Paulus Orosius (/ˈpɔːləs əˈroʊʒəs/; born c. 375, died after 418 AD)[1]—less often Paul Orosius in English—was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo. It is possible that he was born in Bracara Augusta (now Braga, Portugal), then capital of the Roman province of Gallaecia, and which would be the capital of the Kingdom of the Suebi by his death.[2] Although there are some questions regarding his biography, such as his exact date of birth, it is known that he was a person of some prestige from a cultural point of view, as he had contact with the greatest figures of his time such as Saint Augustine of Hippo and Saint Jerome. In order to meet with them Orosius travelled to cities on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, such as Hippo Regius and Alexandria.

These journeys defined his life and intellectual output. Orosius did not just discuss theological matters with Saint Augustine; he also collaborated with him on the book City of God.[3] In addition, in 415 he was chosen to travel to Palestine in order to exchange information with other intellectuals. He was also able to participate in a Church Council meeting in Jerusalem on the same trip and he was entrusted with transporting the relics of Saint Stephen. The date of his death is also unclear, although it appears to have not been earlier than 418, when he finished one of his books, or later than 423.[4]

He wrote a total of three books, of which his most important is his Seven Books of History Against the Pagans (Latin: Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII), considered to be one of the books with the greatest impact on historiography during the period between antiquity and the Middle Ages, as well as being one of the most important Hispanic books of all time. Part of its importance comes from the fact that the author shows his historiographical methodology. The book is a historical narration focusing on the pagan peoples from the earliest time up until the time Orosius was alive.[5]

Orosius was a highly influential figure both for the dissemination of information (History Against the Pagans was one of the main sources of information regarding Antiquity that was used up to the Renaissance) and for rationalising the study of history (his methodology greatly influenced later historians).[6][7]

Paulo Orosio - Detalle
Paulus Orosius, shown in a miniature from the Saint-Epure codex.

Biographical sources

Despite the importance of his books many questions remain regarding his life, hampering efforts to construct a biography with any certainty. This is particularly true for sources of information regarding his birth and death.[8] However, his life has been widely studied and there are a number of authors who propose dates for both events.

The main biographical references for Orosius come from the writings of Gennadius of Massilia and Braulio of Zaragoza, although his own writings should not be overlooked.[8] In addition, Orosius is mentioned in letters written by Saint Augustine.

Questions regarding his identity


While there is no doubt regarding his surname of Orosius, there are questions regarding the use of the name "Paulus". Basically the problem is that it is not completely certain if he used this name or if he was simply called Orosius and whether Paulus has been added with the passing of time. This could have happened given that the initial "P" for priest was always placed next to his name, and over time this could have led to the confusion.[9]

However, this idea is flawed as authors writing immediately after Orosius's death use the name Paulus. In fact, even Casimiro Torres Rodríguez, one of the main scholars of Orosius's life, indicates that Paulus might be his Christian name and Orosius his native name, a theory that cannot be entirely dismissed.[9]

Whatever the truth of the matter this subject has been widely studied and the most current theory is probably that of Pedro Martínez Cavero, another important Orosius scholar.[10]

Ó Corráin's conclusions

Based on a careful reading of the relevant sources, Irish scholar Donnchadh Ó Corráin concluded that:

Orosius, author of Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri vii, was a Briton, born at latest c. AD 375. Taken by Irish raiders, he spent years (c. AD 400) as a captive, held by traders, on the south shore of the Shannon estuary. He escaped and probably reached Galicia before AD 405. Ordained priest, he served at Bracara (now Braga in Portugal). He corresponded with St Augustine and moved to Hippo in AD 414. Sent to the East by Augustine, he played an undistinguished role at the councils of Jerusalem and Diospolis (AD 415). He settled at Carthage, where he wrote his main work, originally at the instigation of Augustine. He disappears after a voyage to the Balearic Islands. His is the first textual witness to Christianity in Ireland, observed c. AD 400, written up in AD 416–17.


Braga-vale do Rio Este
Panorama of present-day Braga, the most likely birthplace for Orosius.[2]

The subject of his birthplace is still disputed although a broad consensus has now been reached.[2] Basically there are four theories regarding his birthplace, that can be summarised as follows:

  • Born in Braga: this idea is most widely accepted as it has the most evidence supporting it. If he was not born in Braga, it is likely he was born in the area around the town. This idea is supported by Orosius's own works and two letters written by Saint Augustine, the 166th and the 169th.[2]
  • Born in Tarragona: this theory has been put forward because in his Histories Orosius talks of "Tarraconem nostra" (our Tarragona). The 19th-century author Teodoro de Mörner[11] held this opinion, but nowadays it does not seem reasonable to support the idea solely based on one indication.[12]
  • Originated in A Coruña (Brigantia): this is a relatively new theory solely based on the fact that Orosius twice mentioned it in the geographical section of his Histories.
  • Originated in Brittany: like the previous theory the supporting data for this theory rests on the fact that Orosius had some knowledge of this area.[13]

Date of birth

Lastly, his supposed date of birth varies between sources, however, a likely date has now been calculated. It is known for certain that in 415 Saint Augustine referred to Paulus Orosius as "a young priest", which means that at that time he could not have been older than 40, as he was young, and he had to be older than 30, as he was a priest.[14]

Therefore, his date of birth can be fixed as being between 375 and 385, although the most widely accepted date is considered to be 383. This assumes that when Orosius met Saint Augustine he was 32 years old, that is, he had been an ordained priest for two years.[10]


Early life

Despite the scarcity of sources, if his date of birth is accepted as that given above or at least within the window between 375 and 385 it can be seen that Orosius grew up during a period of cultural flourishing along with Hydatius and the Ávitos.[15] Priscillianism was an important doctrine at this time and it is considered likely that after entering the priesthood he took an interest in the Priscillianist controversy, which was being widely debated in his native country.

