Oriental studies

Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Middle Eastern studies and Asian studies. Traditional Oriental studies in Europe is today generally focused on the discipline of Islamic studies, while the study of China, especially traditional China, is often called Sinology. The study of East Asia in general, especially in the United States, is often called East Asian studies, while the study of Israel and Jews are called Israel studies and Jewish studies respectively, although they are often considered the same field.

European study of the region formerly known as "the Orient" had primarily religious origins, which has remained an important motivation until recent times. Learning from Arabic medicine and philosophy, and the Greek translations from Arabic, was an important factor in the Middle Ages. Linguistic knowledge preceded a wider study of cultures and history, and as Europe began to encroach upon the region, political and economic factors encouraged growth in academic study. From the late 18th century archaeology became a link from the discipline to a wide European public, as treasures pillaged during colonial contacts filled new European museums. The modern study was influenced both by imperialist attitudes and interests, and also the sometimes naive fascination of the exotic East for Mediterranean and European writers and thinkers, captured in images by artists, that is embodied in a repeatedly-surfacing theme in the history of ideas in the West, called "Orientalism". In the last century, scholars from the region itself have participated on equal terms in the discipline.

BM; RM6 - ANE, Assyrian Sculpture 14 West Wall (M + N) ~ Assyrian Empire + Lamassu, Gates at Balawat, Relief Panel's & Full Projection.3
Ancient Assyrian antiquities in the British Museum. In the 19th century the placing of spectacular antiquities in the new museums brought unusual interest from the general public to Oriental studies.

History

Pre-Islam

The original distinction between the "West" and the "East" was crystallized in the Greco-Persian Wars of the 5th century BC, when Athenian historians made a distinction between their "Athenian democracy" and the Persian monarchy. An institutional distinction between East and West did not exist as a defined polarity before the Oriens- and Occidens-divided administration of the Emperor Diocletian's Roman Empire at the end of the 3rd century AD, and the division of the Empire into Latin and Greek-speaking portions. The classical world had intimate knowledge of their Ancient Persian neighbours (and usually enemies), but very imprecise knowledge of most of the world further East, including the "Seres" (Chinese). However, there was substantial direct Roman trade with India (unlike with China) in the Imperial period.

Middle Ages

HaytonRemittingHisReportToThePope
Hayton of Corycus remitting his report on the Mongols, to Pope Clement V, in 1307

The rise of Islam and Muslim conquests in the 7th century established a sharp opposition, or even a sense of polarity, between medieval European Christendom and the medieval Islamic world (which stretched from the Middle East and Central Asia to North Africa and Andalusia). During the Middle Ages, Muslims and Jews were considered the "alien" enemies of Christendom. Popular medieval European knowledge of cultures farther to the East was poor, dependent on the wildly fictionalized travels of Sir John Mandeville and legends of Prester John, although the equally famous, and much longer, account by Marco Polo was a good deal more accurate.

Scholarly work was initially very largely linguistic in nature, with primarily a religious focus on understanding both Biblical Hebrew and languages like Syriac with early Christian literature, but also from a wish to understand Arabic works on medicine, philosophy and science. This effort, also called the Studia Linguarum existed sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, and the "Renaissance of the 12th century" witnessed a particular growth in translations of Arabic texts into Latin, with figures like Constantine the African, who translated 37 books, mostly medical texts, from Arabic to Latin, and Herman of Carinthia, one of the translators of the Qur'an. The earliest translation of the Qur'an into Latin was completed in 1143, although little use was made of it until it was printed in 1543, after which it was translated into other European languages. Gerard of Cremona and others based themselves in Al-Andaluz to take advantage of the Arabic libraries and scholars there. Later, with the Christian Reconquista in full progress, such contacts became rarer in Spain. Chairs of Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic were briefly established at Oxford, and four other universities following the Council of Vienne (1312).[1]

There was vague but increasing knowledge of the complex civilizations in China and India, from which luxury goods (notably cotton and silk textiles as well as ceramics) were imported. Although the Crusades produced relatively little in the way of scholarly interchange, the eruption of the Mongol Empire had strategic implications for both the Crusader kingdoms and Europe itself, and led to extended diplomatic contacts. From the Age of Exploration, European interest in mapping Asia, and especially the sea-routes, became intense, though mostly pursued outside the universities.

