orphanages in English, such as St Nicholas Orphanage in Siberia,[115] or the Alapaevsk orphanage in the Urals. "Of a total of more than 600,000 children classified as being 'without parental care' (most of them live with other relatives and fosters), as many as one-third reside in institutions."[116]

In 2011, there were 1344 institutions for orphans in Russia,[117] including 1094 orphanages ("children's homes")[118] and 207 special ("corrective") orphanages for children with serious health issues.[119]

Azerbaijan

"Many children are abandoned due to extreme poverty and harsh living conditions. Some may be raised by family members or neighbors but the majority live in crowded orphanages until the age of fifteen when they are sent into the community to make a living for themselves."[120]

Belarus

Approximate total – 1,773 (1993 statistics for "all types of orphanages")

Kyrgyzstan

Children at the Belovodski Preschool Orphanage in Karabalta
Belovodski Preschool Orphanage in Karabalta, Kyrgyzstan

Partial information: 85 – Ivanovka Orphanage[121]

Tajikistan

"No one can be sure how many lone children are there in the republic. About 9,000 are in internats and in orphanages."[122]

Ukraine

103,000[123] Of this number about 80 percent are described as “social orphans”, because the parents are either too poor, abusive, or too addicted to drugs or alcohol to raise them.[124]

Since 2012 the number of children adopted by foreigners has gradually been reducing. From about two thousands in 2012 to about two hundred in 2016.[125] A bit more than thousand children were adopted by Ukrainians in 2016.[125]

Other information:

01-Levantarse
Orphanage in Ukraine

Uzbekistan

Partial Information: 80 – Takhtakupar Orphanage

Oceania

Australia

Orphanages in Australia mostly closed after World War II and up to the 1970s. Children are mainly put under foster care. Notable former orphanages include the Melbourne Orphanage and the St. John's Orphanage in Goulburn, New South Wales.[129]

Indonesia

No verifiable information for the number of children actually in orphanages. The number of orphaned and abandoned children is approximately 500,000.[130]

Fiji

Orphans, children (0–17 years) orphaned due to all causes, 2005, estimate 25,000[131]

North America and Caribbean

Haiti

Haitians and expatriate childcare professionals are careful to make it clear that Haitian orphanages and children's homes are not orphanages in the North American sense, but instead shelters for vulnerable children, often housing children whose parent(s) are poor as well as those who are abandoned, neglected or abused by family guardians. Neither the number of children or the number of institutions is officially known, but Chambre de L'Enfance Necessiteusse Haitienne (CENH) indicated that it has received requests for assistance from nearly 200 orphanages from around the country for more than 200,000 children. Although not all are orphans, many are vulnerable or originate in vulnerable families that "hoped to increase their children's opportunities by sending them to orphanages." Catholic Relief Services provides assistance to 120 orphanages with 9,000 children in the Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est and Grand'Anse, but these include only orphanages that meet their criteria. They estimate receiving ten requests per week for assistance from additional orphanages and children's homes, but some of these are repeat requests."[132]

In 2007, UNICEF estimated there were 380,000 orphans in Haiti, which has a population of just over 9 million, according to the CIA World Factbook. However, since the January 2010 earthquake, the number of orphans has skyrocketed, and the living conditions for orphans have seriously deteriorated. Official numbers are hard to find due to the general state of chaos in the country.[133]

Mexico

"...at least 10,000 Mexican children live in orphanages and more live in unregistered charity homes"

  • Mexican Orphanages[134]
  • Mazatlan Mexico Orphanage[135]
  • Casa Hogar Jeruel:[136] Orphanage in Chihuahua City, Mexico

United States

Music Class at St Elizabeths Orphanage New Orleans 1940
St. Elizabeth's orphanage in New Orleans, 1940

Some private orphanages still exist in the United States apart from governmental child protective services processes.[137][138] Following World War II, most orphanages in the U.S. began closing or converting to boarding schools or different kinds of group homes. Also, the term "children's home" became more common for those still existing. Over the past few decades, orphanages in the U.S. have been replaced with smaller institutions that try to provide a group home or boarding school environment. Most children who would have been in orphanages are in these residential treatment centers (RTC), residential child care communities, or with foster families. Adopting from RTCs, group homes, or foster families does not require working with an adoption agency, and in many areas, fostering to adopt is highly encouraged.[139][140]

Central and South America

Orphanage in Colombia
In a Colombian orphanage, a nurse takes care of three children.