The classical theories suggest that Orosius belonged to a family with good social standing,[16] which would have allowed him to gain a good education. This would have developed along Christian lines, although assuming that Orosius was born in Braga, he would also have had a good knowledge of the rural culture of that time.

Contemporary histories indicate that from an early age Orosius was loquacious and erudite,[17] alluding to statements to this effect made by both Saint Augustine and Pope Gelasius I. In any case, any discussion of Orosius's youth is pure speculation and conjecture because, as discussed above, there is little knowledge regarding this period of his life.

Journey to Africa

Viajes de Orosio
Schematic map showing all the journeys made by Paulus Orosius.[18]

It is thought that Paulus Orosius lived in Gallaecia (northwest Hispania) until 409, but after that time and up until 415, there is no concrete information regarding his life. The traditional chronology, or at least the most widespread,[19] proposes the succession of events outlined in the following paragraphs.

It appears that Orosius had to leave Braga as a result of the barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire. The date of his departure is in some doubt, however, what is known for certain is that he had to leave suddenly. This is even confirmed by Orosius himself who states that he was pursued onto the beach from which he set sail.[20]

A number of dates have been suggested for his departure from Braga, ranging from 409 to 414, however, the best option is to stick with the two most widely accepted dates:

  • 410: proposed by G. Fainck. This date means that Orosius had a window of 5 years for his collaboration with Saint Augustine before he travelled to Palestine.
  • 414: which is the most widely accepted. In his book Commonitorium, which was published in 414, Orosius talks of his arrival, his meeting with Saint Augustine etc.

What is certain is that once Orosius had left the Iberian Peninsula he was certain that his destination was Hippo (now Annaba in Algeria), and a meeting with Saint Augustine, who was the greatest thinker of his time. From his arrival Orosius formed part of a team that worked alongside Saint Augustine. It is therefore possible that Orosius collaborated in the writing of The City of God or at the least that he was aware of the book.[3]

In 415 Saint Augustine entrusted Orosius with the task of travelling to Palestine to meet with the thinker Saint Jerome who at that time was living in Bethlehem. This indicates that Saint Augustine had a great deal of faith in Orosius as relations between Saint Augustine and Saint Jerome had not always been good.

Journeys to Palestine

The visit to Palestine had a double purpose: Orosius wanted to discuss a number of theological topics with Saint Jerome, particularly those relating to the soul's origins, and Saint Augustine wanted closer ties with the thinker and to gather information regarding the Priscillianists, Origenists and the Pelagian heresy.[21]

In reality, it would seem that Orosius's main task was to assist Jerome and others against Pelagius, who, after the synod of Carthage in 411, had been living in Palestine, and finding some acceptance there. Orosius met with Pelagius on Saint Augustine's behalf and he represented the orthodox party against the Pelagians at the Synod of Jerusalem[22] that was held in June 415.

At the synod Orosius communicated the decisions of the synod of Carthage and read several of Augustine's writings against Pelagius. Success, however, was not achieved among Greeks who did not understand Latin, and whose sense of reverence was unfased by Pelagius's famous question, Et quis est mihi Augustinus? ("Who is Augustine to me?")

Orosius succeeded only in obtaining John's consent to send letters and deputies to Pope Innocent I of Rome; and, after having waited long enough to learn the unfavourable decision of the Synod of Diospolis (Lydda) in December of the same year, he returned to North Africa,

Orosius had a confrontation with the Archbishop of Jerusalem, John II at the synod, in which Orosius was accused of heresy in front of the entire conclave. As his defence Orosius wrote his second book Liber Apologeticus, in which he emphatically rejected the accusation.[23]

Orosius's first act on meeting Saint Jerome was to hand him the correspondence that he had brought from Saint Augustine. This implies that the journey was always conceived of as a return journey as Orosius would have to deliver the letters from Saint Jerome back to Saint Augustine. In parallel to this, the relics of Saint Stephen were uncovered at the end of 415 and part of the find was given to Orosius in order that he could take it back to Braga.[24] This marks both the start of his return journey and, from our current perspective, a new epoch in Orosius's life that is lacking in sources of information for its study.

Later years

Given that Saint Stephen's relics were uncovered on 26 December 415, Orosius must have departed from Palestine after that date. Although his idea was to travel to Braga, he was forced to pass through Hippo as it is known that he delivered letters from Jerome to Saint Augustine, it is also generally agreed that he passed through Jerusalem and Alexandria, although it is not known if he visited the latter on his outward journey, on his return journey or on both occasions.[25]

During his second stay in Hippo he had a long conversation with Saint Augustine during which he handed over the letters he was carrying from Jerome and informed Saint Augustine about the meetings he had had with Pelagius.[26] The idea for Orosius's great work, Historiae Adversus Paganos, was born during this reencounter with Saint Augustine. However, it is difficult to estimate an exact date for when the book was written and for when the book was finished. This has given rise to a number of theories regarding the writing of the book:

  • The traditional theory states that the book was finished between 416 and 417.[27] Support for these dates comes from the fact that the Liber Apologeticus does not mention Orosius's work as a historian, and the prologue refers to Book XI of the City of God by Saint Augustine, which was not published until 416. In order to justify how Orosius managed to write seven books in such a short time it is argued that he could have written summaries that were later filled out.
  • A recent theory, proposed by Casimiro Torres Rodríguez, states that Orosius briefly stayed in Stridon a second time while trying to return to Portugal, which he was unable to do and he wrote the book during a third stay in Stridon. This would explain why Orosius refers in the “Histories” to events that took place in Hispania in 417.
  • A third, older, theory, posed by T. von Mörner and G. Fainck, says that Orosius undertook the work before he travelled to Palestine. In fact, this idea has recently been given a new lease of life by M. P. Annaud-Lindet, although with the proviso that Orosius wrote the book during his return journey from Palestine.