Renaissance to 1800

Ricci Guangqi 2
Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (徐光啟) (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements (幾何原本) published in 1607

University Oriental studies became systematic during the Renaissance, with the linguistic and religious aspects initially continuing to dominate. There was also a political dimension, as translations for diplomatic purposes were needed, even before the West engaged actively with the East beyond the Ottoman Empire. A landmark was the publication in Spain in 1514 of the first Polyglot Bible, containing the complete existing texts in Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to Greek and Latin. At Cambridge University there has been a Regius Professor of Hebrew since 1540 (the fifth oldest regular chair there), and the chair in Arabic was founded in about 1643. Oxford followed for Hebrew in 1546 (both chairs were established by Henry VIII). Distinguished scholars included Edmund Castell, who published his Lexicon Heptaglotton Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum, Samaritanum, Aethiopicum, Arabicum, et Persicum in 1669, whilst some scholars like Edward Pococke had travelled to the East and wrote also on the modern history and society of Eastern peoples. The University of Salamanca had Professors of Oriental Languages from at least the 1570s. In France, Colbert initiated a training programme for "Les Jeunes de langues", young linguists with the diplomatic service, like François Pétis de la Croix, who like his father and his son served as Arabic interpreter to the King. Study of the Far East was pioneered by missionaries, especially Matteo Ricci and others in the Jesuit China missions, and missionary motives were to remain important, at least in linguistic studies.

During the 18th century Western scholars reached a reasonable basic level of understanding of the geography and most of the history of the region, though knowledge of the areas least accessible to Western travellers, like Japan and Tibet, and their languages, remained limited. Enlightenment thinkers characterized aspects of the pagan East as superior to the Christian West, in Montesquieu's Lettres Persanes or Voltaire's ironic promotion of Zoroastrianism; others, like Edward Gibbon, praised the relative religious tolerance of the Middle East as opposed to the intolerant Christian West, and many, including Diderot and Voltaire, the high social status of scholarship in Mandarin China. The Università degli Studi di Napoli "L'Orientale" (English: University of Naples "L'Orientale"), founded in Naples, Italy, in 1732, is the oldest school of Sinology and Oriental Studies of the European continent.

The end of the century saw the beginnings in the great increase in study of the archaeology of the period, which was to be an ever-more important aspect of the field through the next century. Egyptology led the way, and as with many other ancient cultures, provided the linguists with new material for decipherment and study.

Nineteenth century

Kolkata Asiatic Society2
The old building of the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, founded by William Jones in 1784

With a great increase in knowledge of Asia among Western specialists, increasing political and economic involvement in the region, and in particular the realization of the existence of close relations between Indian and European languages, by William Jones, there emerged more complex intellectual connections between the early history of Eastern and Western cultures. Some of these developments occurred in the context of Franco–British rivalry for control of India. Liberal economists, such as James Mill, denigrated Eastern civilizations as static and corrupt. Karl Marx, himself of Jewish origin, characterized the Asiatic mode of production as unchanging, because of the economic narrowness of village economies and the State's role in production. Oriental despotism was generally regarded in Europe as a major factor in the relative failure of progress of Eastern societies. The study of Islam in particular was central to the field since the majority of people living in the geographical area termed 'the Orient' were Muslims. Interest in understanding Islam was partly fueled by economic considerations of growing trade in the Mediterranean region and the changing cultural and intellectual climate of the time.[2]

In the course of the century Western archaeology spread across the Middle East and Asia, with spectacular results. In the 1850s, for example, the French Government was determined to mount large-scale operations in Assyria and Mesopotamia to showcase its dominance in the region. An archaeological team led by Victor Place excavated the palace of the Assyrian King Sargon II in Khorsabad (formerly Nineveh), would become the first systematic excavation of the site.[3] This expedition resulted in a pioneering publication entitled Ninevah and Assyria, jointly authored by Victor Place and Felix Thomas and published in around 1867.[4] New national museums provided a setting for important archaeological finds, most of which were in this period bought back to Europe, and put Orientalists in the public spotlight as never before.