Guatemala

"...currently there are about 20,000 children in orphanages."[141]

Peru

Casa Hoger Lamedas Pampa, in Huanaco.

Significant charities that help orphans

Prior to the establishment of state care for orphans in First World countries, private charities existed to take care of destitute orphans, over time other charities have found other ways to care for children.

  • The Orphaned Starfish Foundation[142] is a non-profit organisation based in New York City that focuses on developing vocational schools for orphans, victims of abuse and at-risk youth. It runs fifty computer centres in twenty-five countries, serving over 10,000 children worldwide
  • Lumos works to replace institutions with community-based services that provide children with access to health, education and social care tailored to their individual needs.
  • Hope and Homes for Children are working with governments to deinstitutionalise their child care systems.
  • Stockwell Home and later Birchington, started by Charles H Spurgeon, is now Spurgeons after the last orphanage closed in 1979. Spurgeons Children's Charity provides support to vulnerable and disadvantaged children and families across England.
  • SOS Children's Villages is the world's largest non-governmental, non-denominational child welfare organization that provides loving family homes for orphaned and abandoned children.
  • Dr Barnardo's Homes are now simply Barnardo's after closing their last orphanage in 1989.
  • OAfrica, previously OrphanAid Africa, has been working in Ghana since 2002, to get children out of orphanages and into families, in partnership with the government and as the only private implementing partner of the National Plan of Action.[143]
  • Joint Council on International Children's Services is a nonprofit child advocacy organization based in Alexandria, Virginia. It is the largest association of international adoption agencies in America, and in addition to working in 51 different countries, advocates for ethical practices in American adoption agencies
  • Orphan Resources International is a non-profit that provides resources to orphanages in Guatemala Central America
  • www.careforchildren.com introduced family placement to China with a pilot project in Shanghai in 1998 working with the Shanghai Government. In 2004 Care for Children partnered with the MoCA and the China Social Work Association in Beijing to develop family placement on a nationwide basis. It is now thought that a generation of children who were abandoned are living in substitute families instead of institutions in China.
  • Abide Family Center (abidefamilycenter.org) is an organization working in Jinja, Uganda to reduce the number of children living in orphanages. They believe that poverty should never be a reason a child is separated from their family. For this reason the provide family preservation services including business and parenting classes, emergency/transitional housing, early childhood education and pastoral/counselling services.
  • Transition Home for Orphan Boys in Afghanistan.[144] The Transition Home was opened in 2014, and currently 6 boys live in the Transition Home. The goal of the Transition Home is that when these at-risk youth leave the transition home they leave ready to live on their own. They have full-time jobs, they have furnishings for their own home, they have skills needed to live on their own, i.e. cooking, cleaning, and how to manage their finances. Prior to these youth leaving the Transition Home, the T-O-M mentors will take each youth out and help them make purchases in the markets for household items. This teaches them how to shop and what the value of a dollar is. Our mentors will then take them out to find a room/apartment to rent and help negotiate a contract and pay the upfront fees. All of this is done so that these youth now have a chance in life, they have options, and they have a choice to make something of themselves.

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External links

Media related to Orphanages at Wikimedia Commons

Amsterdam Museum

The Amsterdam Museum, until 2011 called the Amsterdams Historisch Museum, is a museum about the history of Amsterdam. Since 1975, it is located in the old city orphanage between Kalverstraat and Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal.

Antilia (building)

Antilia (first named Antilla) is a private home in South Mumbai, India. It is owned by Mukesh Ambani, chairman of Reliance Industries and has a staff of 600 to maintain the residence 24 hours a day.

As of November 2014, it is deemed to be the world's most expensive residential property, after Buckingham Palace, which is designated as a British crown property. Antilia is thus the world's most expensive private residence, valued over $1-2 billion. Its controversial design and ostentatious use by a single family has made it infamous in India and beyond, including severe criticism in the architectural press and mockery in popular media.It is located on Altamount Road, Cumballa Hill in Mumbai.

Benet Academy

Benet Academy ( BEN-et; often shortened to Benet) is a co-educational, college-preparatory, Benedictine high school in Lisle, Illinois, United States, overseen by the Diocese of Joliet. Founded in 1887, the school was initially established in Chicago as the all-boys St. Procopius College and Academy by Benedictine monks, who also operated the St. Joseph Bohemian Orphanage. In 1898, the orphanage moved to Lisle, about 25 miles (40 km) west of Chicago, to be joined by St. Procopius three years later. In 1926 Benedictine nuns constructed the all-girls Sacred Heart Academy near the orphanage and school in Lisle. The orphanage closed in 1956 to make room for St. Procopius Academy, which separated from the college in 1957. Due to rising costs and waning enrollment, Sacred Heart merged with St. Procopius Academy in 1967 to form Benet Academy on the St. Procopius campus. Since then, numerous building projects have been undertaken to expand Benet's athletics, music, and science programs. As of 2017 it is considered the second best Catholic high school in Illinois, and seventh best private high school.