Very little information is available regarding the life of Paulus Orosius after the publication of his Histories. It is known that he was in Menorca where he used the remains of Saint Stephen in attempts to convert members of the Jewish community to Christianity, but the date of his death is not known. This lack of information regarding Orosius could be due to cooling of relations with Saint Augustine, who never makes any clear unambiguous references to Orosius's "Histories" once they have been published. Gennadius of Massilia considers that Orosius lived at least until the end of the Roman emperor Flavio Honorio’s mandate, which lasted until 423. However, there is no news of Orosius after 417 and it seems unlikely that such an active author would go six years without publishing anything new.[4]

There are other theories, from a sudden death to a range of legends that talk of Orosius's final arrival in Hispania and his founding of a monastery near to Cabo de Palos where he ended his days, although this latter idea now seems improbable.[4]

His works

Commonitorium and Liber Apologeticus

Sandro Botticelli 050
The Commonitorium and the Histories are a response, at least in their origins, to the direct influence that Saint Augustine exercised over Orosius.[28]

Although Paulus Orosius's most important book was the Historiae Adversus Paganos, his other two surviving books must also be taken into account: Commonitorium and Liber Apologeticus.[29]

The full name of his first book is Consultatio sive commonitorium ad Augustinum de errore Priscillianistarum et Origenistarum (in English: Warnings and Reminders by Augustine Against the Errors of the Priscillians and the Origenists).[28] Its chronology is littered with the same grey areas as Orosius's biography. In principle it is a book intended for Saint Augustine and therefore it must have been written before Orosius arrived in Africa, between 409 and 414 as discussed above.[30] The second chronological limit is 415, which is traditionally considered to be the date when Augustine's book Liber ad Orosium contra Priscillianistas et Origenistas was published, in which Augustine replies to Orosius's Commonitorium.[31]

The book is not only aimed at Saint Augustine but was also preceded by conversations with the saint.[32] It not only describes Orosius journey to Africa, but also summarises the beliefs of Priscillianism and Origenism, and it asks for Saint Augustine's advice regarding these theological issues, thereby exposing some of Orosius's theological doubts.[33]

The full name of Orosius's second book is Liber apologeticus contra Pelagium de Arbitrii libertate.[34] It was published at the time of Orosius's participation in the Council of Jerusalem in 415.[35] The book is the result of a theological debate during which Archbishop John II accused Orosius of heresy due to his idea that man cannot remain free of sin, not even with the help of divine intervention.[35]

In order to defend himself from these accusations Orosius wrote Liber Apologeticus, in which he describes his motives for participating in the synod, he was invited by Saint Jerome, and rejects the accusation of heresy made against him.[34] However, neither of these two books are of a historical nature, despite containing elements that help in the reconstruction of Orosius's life.

Historiae Adversus Paganos

Historiae adversus paganos
Historiae adversus paganos, 1561
Paulo Orosio - Lámina siglo VI
Page from a manuscript of Orosius's Histories held in Florence.

Paulus Orosius's masterpiece is Historiae Adversus Paganos, the only history book that he wrote, which gives insight into the historiographical methodology of the Spanish priesthood. It is not possible to be certain as to when it was written as there is no single theory that is unanimously accepted by all historians. The most common estimate places the drafting of the book between 416 and 417.[27][36]

Miguel Ángel Rábade Navarro offers a clear and concise definition on Orosius's history in one of his articles on the author. In this article Rábade calls the Histories a "universalist history with an apologetic and providentialist character, whose main aim is to compare a pagan past with a Christian present, through their followers, their actions and their geographical and temporal location".[5]

Be this as it may, the book had a definite origin and a clear purpose. The book's origins were a response to Saint Augustine's express desire for a book that would complement his De Civitate Dei which is a history focused on the pagan races.[37] The date of the book is not our main focus here, what is more important is Orosius's objective in responding to Saint Augustine's request by writing a book aimed at proving that Rome’s decadence – it should be remembered that Rome was sacked by Alaric I in 410 – had nothing at all to do with the fact that the Romans had relatively recently converted to Christianity.[38]

In a more general way Orosius wanted to show that the world has improved since the introduction of Christianity rather than declined as others had argued. In response to those who pointed to contemporary disasters, he simply argues that previous disasters occurring before Christianity were much worse. The work, a universal history of the calamities that have happened to mankind was the first attempt to write the history of the world as a history of God guiding humanity.

Throughout the seven books that comprise the history, Orosius introduces several new methods and he also uses others that pick up on the traditional methods of Graeco-Roman historiography.[39] It should be pointed out that Orosius never offers a negative image of the Pagans, in this way he is being true to the traditions of the Graeco-Roman historians of that time, who always tried to give a positive impression of their "enemies".[39]

Historical methodology


The Universalist nature of Orosius's work is perhaps its most notable aspect. In fact, despite the lack of agreement regarding all other aspects of Orosius's life, including his biography and his works, most experts agree on the universalist nature of this work, including classicists such as Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo and even more modern historians such as Torres Rodríguez.[40] In addition, his works are not only identified as universalist but as the first Christian universalist history, or put another way, the last classical universalist history.[41]

Paulus Orosius is not only a widely studied author he also described his own thoughts on his historical methodology in some of the prologues to the volumes that comprise his “Histories”. He was always clear in his objectives, he wanted to write the history starting with the creation and leading up to the times in which he lived, which is a clear declaration of his universalist intentions as a historian.[42]

Orosius uses the so-called "succession of the four world empires theory" throughout his works,[43] which traced world history based on the premise that out of the ruins of one great civilization another arose. Therefore, his theory was based on four historical empires, Babylonia, pagan Rome, Macedonia and Carthage, with a fifth empire, that of Christian Rome as the inheritor of all these.[44] In fact, during the narration of their histories the four empires develop in the same way and there are a number of striking parallels between them that are markedly different from Rome, which Orosius praises.[5]

Orosius's basic innovation in dealing with the four empires theory was to introduce Carthage between Macedonia and Rome, which is something that scholars such as García Fernández point out as one of Orosius's defining and definitive acts.[38]

Patriotism and universalism

Another important characteristic of Orosius's “Histories” is defined as patriotism.[45] There are two clearly defined positions regarding Orosius's patriotism, a more traditional view espoused by Torres Rodríguez and a more novel view as recently outlined by García Fernández.