The first serious European studies of Buddhism and Hinduism were by the scholars Eugene Burnouf and Max Müller. In that time, the academic study of Islam also developed, and, by the mid-19th century, Oriental Studies was a well-established academic discipline in most European countries, especially those with imperial interests in the region. Yet, while scholastic study expanded, so did racist attitudes and stereotypes of "inscrutable", "wily" Orientals. This frequently extended to local Jewish and Romani communities, who were also of Oriental origin and widely recognized as such. Scholarship often was intertwined with prejudicial racist and religious presumptions,[5] to which the new biological sciences tended to contribute until the middle of the following century.

Twentieth century

Rosetta Stone International Congress of Orientalists ILN 1874
Experts inspecting the Rosetta Stone during the Second International Congress of Orientalists in London, 1874

The participation in academic studies by scholars from the newly independent nations of the region itself inevitably changed the nature of studies considerably, with the emergence of post-colonial studies and Subaltern Studies. The influence of Orientalism (in the sense used by Edward Said in his book of the same name) in scholarship on the Middle East was seen to have re-emerged and risen in prevalence again after the end of the Cold War. It is contended that this was partly a response to "a lacuna" in identity politics in international relations generally, and within the 'West' particularly, which was brought about by the absence of Soviet communism as a global adversary.[6] The post–Cold War era has been marked by discussions of Islamist terrorism framing views on the extent to which the culture of the Arab world and Islam is a threat to that of the West. The essence of this debate reflects a presupposition for which Orientalism has been criticized - that the 'Orient' is defined exclusively by Islam. Such considerations as these were seen to have occurred in the wider context of the way in which many Western scholars responded to international politics in the post–Cold War world; and they were arguably heightened following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.[7]

Symbolic of this type of response to the end of the Cold War was the popularization of the 'clash of civilizations' thesis. This particular idea of a fundamental conflict between East and West was first advanced by Bernard Lewis in an article entitled "The Roots of Muslim Rage", written in 1990. Again, this was seen as a way of accounting for new forms and lines of division in post–Cold War international society. The 'clash of civilizations' approach involved another characteristic of Orientalist thought; namely, the tendency to see the region as being one, homogenous 'civilization', rather than as comprising various different and diverse cultures and strands. It was an idea that was taken on more famously by Samuel Huntington in his 1993 article in Foreign Affairs, called "The Clash of Civilizations?".[8]

Orientology postal stamp India
Orientology postal stamp published in India

"Orientalism" and Oriental studies

WomenofAlgiers
The Women of Algiers, 1834, by Eugène Delacroix is one of the earliest paintings from Western painters in the "Eastern world".

The term Orientalism has come to acquire negative connotations in some quarters and is interpreted to refer to the study of the East by Westerners shaped by the attitudes of the era of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. When used in this sense, it often implies prejudiced, outsider-caricatured interpretations of Eastern cultures and peoples. This viewpoint was most famously articulated and propagated by Edward Said in Orientalism (1978), a critical history of this scholarly tradition.[9] In contrast, the term has also been used by some modern scholars to refer to writers of the Imperialist era who had pro-Eastern attitudes, as opposed to those who saw nothing of value in non-Western cultures.[10]

From "Oriental Studies" to "Asian Studies"

Like the term Orient, Orientalism derives from the Latin word oriens (rising) and, equally likely, from the Greek word ('he'oros', the direction of the rising sun). "Orient" is the opposite of Occident, a term for the Western world. In terms of the Old World, Europe was considered the Occident (the west), and its farthest-known extreme the Orient (the east). Dating from the Roman Empire until the Middle Ages, what is now, in the West, considered 'the Middle East' was then considered 'the Orient'. However, use of the various terms and senses derived from "Orient" has greatly declined in the 20th century, not least as trans-Pacific links between Asia and America have grown; nowadays, Asia usually arrives at the USA from the West.