Admission is competitive and relies primarily on test scores. All students complete a college-preparatory curriculum and may earn college credit through programs including Advanced Placement. As of 2009, Benet's average ACT test score regularly exceeds state and national averages, and more than 99 percent of students go on to college after graduation. The school's academic program has been featured in reports by the Chicago Sun-Times and U.S. News & World Report.

The athletic program has fielded several teams that have placed fourth or higher in state tournaments. In the 2014-2015 school year the girls' volleyball team and the girls' basketball team both won IHSA state titles, which makes Benet only the second school in IHSA history and the first large (4A) school to win titles for both these sports in the same season. The boys' basketball team has broken two state records, including a 102 home-game winning streak. In the 2015-2016 year the boys' basketball team ended up getting second in the state, with the girls taking first, along with many other state titles in other sports.

Other activities include the annual Christmas Drive fundraiser and over 30 clubs and organizations, including the Math Team and Science Olympiad team, both of which have won awards in their state tournaments; moreover, the school boasts such niche clubs as the Ornithology and Nuclear Science Clubs.

Benet's performing arts program is highly praised and competitive and stages an annual winter musical, which often sells out quickly. Many performers have been nominated for state-wide awards. Other productions include the fall play, one-act plays, variety show, and spring play.

The band program performed in state-wide events in 1998 and 2002 and will this year.

Notable alumni of the school include NBA player Frank Kaminsky, former Illinois Attorney General Jim Ryan, and Grammy-winning singer Dave Bickler.

Bombay Scottish School, Mahim

The Bombay Scottish School (BSS), popularly known as Scottish, is a private, co-educational day school located at Mahim West in Mumbai, India. The institution was established in 1847 by Scottish Christian missionaries under the name Scottish Female Orphanage.

The school caters to pupils from kindergarten up to class 12 and the medium of instruction is English. The school is affiliated with the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, New Delhi, which conducts the ICSE examinations at the close of class 10 and the ISC examinations at the close of class 12. The school has been among the top 10 schools in India for the past few decades. Most of its alumni belong to the film industry.

George Whitefield

George Whitefield (; 27 December [O.S. 16 December] 1714 – 30 September 1770), also spelled Whitfield, was an English Anglican cleric and evangelist who was one of the founders of Methodism and the evangelical movement.Born in Gloucester, he matriculated at Pembroke College at the University of Oxford in 1732. There he joined the "Holy Club" and was introduced to the Wesley brothers, John and Charles, with whom he would work closely in his later ministry. Whitefield was ordained after receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree. He immediately began preaching, but he did not settle as the minister of any parish. Rather he became an itinerant preacher and evangelist. In 1740, Whitefield traveled to North America, where he preached a series of revivals that came to be known as the "Great Awakening". His methods were controversial and he engaged in numerous debates and disputes with other clergymen.

Whitefield received widespread recognition during his ministry; he preached at least 18,000 times to perhaps 10 million listeners in Great Britain and the American colonies. Whitefield could enthrall large audiences through a potent combination of drama, religious rhetoric, and imperial pride.

Ioannis Papafis

Ioannis Papafis (Greek: Ιωάννης Παπάφης; Thessaloniki, Ottoman Greece, 1792 – Malta, 1886) was a merchant and entrepreneur from the region of Macedonia in Greece, considered a national benefactor of Greece.

Papafis, after venturing shortly in Smyrna and Alexandria, established his fortuitous enterprise working as a broker in Malta, a place he later considered his second home. His legacy of philanthropic activities include the founding of orphanages and large donations directed to educational and public services and both in Malta and Greece. In Greece he is commemorated for helping in the funding of the Greek War of Independence and in financing crucial sectors of the newly formed Greek state. He was among the primary shareholders of the National Bank of Greece, donated to the University of Athens, and the Greek Orthodox Church through the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

Izieu

Izieu is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France.

It lies on the Rhône River between the cities of Lyon and Chambéry.