Torres Rodríguez’ theory refers to patriotism is the sense that Orosius places special emphasis on the events that took place in Hispania. This is normal given Orosius's origins, but it can be thought of not only as patriotism but also as Hispanism.[45] Examples of this tendency include narratives of events in the “Histories”, that occurred in Braga or the fact that Orosius himself was charged with transporting the reliquaries of Saint Stephen.[46] It is even pointed out that Orosius's narrations are sometimes used by current day groups of Galician nationalists.[46]

On the other hand, in 2005 García Fernández made an explicit allusion to Torres Rodríguez’ theory when he stated that it was an exaggeration to characterize Orosius's historical methodology as “patriotic”.[47] This was a rejection of nearly all of the statements made by Torres Rodríguez on this matter.[48] García Fernández used the idea of “localism”, which was a fashionable idea amongst historians at the beginning of the 21st century.[49] This idea argues that beyond "Hispanism” Orosius shows a “benevolent attitude” to Hispania.[49]

Optimism and pessimism

Another interesting point is the pessimism with which Orosius deals with certain themes and the exaggerated optimism with which he refers to others. In general he is pessimistic about anything to do with paganism or the past and optimistic regarding Christianity and his present, which is remarkable given the difficult times that he was living in.[50]

These characteristics infuse all the others, it is particularly noticeable in his narration when he places a special emphasis on the suffering of the defeated,[51] and the terrors of war.[52] This characteristic can clearly be attributed to the influence of Saint Augustine, as Orosius is showing us the two sides of a coin in the purest style of Augustinian dualism.[53]

Orosius is thereby able to present the past as a series of adversities with concrete examples, from Noah's flood to the shipwrecking of ships in the Mediterranean Sea, and the future as something positive despite the reality of the times in which he lived.[53]

In order to follow a narrative of suffering and tragedy he often concentrated on defeats, which was different from the usual Roman historiography which normally gave pre-eminence to victories.[51] However, from a historiographical point of view this approach led to some inconsistencies, as, in order to bring the reader round to his point of view, Orosius sometimes described myths and legends as if they were historic fact.[54]

Another traditional criticism of Orosius's work relates to this dichotomy of pessimism/optimism, which often causes him to offer a narrative that in many ways lacks an objective viewpoint.[55] This divides historians into those that view him as biased and others that reject this criticism and justify his approach by saying that Orosius viewed history in the same way as Christians view life.[55] Put another way, his approach is justified as being founded in the author's Providentialist character.[5]


The narrative ability of Orosius should also not be overlooked. The author had a clear objective: that the Christians be defended from the non-Christian Roman's accusations that the sacking of Rome in 410 was a reprimand because the Christians had forsaken the city's traditional pantheon of gods.[56]

Orosius's narrative abilities in forwarding this argument therefore went beyond the pessimism/optimism duality that was discussed in the previous section. His basic idea is that the past is always worse than the present, because it is always further from the true religion.[56]

The fact that he had clear objectives ensured that he wrote his stories with a definite end in mind. Therefore, there are events that he narrated with little detail and others that he presents in full detail. Orosius never seems lacking in sources of information, he even affirms that an historian should be selective with those he has, it rather seems that this difference in level of detail reflects the emphasis that he wants to place on reinforcing his ideas.[52]

The fact that his writing has a moral objective and apologist agenda means that he focuses on unusual events, such as the suffering of the general population during wartime.[42] This selection of facts, in large part, enables him to write about patriotism, for example, as he always pays a lot of attention to events in Hispania.

The importance of geography

Another important aspect of Orosius's work is the importance he placed on geography in his work as a historian.[57] This is shown in his geographic description of the world in the second chapter of the first of the seven books that comprise the Histories.[57]

One failing of his geographical descriptions is his imprecision, such as, for instance, when he overuses the noun "Caucasus" to refer to other nearby ranges.[58] Despite this vagueness it is notable that the Histories include a chapter on geography. This has lent an increased value to his work in modern historiography, mainly thanks to authors such as Lucien Febvre and Fernand Braudel.

Sources used by Orosius

The sources Orosius used have been investigated by Teodoro de Mörner; besides the Old and New Testaments, he appears to have consulted Caesar, Livy, Justin, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus and a cosmography, attaching also great value to Jerome's translation of the Chronicles of Eusebius.

Impact of Orosius’s work

Historias de Orosio - Colofón
Colophon from an incunabulum of the Historiae Adversus Paganos by Paulus Orosius, one of the most copied books from the Medieval period.[7]

The assumed falling out of Paulus Orosius and Saint Augustine at the end of the former's life does not seem to have had a negative effect on the distribution and impact of his Histories.[59]

Despite the previously highlighted criticisms of his work, Orosius's books were considered to be successes from virtually the day of their publication. His Histories was considered to be one of the main works of Spanish historiography right up until the time of the Reformation.[6] This success has, to a large extent, meant that his other works have also been conserved.

Historiae Adversus Paganos has been quoted by all types of author from Saint Braulio of Zaragoza to Dante Alighieri. Even Lope de Vega made Orosius a central character in his play The Cardinal of Bethlehem, which shows how long-lived his fame was.[7] In fact, the book was not just widely quoted, it was one of the main scholastic books used by students of Ancient History throughout the Middle Ages.[7]

Nearly two hundred manuscripts of the “Histories” have survived. An abridged, free translation, often wrongly attributed to King Alfred is still extant.[60] The Florentine Judge Bono Giamboni translated it into the Italian.[61] A still unpublished 14th century Aragonese translation, made by Domingo de García Martín at the request of Juan Fernández de Heredia, comes from Bono Giamboni's Italian translation. The “Histories” was also translated into Arabic during the reign of al-Hakam II of Córdoba. It later became one of the sources of Ibn Khaldun in his history.