In most North American and Australian universities, Oriental Studies has now been replaced by Asian Studies. In many cases the field has been localised to specific regions, such as Middle Eastern or Near Eastern Studies, South Asian studies, and East Asian Studies. This reflects the fact that the Orient is not a single, monolithic region but rather a broad area encompassing multiple civilizations. The generic concept of Oriental Studies, to its opponents, has lost any use it may have once had and is perceived as obstructing changes in departmental structures to reflect actual patterns of modern scholarship. In many universities, like Chicago, the faculties and institutions have divided; the Biblical languages may be linked with theological institutes, and the study of ancient civilizations in the region may come under a different faculty to studies of modern periods.

In 1970, the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the Australian National University was re-named the Faculty of Asian Studies. In 2007 the Faculty of Oriental Studies at Cambridge University was renamed the Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, but Oxford still has its Faculty of Oriental Studies, as do Chicago, Rome, London (covering African studies also), and other universities.

Various explanations for the change to "Asian studies" are offered; a growing number of professional scholars and students of Asian Studies are themselves Asian or from groups of Asian origin (like Asian Americans). This change of labeling may be correlated in some cases to the fact that sensitivity to the term "Oriental" has been heightened in a more politically correct atmosphere, although it began earlier: Bernard Lewis' own department at Princeton University was renamed a decade before Said wrote his book, a detail that Said gets wrong.[11] By some, the term "Oriental" has come to be thought offensive to non-Westerners. Area studies that incorporate not only philological pursuits but identity politics may also account for the hesitation to use the term "Oriental".

Supporters of "Oriental Studies" counter that the term "Asian" is just as encompassing as "Oriental," and may well have originally had the same meaning, were it derived from an Akkadian word for "East" (a more common derivation is from one or both of two Anatolian proper names). Replacing one word with another is to confuse historically objectionable opinions about the East with the concept of "the East" itself. The terms Oriental/Eastern and Occidental/Western are both inclusive concepts that usefully identify large-scale cultural differences. Such general concepts do not preclude or deny more specific ones.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hebrew to Latin, Latin to Hebrew: the mirroring of two cultures 2006 Page 75 Giulio Busi, Freie Universität Berlin. Institut für Judaistik - 2006 "According to the famous decision of the council of Vienne (1311–1312), Oxford was chosen as one of four universities (with Paris, Bologna and Salamanca) where Hebrew, Arabic, Greek and Aramaic were to be taught."
  2. ^ Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004:44
  3. ^ Potts, D.T. (ed), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Volume 1, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 51-52; Pouillon, F., Dictionnaire des Orientalistes de Langue Française, KARTHALA, 2008, p. 924
  4. ^ Maisels, C.K., The Near East: Archaeology in the Cradle of Civilization, Routledge, 2005, pp 40-41; Tanner, J.P., “Ancient Babylon: From Gradual Demise to Archaeological Rediscovery,” Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin, Vol. 47 ,2002, pp 11-20; Library notes on Ninive et L'Assyrie, Consul General Avec Des Essais De Restauration, by Victor Place and Felix Thomas, [3 volume set], Imprimerie Imperiale, Paris, 1857, Online: https://www.iberlibro.com/buscar-libro/primera-edicion/tapa-dura/precio-min/30/vi/960590/sortby/1/; Pouillon, F., Dictionnaire des Orientalistes de Langue Française, KARTHALA, 2008, p. 924
  5. ^ J. Go, "'Racism' and Colonialism: Meanings of Difference and Ruling Practice in America's Pacific Empire" in Qualitative Sociology' 27.1 (March 2004).
  6. ^ Jochen Hippler and Andrea Lueg (eds.), The Next Threat: Western Perceptions of Islam (Pluto Press/The Transnational Institute, London, 1995), p. 1.
  7. ^ Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004), pp. 223–233.
  8. ^ Zachary Lockman, p. 233.
  9. ^ Clarke, J.J. (1997). Oriental enlightenment the encounter between Asian and Western thought. Routledge. p. 8.
  10. ^ For example Thomas R. Trautmann in Aryans and British India, 1997, ISBN 0-520-20546-4
  11. ^ Princeton University, Near Eastern Studies department