Mexicali Rose (1939 film)

Mexicali Rose is a 1939 American Western film directed by George Sherman and starring Gene Autry, Smiley Burnette, and Noah Beery. Based on a story by Luci Ward and Connie Lee, the film is about a singing cowboy who fights corrupt oil men selling worthless stock from a non-existent well located on land belonging to a poor Mexican orphanage.

Mount Loretto Spur

The Mount Loretto Spur is an abandoned branch of the Staten Island Railway whose purpose was to serve the Mount Loretto Children's Home. The spur diverged off of the Main Line south of Pleasant Plains.

Parsee Rustomjee

Rustomjee Jivanji Ghorkhodu (1861 – 14 November 1924), commonly known as Parsee Rustomjee, and by various orthographic variations including Parsi Rustomji and affectionately referred to as Kakaji, was an Indian-South African philanthropist and businessman, well known for his close mentorship, guidance and financial sponsorship of Mahatma Gandhi during his time in South Africa from 1893–1914.

Rustomjee was the largest South African contributor to the satyagraha (non-violent resistance). His various philanthropic deeds include establishing the Indian hospital in Durban; the M. K. Gandhi Library and Parsee Rustomjee Hall; Parsee Rustomjee Orphanage; M. K. Gandhi Tamil School; an orphanage connected with the Mosque at Umgeni; an Indian orphanage of the Roman Catholic Church; and part of the cost of a Methodist day school. He also supported several projects of Gandhi in India. There is a primary school in Merebank, KwaZulu-Natal bearing his name.

Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage

Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage is an orphanage, nursery and captive breeding ground for wild Asian elephants located at Pinnawala village, 13 km (8.1 mi) northeast of Kegalle town in Sabaragamuwa Province of Sri Lanka. Pinnawala has the largest herd of captive elephants in the world. In 2011, there were 96 elephants, including 43

males and 68 females from 3 generations, living in Pinnawala.The orphanage was founded to care and protect the many orphaned unweaned wild elephants found wandering in and near the forests of Sri Lanka. It was established in 1975 by the Sri Lanka Department of Wildlife Conservation (DWC).

Pocker Sahib Memorial Orphanage College

Pocker Sahib Memorial Orphanage College was established in 1968 as an aided junior college, affiliated to the University of Kerala under the management of the Tirurangadi Muslim orphanage committee (Regd.).

Consequent upon the University reorganization, the college came under the University of Calicut in the same year. It was upgraded as a first grade college in 1972 and a Post Graduate College in 1980. Having expanded in terms of infrastructure, courses, staff and students strength the college has emerged as one of the premier institutions of higher learning under the Calicut University. At present twelve degree courses and seven post graduate courses are offered at the college catering to the higher education needs of around 1800 students. PG departments of history, Commerce and Chemistry are approved as research centre by the University. The college was mainly intended for the educational progress of the orphans of the Muslim community but it also fulfills the educational aspirations of students from all communities.

The college is situated at Tirurangadi a distance of 13 km from Calicut University Campus, 24 km from the District Headquarters at Malappuram, 8 km from the Parappanangadi Railway station, 13 km from Calicut Airport and 1 km from the NH 17 at Kakkad.

Schneller Orphanage

Schneller Orphanage, also called the Syrian Orphanage, was a German Protestant orphanage that operated in Jerusalem from 1860 to 1940.

It was one of the first structures to be built outside the Old City of Jerusalem – the others being Kerem Avraham, the Bishop Gobat school, Mishkenot Sha’ananim, and the Russian Compound – and paved the way for the expansion of Jerusalem in the 19th century. As a philanthropic institution offering academic and vocational training to hundreds of orphaned and abandoned Arab children, it also exerted a strong influence on the Arab population of Jerusalem and the Middle East through its graduates, who spread its philosophies of "orderliness, discipline, and German language" throughout the region. The Syrian Orphanage was born out of South German Pietism, which combined Biblicism, idealism, and religious individualism.The orphanage provided both academic and vocational training to orphaned boys and girls from Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Armenia, Turkey, Russia, Iran, and Germany, graduating students skilled in such trades as tailoring, shoemaking, engraving, carpentry, metalworking, pottery, painting, printing, farming, and gardening. In 1903 a school for the blind was opened on the premises, including dormitories, classrooms and vocational workshops. The orphanage also operated its own printing press and bindery; flour mill and bakery; laundry and clothing-repair service; carpentry; pottery factory; tree and plant nursery; and brick and tile factory. Located on high ground and surrounded by a high stone wall, the orphanage's distinctive onion-dome tower, multistory buildings, and decorative facades exuded the power and influence of European Christians in Jerusalem in the mid-19th century.Continuous building and land acquisitions increased the size of the orphanage grounds to nearly 150 acres (600 dunam) by World War I. At the beginning of World War II, the British mandatory government deported the German teachers and turned the compound into a closed military camp with the largest ammunition stockpile in the Middle East. On March 17, 1948, the British abandoned the camp and the Etzioni Brigade of the Haganah used it as a base of operations during the 1948 Israeli War of Independence. For the next 60 years the site served as an Israeli army base known as Camp Schneller. The army vacated the premises in 2008. As of 2011, the compound is being developed for luxury housing.