The printed book has been widely copied and there are at least 82 surviving copies and 28 incunables from the first printed editions.[7] There are even copies still existing of editions in Italian and German from the 16th Century.[7]

There are many 19th century versions of the book still in existence. In fact, a version of the book edited by Torres Rodríguez was used in compiling this article, although there are many equally valid versions in existence, both in Castilian Spanish and in other languages.

See also


  1. ^ David Rohrbacher, "Orosius," in The Historians of Late Antiquity (Routledge, 2002), pp. 135–137. Rohrbacher bases the date of birth on Augustine's description of Orosius as a "young priest" and a "son by age" in the period 414–418, which would place his age at 30 or younger. Rohrbacher further speculates (p. 137) that Orosius may have died in a shipwreck while attempting to return to Hispania after visiting Palestine and Africa, since nothing is heard of him after 418, which is also the likely date of completion of his last book.
  2. ^ a b c d Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 22.
  3. ^ a b Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 35.
  4. ^ a b c Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 57.
  5. ^ a b c d Rábade Navarro, Miguel Ángel, “Una interpretación...”, pp. 377.
  6. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 81.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 82.
  8. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 16.
  9. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 19.
  10. ^ a b Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 26. In this section he refers to the author M. P. Annaud-Lindet.
  11. ^ Theodor von Mörner was a 19th-century historian who wrote De Orosii Vita Eiusque Historiarum Libris Septem Adversus Paganos. [1]
  12. ^ Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 24.
  13. ^ Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 25.
  14. ^ Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 27.
  15. ^ Pedro Martínez Cavero refers to a discussion of this theme by J. E. López Pereira in his “Cultura y literatura latinas en el NO peninsular en la latinidad tardía”.
  16. ^ Pedro Martínez Cavero this time refers to author G. Fainck.
  17. ^ Both Martínez Cavero and Torres Rodríguez maintain this in books mentioned in the bibliography.
  18. ^ Drawn by the author from information contained in Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…” and others.
  19. ^ Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 29.
  20. ^ Paulo Orosio, “Historias…”, III 20, 6-7, cited in turn by Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 30.
  21. ^ Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 39.
  22. ^ Merrills, A. H., History and Geography in Late Antiquity, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought fourth Series, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, 2005, p.39
  23. ^ Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 42.
  24. ^ Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 43.
  25. ^ Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 45.
  26. ^ Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 47.
  27. ^ a b Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El pensamiento…”, p. 52-53.
  28. ^ a b Beltrán Corbalán, Domingo and others, “El Commonitorium...”, p. 65.
  29. ^ Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio...”, p. 18.
  30. ^ Beltrán Corbalán, Domingo and others, “El Commonitorium...”, p. 66.
  31. ^ Beltrán Corbalán, Domingo and others, “El Commonitorium...”, p. 67.
  32. ^ Beltrán Corbalán, Domingo and others, “El Commonitorium...”, p. 69.
  33. ^ Beltrán Corbalán, Domingo and others, “El Commonitorium...”, p. 71.
  34. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio...”, p. 36.
  35. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio...”, p. 35.
  36. ^ More detailed information regarding the various theories regarding the date of writing can be found in the sections “Final years” and “Disappearance” of this article.
  37. ^ Alonso Ñúñez, José Miguel, “La metodología...”, p. 375.
  38. ^ a b García Fernández, Francisco José, “La imagen de Hispania...”, p. 287.
  39. ^ a b García Fernández, Francisco José, “La imagen de Hispania...”, p. 286.
  40. ^ Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 75.
  41. ^ Alonso Ñúñez, José Miguel, “La metodología…”, p. 373.
  42. ^ a b Alonso Ñúñez, José Miguel, “La metodología…”, p. 379.
  43. ^ Rábade Navarro, Miguel Ángel, “Una interpretación…”, pp. 378.
  44. ^ Rábade Navarro, Miguel Ángel, “Una interpretación…”, pp. 381.
  45. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 76.
  46. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosius…”, p. 77.
  47. ^ García Fernández, Francisco José, “La imagen de Hispania…”, p. 293.
  48. ^ García Fernández, Francisco José, “La imagen de Hispania…”, p. 294.
  49. ^ a b García Fernández, Francisco José, “La imagen de Hispania…”, p. 298.
  50. ^ Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 63.
  51. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 65.
  52. ^ a b Alonso Ñúñez, José Miguel, “La metodología…”, p. 377.
  53. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 64.
  54. ^ Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 66.
  55. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 68.
  56. ^ a b Alonso Ñúñez, José Miguel, “La metodología…”, p. 376.
  57. ^ a b Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 53.
  58. ^ Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 56.
  59. ^ Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, “Paulo Orosio…”, p. 80.
  60. ^ Old English text, with original in Latin, edited by H. Sweet, 1883.
  61. ^ ed. Tassi, Firenze 1849; partial editions are available in Cesare Segre’s, Volgarizzamenti del Due e del Trecento, Torino 1953 and in Cesare Segre’s, La prosa del Duecento, Milano-Napoli 1959)
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Orosius, Paulus" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 327.