Institutions

Americas
Asia
Europe

Resources

Articles

Further reading

  • Crawley, William. "Sir William Jones: A vision of Orientalism", Asian Affairs, Vol. 27, Issue 2. (Jun. 1996), pp. 163–176.
  • Fleming, K.E. "Orientalism, the Balkans, and Balkan Historiography", The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 4. (Oct., 2000), pp. 1218–1233.
  • Halliday, Fred. "'Orientalism' and Its Critics", British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 20, No. 2. (1993), pp. 145–163.
  • Irwin, Robert. For lust of knowing: The Orientalists and their enemies. London: Penguin/Allen Lane, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7139-9415-0). As Dangerous Knowledge: Orientalism and Its Discontents. New York: Overlook Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-58567-835-X).
  • Klein, Christina. Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945–1961. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003 (hardcover, ISBN 0-520-22469-8; paperback, ISBN 0-520-23230-5).
  • Knight, Nathaniel. "Grigor'ev in Orenburg, 1851–1862: Russian Orientalism in the Service of Empire?", Slavic Review, Vol. 59, No. 1. (Spring, 2000), pp. 74–100.
  • Vasiliev, Leonid. "Stages of the World Historical Process: an Orientalist's View." Electronic Science and Education Journal: "Istoriya" 3:2, 10 (2012). http://history.jes.su/ Accessed: March 19, 2014.
  • Vasiliev, Leonid. "Stages of the World Historical Process: an Orientalist's View." Electronic Science and Education Journal: "Istoriya" 3:2, 10 (2012). http://history.jes.su/ Accessed: March 19, 2014.
  • Kontje, Todd. German Orientalisms. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004 (ISBN 0-472-11392-5).
  • Little, Douglas. American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East Since 1945. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-8078-2737-1); 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-8078-5539-1); London: I.B. Tauris, 2002 (new ed., hardcover, ISBN 1-86064-889-4).
  • Murti, Kamakshi P. India: The Seductive and Seduced "Other" of German Orientalism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-313-30857-8)
  • Suzanne L. Marchand: German Orientalism in the Age of Empire - Religion, Race and Scholarship, German Historical Institute, Washington, D.C. and Cambridge University Press, New York 2009 ISBN 978-0-521-51849-9 (hardback)
  • Noble dreams, wicked pleasures: Orientalism in America, 1870–1930 by Holly Edwards (Editor). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000 (hardcover, ISBN 0-691-05003-1; paperback, ISBN 0-691-05004-X).
  • Katz, Elizabeth. Virginia Law. Democracy in the Middle East. 2006. September 9, 2006
  • Gusterin, Pavel. Первый российский востоковед Дмитрий Кантемир / First Russian Orientalist Dmitry Kantemir. Moscow, 2008. ISBN 978-5-7873-0436-7.
  • Wokoeck, Ursula. German Orientalism: The Study of the Middle East and Islam from 1800 to 1945. London: Routledge, 2009. ISBN 978-0-415-46490-1
  • Lockman, Zachary. Contending Visions of the Middle East. The History and Politics of Orientalism. New York: Cambridge University Press 2004, ISBN 0-5216-2937-3.
    • Reviewed by Wolfgang G. Schwanitz in DAVO-Nachrichten, Mainz, Germany, 23(2006)8, 77-78.
  • Smith-Peter, Susan. (2016), "Enlightenment from the East: Early Nineteenth Century Russian Views of the East from Kazan University", Znanie. Ponimanie. Umenie, 13 (1): 318–338, doi:10.17805/zpu.2016.1.29, archived from the original on 5 May 2016, retrieved 5 May 2016.
Aram Ter-Ghevondyan

Aram Ter-Ghevondyan (Armenian: Արամ Նահապետի Տեր-Ղևոնդյան; Russian: Aрaм Наaпетович Теp-Гeвoндян, also often seen written in Western sources as Ter-Ghewondyan or Ter-Łewondyan; July 24, 1928 – February 10, 1988) was an Armenian historian and scholar who specialized in the study of historical sources and medieval Armenia's relations with the Islamic world and Oriental studies. His seminal work, The Arab Emirates in Bagratuni Armenia, is an important study on the Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia. From 1981 until his death, Ter-Ghevondyan headed the Institute of Oriental Studies at the Armenian Academy of Sciences and he additionally held an honorary doctorate from the University of Aleppo and was an associate member of the Tiberian Academy of Rome.