In 2015, remains of a Jewish settlement of the late Second Temple period were discovered at the site. In 2016, archaeologists unearthed an ancient Roman bathhouse and a large wine production facility.

Shades of a Blue Orphanage

Shades of a Blue Orphanage is the second studio album by Irish band Thin Lizzy, released in 1972. The title is a combination of the members' previous bands: Shades of Blue and Orphanage.

"Sarah" was written for Phil Lynott's grandmother who raised him when his mother, Philomena, was unable to do so. This song should not be confused with the 1979 song of the same name, for Lynott's daughter, included on Black Rose: A Rock Legend.

A new remastered and expanded version of Shades of a Blue Orphanage was released on 11 October 2010.

The Cider House Rules

The Cider House Rules (1985) is a novel by American writer John Irving, a Bildungsroman, which was later adapted into a film (1999) and a stage play by Peter Parnell. The story, set in the pre- and post-World War II era, is about a young man, Homer Wells, growing up under the guidance of Dr. Wilbur Larch, an obstetrician and abortionist. The story relates his early life at Larch's orphanage in Maine and follows Homer as he eventually leaves the nest and comes of age in the world.

The Cider House Rules (film)

The Cider House Rules is a 1999 American drama film directed by Lasse Hallström, based on John Irving's novel of the same name. The film had its world premiere at the 56th Venice Film Festival. The film tells of the coming-of-age of Homer Wells, who lives in a World War II-era Maine orphanage run by a doctor who performs illegal abortions.

The film won two Academy Awards: Irving won the Academy Award for Best Screenplay Based on Material Previously Produced or Published, while Michael Caine won his second Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, along with four other nominations at the 72nd Academy Awards. Irving documented his involvement in bringing the novel to the screen in his book, My Movie Business.

The Orphanage (film)

The Orphanage (Spanish: El Orfanato) is a 2007 Spanish horror film and the debut feature of Spanish filmmaker J. A. Bayona. The film stars Belén Rueda as Laura, Fernando Cayo as her husband, Carlos, and Roger Príncep as their adopted son Simón. The plot centers on Laura, who returns to her childhood home, an orphanage. Laura plans to turn the house into a home for disabled children, but after an argument with Laura, Simón goes missing.

The film's script was written by Sergio G. Sánchez in 1996 and brought to the attention of Bayona in 2004. Bayona asked his long-time friend, director Guillermo del Toro, to help produce the film and to double its budget and filming time. Bayona wanted the film to capture the feel of 1970s Spanish cinema; he cast Geraldine Chaplin and Belén Rueda, who were later praised for their roles in the film.

The film opened at the Cannes Film Festival on May 20, 2007, where it received a standing ovation lasting more than 10 minutes. It received critical acclaim from audiences in its native Spain, winning seven Goya awards. On its North American release, The Orphanage was praised by English-speaking critics, who described the film as well directed and well acted, and noted the film's lack of "cheap scares"; subsequently, New Line Cinema bought the rights to the film for an American remake.

The Three Stooges (2012 film)

The Three Stooges (also known as The Three Stooges: The Movie) is a 2012 American slapstick comedy film based on the film shorts of the mid-20th century comedy trio of the same name. The film was produced, written and directed by the Farrelly brothers and co-written by Mike Cerrone. It stars Chris Diamantopoulos, Sean Hayes, and Will Sasso, re-creating the eponymous characters played by Moe Howard, Larry Fine, and Curly Howard. The film's story places the Stooges in a modern setting. After over a decade of casting problems, principal photography took place from May to July 2011. The film was released on April 13, 2012.

Theophilos Kairis

Theophilos Kairis (Greek: Θεόφιλος Καΐρης; baptismal name Θωμᾶς Thomas; 19 October 1784 – 13 January 1853) was a Greek priest, philosopher and revolutionary. He was born in Andros, Cyclades, Ottoman Greece, as a son of a distinguished family.

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