Spanish Wikipedia has a bibliographic annex at: Anexo:Bibliografía sobre Paulo Orosio.
Books by Paulus Orosius
  • Orose: Histoires contre les païens, ed. Marie-Pierre Arnaud-Lindet, 3 vols. Collection des Universités de France, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1990–1991.
  • Pauli Orosii historiarum adversum paganos libri VII; accedit eiusdem, Liber apologeticus, ed. K. Zangemeister. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum 5, Vienna, 1882.
  • Historiarum adversum paganos libri VII, ed. K. Zangemeister. Leipzig: Teubner, 1889.
  • Pacian of Barcelona, Orosius of Braga, in Iberian Fathers: v. 3, The Catholic University of America Press, 1999; ISBN 978-0813200996
  • Orosius, Seven Books of History Against the Pagans, trans. by A. T. Fear. Liverpool University Press, 2010 ISBN 978-1846312397
  • Orosius, Seven Books of History Against the Pagans, trans. Irving W. Raymond. New York: Columbia University Press, 1936.
  • Orosius, Old English History of the World: An Anglo-Saxon Rewriting of Orosius, ed. and trans. Malcolm Godden (Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library), Harvard University Press, 2016; ISBN 978-0674971066. Around the year 900, an Old English version was produced by an anonymous writer, possibly encouraged or inspired by King Alfred. The translator actively transformed Orosius s narrative: cutting extraneous detail, adding explanations and dramatic speeches, and supplying a long section on the geography of the Germanic world.
  • The Old English Orosius, ed. Janet Bately. Early English Text Society, Oxford University Press, 1980.
Publications on Orosius in English
Publications on Orosius in Spanish
  • Alonso Nuñez, José Miguel, “La metodología histórica de Paulo Orosio”, en Helmántica Nº 136-138, 1994, pp. 373–379.
  • Beltrán Corbalán, Domingo, González Fernández, Rafael y Martínez Cavero, Pedro, “El Commonitorium de Orosio: traducción y comentario”, en Faventia: Revista de filología clàssica Nº 21, 1999, pp. 65.83. The complete text (in Spanish) from the article can be found on https://ddd.uab.cat/record/571. Consulted in October 2008.
  • Fuentes De La Rosa, María Luisa, Orosio y su tiempo, 1st Edition, Madrid: Editorial de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1990.
  • García Fernández, Francisco José, “La imagen de Hispania y los hispanos a finales de la Antigüedad. Las Historiae Adversum Paganos de Paulo Orosio”, en Conimbriga Nº44, 2005, pp. 281–299.
  • Mertínez Cavero, Pedro, El pensamiento histórico y antropológico de Orosio, 1st Edition, Murcia: Universidad. Área de Historia Antigua, 2002.
  • Rábe Navarro Miguel Ángel, “Una interpretación de fuentes y métodos en la Historia de Paulo Orosio”, en Tabona. Revista de Prehistoria, Arqueología y Filología Clásicas Nº32, 1985-1987, pp. 377–393.
  • Torres Rodríguez, Casimiro, Paulo Orosio. Su vida y sus obras, 1st Edition, La Coruña: Fundación Pedro Barrie de la Maza Conde de Fenosa, 1985.

External links

Ancient Portugal

This article covers the history of ancient Portugal, the period between Prehistoric Iberia and County of Portugal.


Athaulf (also Athavulf, Atawulf, or Ataulf, Latinized as Ataulphus) (c. 370 – 15 August 415) was king of the Visigoths from 411 to 415. During his reign, he transformed the Visigothic state from a tribal kingdom to a major political power of Late Antiquity.

Battle of Bibracte

The Battle of Bibracte was fought between the Helvetii and six Roman legions, under the command of Gaius Julius Caesar. It was the second major battle of the Gallic Wars.

Bobbio Orosius

The Bobbio Orosius (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana MS D. 23. Sup.) is an early 7th century Insular manuscript of the Chronicon of Paulus Orosius. The manuscript has 48 folios and measures 210 by 150 mm. It is thought to have been produced at the scriptorium of Bobbio Abbey.

It contains the earliest surviving carpet page in Insular art. The carpet page is on folio 1v. Although it is simpler in design than later carpet pages and contains motifs not found in later carpet pages, it shows a subtlety of pattern and alternation of colors common to Insular manuscripts. It consists of a large central rosette surrounded by four corner rosettes, all contained within a rectangular frame. The vertical panels of the frame contain cable motifs; the frame on the left has a single larger cable of white on pink, while the frame on the right has two smaller cables of white on pink separated by a yellow bar. The upper and lower panels are broken into smaller square panels separated by thin bars. The smaller panels are composed of chevrons and triangles that alternate in pink and yellow. The side top and bottom panels continue to the right edge of the frame. Above the left vertical frame there are two square frames containing circular motifs; the top with a cross inside a circle, and the bottom with a rosette. The cross within the circle in the top panel is similar to the cross within a circle found in the center of the carpet page on folio 192v of the Book of Durrow. Six concentric circles surround the central rosette. The page is faded and damaged so that it is difficult to be certain of its original appearance. It has been suggested that the carpet page is later addition to the manuscript.

The carpet page faces the first page of text in the manuscript. The initial P and the opening words Praeceptis tuis par(rui) are many times larger than the rest of the text and are of hollow shafted capitals, with stem of the P descending the entire length of the text block. The capitals are filled with pink and orange pigment. There is an initial D on folio 5 which is outlined by dots and is filled with orange. There is also a larger initial N on folio 33 that has a cable pattern in white on orange in the uprights. The crossing bar is green, while orange dots fill the background.

The manuscript comes from Bobbio Abbey, which was founded by Saint Columbanus in 612. It appears in an inventory of the monastic library done in 1461. The monks gave the manuscript to the Ambrosian Library when it was founded in 1606 by Cardinal Federico Borromeo.

Carpet page

Carpet pages are a characteristic feature of Insular illuminated manuscripts. They are pages of mainly geometrical ornamentation, which may include repeated animal forms, typically placed at the beginning of each of the four Gospels in Gospel Books. The designation "carpet page" is used to describe those pages in Christian, Islamic, or Jewish illuminated manuscripts that contain little or no text and which are filled entirely with decorative motifs. They are distinct from pages devoted to highly decorated historiated initials, though the style of decoration may be very similar.Carpet pages are wholly devoted to ornamentation with brilliant colors, active lines, and complex patterns of interlace. They are normally symmetrical, or very nearly so, about both a horizontal and vertical axis, though for example the page at right is only symmetrical about a vertical axis. Some art historians find their origin in similar Coptic decorative book pages, and they also clearly borrow from contemporary metalwork decoration. Oriental carpets, or other textiles, may themselves have been influences. The tooled leather book binding of the St Cuthbert Gospel represents a simple carpet page in another medium, and the few surviving treasure bindings - metalwork book covers or book shrines - from the same period, such as that on the Lindau Gospels, are also close parallels. Roman floor mosaics seen in post-Roman Britain, are also cited as a possible source. The Hebrew Codex Cairensis, from 9th century Galilee, also contains a similar type of page, but stylistically very different.