Armenian National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS RA) (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետության գիտությունների ազգային ակադեմիա, ՀՀ ԳԱԱ, Hayastani Hanrapetut’yan gitut’yunneri azgayin akademia) is the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science and social sciences in Armenia.

Arts and Humanities Citation Index

The Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI), also known as Arts & Humanities Search, is a citation index, with abstracting and indexing for more than 1,700 arts and humanities journals, and coverage of disciplines that includes social and natural science journals. Part of this database is derived from Current Contents records. Furthermore, the print counterpart is Current Contents.

Subjects covered are the Arts, Humanities, Language (including Linguistics), Poetry, Music, Classical works, History, Oriental Studies, Philosophy, Archaeology, Architecture, Religion, Television, Theater, and Radio.

Available citation (source) coverage includes articles, letters, editorials, meeting abstracts, errata, poems, short stories, plays, music scores, excerpts from books, chronologies, bibliographies and filmographies, as well as citations to reviews of books, films, music, and theatrical performances.

This database can be accessed online through Web of Science. It provides access to current and retrospective bibliographic information and cited references. It also covers individually selected, relevant items from approximately 1,200 titles, mostly arts and humanities journals but with an unspecified number of titles from other disciplines.

According to Thomson Reuters, the Arts & Humanities Search, can be accessed via Dialog, DataStar, and OCLC, with weekly updates and backfiles to 1980.Scholar Rainer Enrique Hamel has criticized the Arts & Humanities Citation Index for its poor reflection of scientific production in languages other than English. Also while analyzing solely content in Spanish of 2006 Hamel found the absurd situation that in the index there were more Spanish-language publications from authors based in the United States than from any other Spanish-language country.

Asian studies

Asian studies is the term used usually in North America and Australia for what in Europe is known as Oriental studies. The field is concerned with the Asian people, their cultures, languages, history and politics. Within the Asian sphere, Asian studies combines aspects of sociology, history, cultural anthropology and many other disciplines to study political, cultural and economic phenomena in Asian traditional and contemporary societies. Asian studies forms a field of post-graduate study in many universities.

It is a branch of area studies, and many Western universities combine Asian and African studies in a single faculty or institute, like SOAS in London. It is often combined with Islamic studies in a similar way. The history of the discipline in the West is covered under Oriental studies.

Birendra Narayan Chakraborty

Birendra Narayan Chakraborty OBE, ICS (बीरेंद्र नारायण चक्रवर्ती, also Birendra Narayan Chakravarty) (20 December 1904 – 26 March 1976) was an Indian civil servant, politician and the second governor of Haryana.He attended Kolkata's Scottish Church College, and continued his education at the University of Calcutta. He joined University College London for a BSc in chemistry in 1926. After further studies for the Indian Civil Service examinations at the School of Oriental Studies, London, he passed the examinations in 1928 and joined the ICS in October 1929 as an assistant collector and magistrate in the Bengal Presidency. He was promoted to joint magistrate and deputy collector in July 1930 and to additional district and sessions judge (officiating) in June 1935. In February 1936, he was promoted to full magistrate and collector, and was appointed a joint secretary with the Finance Department of the Government of Bengal in April 1944. As an acting secretary, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 1945 Birthday Honours list.After Indian independence, he served as Governor of Haryana from 15 September 1967 until his death in office on 26 March 1976, aged 71.

Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft

The Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (German: [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈmɔʁɡənˌlɛndɪʃə ɡəˈzɛlʃaft], German Oriental Society), abbreviated DMG, is a scholarly organization dedicated to Oriental studies, that is, to the study of the languages and cultures of the Near East and the Far East, the broader Orient, Asia, Oceania, and Africa.