The earliest surviving example is from the early 7th century Bobbio Orosius, and relates more closely to Late Antique decoration. There are notable carpet pages in the Book of Kells, Lindisfarne Gospels, Book of Durrow, and other manuscripts.Carpet pages are also found in some medieval Hebrew manuscripts, typically opening the major sections of the book. Islamic manuscripts, especially Qur'ans, often have pages entirely devoted to complex geometrical decoration, but the term is not usually used of them.

Chronica sancti Pantaleonis

The Chronica sancti Pantaleonis, also called the Annales sancti Panthaleonis Coloniensis maximi, is a medieval Latin universal history written at the Benedictine monastery of Saint Pantaleon in Cologne. It was written in 1237 and covers the history of the world in a series of annals from Creation down to the year of composition. A continuation down to 1249 was added later. Up to the year 1199 it relies heavily on other sources; from 1200 it is an independent source.

The Chronica emphasises the four "great kingdoms" of Daniel (the regna maxima). For ancient history, it relies on Flavius Josephus, Paulus Orosius, Justinus, the Venerable Bede, Regino of Prüm and Petrus Comestor. For more recent events in Germany the annalist used the Chronicon universale of Frutolf von Michelsberg, the chronicle of Ekkehard von Aura and the Chronica regia Coloniensis.

The manuscripts from Brussels and Wolfenbüttel are richly illustrated with images of rulers and genealogical trees. The Chronica does not seem to have circulated widely outside of the region around Cologne.

Claudius' expulsion of Jews from Rome

References to an expulsion of Jews from Rome by the Roman Emperor Claudius, who was in office AD 41-54, appear in the Acts of the Apostles (18:2), and in the writings of Roman historians Suetonius (c. AD 69 – c. AD 122), Cassius Dio (c. AD 150 – c. 235) and fifth-century Christian author Paulus Orosius. Scholars generally agree that these references refer to the same incident.The exact date is uncertain. The maximal time window for the expulsion of Jews from Rome is from January AD 41 until January AD 53. More detailed estimates such as those based on the AD 49 date by Orosius or the reduction of the AD 53 upper limit due to Proconsul Gallio's health are possible but controversial.

There were at least two expulsions of Jews from Rome before this event. In 139 BC the Jews were expelled after being accused of Judaizing among the local Gentiles. Then in AD 19 Tiberius once again expelled Jews from the city for similar reasons.

Common brown leafhopper

The common brown leafhopper, Orosius orientalis (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is one of the most common species of Australian leafhoppers with a very wide host range. It is an important vector of several viruses and phytoplasmas worldwide. In Australia, phytoplasmas vectored by O. orientalis cause a range of economically important diseases including legume little leaf, tomato big bud, lucerne witches broom, potato purple top wilt, Australian lucerne and the insect is a possible vector of Australian grapevine yellows. O. orientalis also transmits Tobacco yellow dwarf virus (TYDV genus Mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae) to beans, causing bean summer death disease and to tobacco, causing tobacco yellow dwarf disease.

Although some direct damage caused by leafhopper feeding has been observed, it is relatively minor compared to the losses resulting from disease.


Heraclianus (Ancient Greek: Ἡρακλειανὸς, Herakleianòs; died at Carthage, March 7, 413) was a provincial governor and a usurper of the Roman Empire (412-413) opposed to Emperor Honorius.

Kven Sea

Kven Sea (Cwen sea) is mentioned as the northern border for the ancient Germania in "The Old English Orosius", the history of the world published in England in 890 CE with a commission from King Alfred the Great himself. It was probably the same as the Gulf of Finland, although the Gulf of Bothnia have also been suggested.

Included in Orosius, there is a short mention of the Kven Sea by a Norwegian viking Ottar, but the Kven Sea is unknown outside Orosius.

Borders of the ancient Germania were described in Orosius as follows:

"From the Tanais (River Don) westwards to the Rhine, which takes its rise in the Alps, and runs northward, till it falls into that branch of the ocean which surrounds Bryttannia, and southward from the Tanais to the Donua or Danube, whose source is near that of the Rhine, and which runs to the northward of Greece, till it empties itself into the Euxine, and north even to that part of the ocean which is called the Kven Sea (Cwen sea), there are many nations; and the whole of this extensive country is called Germania."

Ohthere of Hålogaland

Ohthere of Hålogaland (Norwegian: Ottar fra Hålogaland) was a Viking Age Norwegian seafarer known only from an account of his travels that he gave to King Alfred (r. 871–99) of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex in about 890 AD. His account was incorporated into an Anglo-Saxon, or Old English, version of a Latin historical book written early in the 5th century by Paulus Orosius, called Historiarum Adversum Paganos Libri VII, or Seven Books of History Against the Pagans. The Old English version of this book is believed to have been written in Wessex in King Alfred's lifetime or soon after his death, and the earliest surviving copy is attributed to the same place and time.

In his account, Ohthere said that his home was in "Halgoland", or Hålogaland, where he lived "north-most of all Norwegians … [since] no-one [lived] to the north of him". Ohthere spoke of his travels north to the White Sea, and south to Denmark, describing both journeys in some detail. He also spoke of Sweoland (central Sweden), the Sami people (Finnas), and of two peoples called the Cwenas, living in Cwena land to the north of the Swedes, and the Beormas, whom he found living by the White Sea. Ohthere reported that the Beormas spoke a language related to that of the Sami.

Ohthere's story is the earliest known written source for the term "Denmark" (dena mearc), and perhaps also for "Norway" (norðweg). Ohthere's home may have been in the vicinity of Tromsø, in southern Troms county, northern Norway.

Orosius (disambiguation)

Orosius may refer to:

Paulus Orosius (b. circa 375, d. 418?), a Christian historian, theologian and student of Augustine of Hippo from Gallaecia

Bobbio Orosius, an early 7th-century manuscript of the Chronicon by Paulus Orosius

Orosius (leafhopper), a bug genus in the family Cicadellidae

Orosius (leafhopper)

Orosius is a genus of leafhopper in the tribe Opsiini and the subfamily Deltocephalinae. The genus was revised by Ghauri in 1966. Species can be differentiated by the shape of the aedeagus.


The Paemani (or Poemani or Caemani) were a tribe of Belgae in Gallia Belgica, mentioned by Julius Caesar in his commentary of his Gallic Wars. They were one of a group of tribes listed by his local Remi informants as the Germani, along with the Eburones, Condrusi, Caeraesi (or Caeroesi), and Segni. These tribes are therefore referred to as the "Germani Cisrhenani", to distinguish them from Germani living on the east of the Rhine, outside of the Gaulish and Roman area.

Whether this meant that they spoke a Germanic language or not, is still uncertain, but it was claimed by Tacitus that these Germani were the original Germani, and that the term Germani had come to be used broadly, having once only referred to this one people. He also said that the descendants of the original Germani in his time were the Tungri, who had changed their name.The Paemani are frequently associated with the present-day Famenne region of central Wallonia. The proposal that the name Famenne itself derives from Paemani is no longer widely accepted, but the region is thought to be one reasonable proposal for where they lived.It has been argued that their name was the "Caemani". This was the spelling found in a paraphrase of Caesar by Orosius.

In later records, during the time of the Roman empire, the Paemani are no longer mentioned. The old districts of the Condrusi and the Caeroesi are thought to have kept their names into the Middle Ages.

Quintus Laberius Durus

Quintus Laberius Durus (died August 54 BC) was a Roman military tribune who died during Julius Caesar's second expedition to Britain. Caesar describes how soon after landing in Kent, the Romans were attacked whilst building a camp by the native Britons. Before re-inforcements could arrive, Laberius was killed. His burial site is traditionally the earthworks of Julliberrie's Grave near Chilham (which is in fact a Neolithic long barrow).

Orosius, in his Seven Books of History Against the Pagans, calls him Labienus, confusing him with Caesar's legate Titus Labienus, who lived to fight against Caesar in the Civil War. The error was perpetuated by Bede and Geoffrey of Monmouth, both of whom refer to a tribune called Labienus being killed in Britain. The latter says he was killed by Nennius.

Despite his status as a footnote in history, a long modern poem by American poet Gabriel Gudding is dedicated to Laberius ("For Quintus Laberius Durus, Who, Because of a Javelin in His Lungs, Died Near Kent, in Early August, 54 B.C") and appears in his book, A Defense of Poetry (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2002). An historical novel, Caesar (Harper, 1999), by Australian writer Colleen McCullough, also involves him.

Temple of Janus (Roman Forum)

In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus as it is often called, although it was not a normal temple, stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Janus was Numa's most famous architectural project.


Trinovantum, in medieval British legend, is the name given to London in earliest times. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae (1136) it was founded by the exiled Trojan Brutus, who called it Troia Nova ("New Troy"), which was gradually corrupted to Trinovantum. It was later rebuilt by King Lud, who named it Caer Lud ("Lud's Fort") after himself, and this name became corrupted to Kaer Llundain, and finally London. This legend is part of the Matter of Britain.

The name Trinovantum derives from the Iron age tribe of the Trinovantes, who lived in Essex, Suffolk and part of Greater London, and who are mentioned by Julius Caesar in his account of his expeditions to Britain in 55 and 54 BC. In a later account of these expeditions by Orosius, they are referred to as civitas Trinovantum, "the nation of the Trinovantes", with Trinovantum in this case being in the genitive plural. However, as civitas can also mean "city" and Latin neuter nouns often end in -um in the nominative singular, this phrase was misinterpreted by Geoffrey or his sources as "the city Trinovantum".

In Roman times the city was known by the name Londinium, which appears to be cognate with Llundain and London.

Wulfstan of Hedeby

Wulfstan of Hedeby (Latin Haethum) was a late ninth century traveller and trader. His travel accounts, as well as those of another trader, Ohthere of Hålogaland, were included in Alfred the Great's translation of Orosius' Histories. It is unclear if Wulfstan was English or indeed if he was from Hedeby, in today's northern Germany near the city of Schleswig.

According to this account, Wulfstan undertook a journey by sea from Hedeby to the Prussian trading centre of Truso around the year 880. He names the lands the coasts he passes.

Wulfstan said that he went from Haethum to Truso in seven days and nights, and that the ship was running under sail all the way. Weonodland was on his right, and Langland, Laeland, Falster, and Sconey, on his left, all which land is subject to Denmark. Then on our left we had the land of the Burgundians, who have a king to themselves. Then, after the land of the Burgundians, we had on our left the lands that have been called from the earliest times Blekingey, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland, all which territory is subject to the Sweons; and Weonodland (the land of the Wends) was all the way on our right, as far as Weissel-mouth.

This may be the earliest recorded use of the word "Denmark" (Danemearcan). The text of Wulfstan is also one of the earliest attestments of unique traditions and customs of Western Balts - Prussians, called Estum, and their land called Witland in his text. The purpose of this travel remains unclear, one of the hypothesis is that King Alfred was interested in having allies against vikings and therefore looked at Prussians - Aestii as a potential ally.


Xasthur () is the project of American musician Scott "Malefic" Conner. Conner formed Xasthur in 1995 and released eight studio albums of black metal by 2010, when he announced the end of the project. However, he revived it in 2015 to focus on acoustic neofolk music, releasing a ninth album, Subject to Change, in 2016.

Early Church
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Mysticism and reforms
19th century
20th century
21st century

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.