The DMG was established on 2 October 1845 in Leipzig by leading Oriental scholars from Germany, as well as members of other Orientalist societies such as the Asiatic Societies in Paris (the Société Asiatique), London (the Royal Asiatic Society), and Calcutta (the Asiatic Society). It was founded "to promote all aspects of the knowledge of Asia and of the countries closely related to it in every aspect, and to propagate participation of this in wider circles. Hence the Society will deal not only with oriental literature (morgenländische Literatur) but also with the history of these countries and the research of their situation both earlier and more recent times."

The DMG has traditionally concentrated on the "knowledge of languages, literatures, history, religions and philosophies, forms of law and society, archaeology, and the art and material culture of the people living in these areas". In recent years, its scope has expanded to include sociology and political science as well. The academic disciplines represented in the DMG include the following: Ancient Near Eastern studies, Semitic languages, Jewish studies, Arabic studies, Islamic studies, the study of Oriental Christianity, Persian studies and Iranian studies, Indology, Turkish studies, Central Asian studies, Indo-European studies, Mongolian studies, Tibetan studies, Sinology, Japanese studies, Southeast Asian studies, and African studies.

The publishing program of the DMG consists of its internationally renowned journal, the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (ZDMG), published since 1847, and its monograph series, Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes (AKM), published since 1857, as well as the Beiruter Texte und Studien (BTS), which have been published since 1964.

Beginning in 1921, every 3 to 5 years the DMG has organized the "Deutschen Orientalistentag" (DOT), a congress of Oriental studies open to all German and foreign specialists in the field.

The DMG has been based since 2006 in Halle (Saale). It maintains a research library there with more than 66,000 titles and a photographic collection.

Egyptology

Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. Arabic: علم المصريات‎) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD. A practitioner of the discipline is an "Egyptologist". In Europe, particularly on the Continent, Egyptology is primarily regarded as being a philological discipline, while in North America it is often regarded as a branch of archaeology.

Faculty of Oriental Studies

The Faculty of Oriental Studies (formerly the Oriental Institute), is the University of Oxford's department of Asian and Middle East Studies.

The department is engaged in a broad range of research and teaching on modern and historical Asian and Middle Eastern studies, focusing on politics, language, and culture. The faculty's main building is located on Pusey Lane near the Ashmolean Museum and Sackler Library, with some research centres of the faculty having their own buildings elsewhere in Oxford (such as the Middle East Centre based at St. Antony's College, Oxford). The department is part of the Humanities Division at the University of Oxford. The Faculty of Oriental Studies has its own library for students and professors, which is both a lending library and a reading room of the Bodleian Library.

Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian: Институт востоковедения Российской Академии Наук), formerly Institute of Oriental Studies of the USSR Academy of Sciences, is a Russian research institution for the study of the countries and cultures of Asia and North Africa. The institute is located in Moscow, and formerly in Saint Petersburg, but in 2007 the Saint Petersburg branch was reorganized into a separate Institute of Oriental Manuscripts.

Le Muséon

Le Muséon: Revue d’Études Orientales (The Muséon: Journal of Oriental Studies) is a peer-reviewed academic journal of Linguistics and Oriental Studies. It was established in 1881 by Charles de Harlez, subsidised by the government of Belgium and the Catholic University of Leuven. The journal is published biannually by Peeters Publishers. Articles are in English, French, German, or Italian. The editor-in-chief is Andrea Schmidt.

Monumenta Serica

Monumenta Serica - Journal of Oriental Studies (Chin. 華裔學志, Huayi xuezhi) ISSN 0179-261X – international academic journal of sinology. It is published by Monumenta Serica Institute in Sankt Augustin. The editor-in-chief was until 2012 Roman Malek and is now Zbigniew Wesołowski.

The journal was founded in 1934 in the Fu Jen Catholic University in Peking by Franz Xaver Biallas. It is dedicated to the study of Chinese culture and to the publication of academic contributions in the field of Chinese studies in English, German and French. The journal is published annually. Back issues of Monumenta Serica are accessible through JSTOR.

Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies

This is an article about a defunct university in Moscow. For a modern research institution in Moscow, see Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies (Russian: Московский институт востоковедения, abbreviated МИВ (MIV)) was a university-level educational institution that operated in Moscow, Russia, in 1920-1954. It was created as a result of merging Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages and the Oriental studies departments in Moscow's other higher educational institutions.

When the institute was closed in 1954, its Department of Indian Languages and Department of the Languages of the Near and Middle East have been transferred into Moscow State Institute of International Relations.

Omeljan Pritsak

Omeljan Pritsak (Ukrainian: Омеля́н Пріца́к; 7 April 1919, Luka, Sambir County, West Ukrainian People's Republic – 29 May 2006, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.) was the first Mykhailo Hrushevsky Professor of Ukrainian History at Harvard University and the founder and first director (1973–1989) of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.

Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies

The Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies (OCBS) was founded in 2004 by Prof Richard Gombrich, Emeritus Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford. The Centre is a Recognised Independent Centre of the University of Oxford.The OCBS is interdisciplinary in its approach to the broad field of Buddhist Studies and is most closely associated with the Buddhist Studies Unit of the Faculty of Oriental Studies

in its interaction with the University. Through this unit the OCBS also maintains close links with the Faculty of Theology and the School of Anthropology.The Centre arranges a broad range of seminars and lectures each year. It was responsible for the establishment of the first endowed Chair of Buddhist Studies in Oxford. The Numata Professor of Buddhist Studies is a Fellow of Balliol College, and a member of the Faculty of Oriental Studies.

The OCBS, in partnership with Equinox, publishes the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies Monographs, Edited by Richard Gombrich.

Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies

The Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies (OCHJS) is a Recognised Independent Centre of the University of Oxford, England. Its research fellows teach on a variety of undergraduate and master's degrees in Oriental studies, and it publishes the Journal of Jewish Studies.

Princeton University East Asian Studies Department

The East Asian Studies Department at Princeton University originally began as the Department of Oriental Languages and Literature (also later known as the Department of Oriental Studies) in 1927. Both the graduate Semitic and Indo-European Philology programs presented an increasing need for an Asian studies curriculum that could not be addressed by these departments. The Department of Oriental Languages and Literature was formed in response to this growing need. In 1937, an undergraduate program also began to take shape, beginning with courses in Chinese art and Far Eastern politics. World War II hindered the development of the Asian language curriculum until 1956 when Frederick W. Mote, a graduate of the Department of Oriental Studies, began regular work in Chinese.

In 1960, the Department of Oriental Languages and Literature expanded to include Japanese language and literature courses. Marius Jansen was appointed as the head of the Japanese program. During this time, an experimental Korean program was offered, which included studies in language, history, and politics. However, this program proved unsuccessful, and another Korean program would not be instituted until 1993. In 1969, the Department of Oriental Studies received independent status and was renamed the East Asian Studies Department (the other component forming the Department of Near Eastern Studies).The East Asian Studies Department cooperates with the Department of Art and Archaeology to offer a doctoral program in Chinese or Japanese art and archaeology.

SOAS, University of London

SOAS University of London (; the School of Oriental and African Studies) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1916, SOAS is located in the heart of Bloomsbury in central London.

SOAS is the world's leading institution for the study of Asia, Africa and the Middle East. It is home to the SOAS School of Law. SOAS offers around 350 undergraduate bachelor's degree combinations, more than 100 one-year master's degrees and PhD programmes in nearly every department. SOAS is ranked 4th globally in Development Studies by the 2018 QS World University Rankings.SOAS has produced several heads of states, government ministers, diplomats, central bankers, Supreme Court judges, a Nobel Peace Prize Laureate and many other notable leaders around the world.

University of Chicago Oriental Institute

The Oriental Institute (OI), established in 1919, is the University of Chicago's interdisciplinary research center for ancient Near Eastern ("Orient") studies, and archaeology museum. It was founded for the university by professor James Henry Breasted with funds donated by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. It conducts research on ancient civilizations throughout the Near East, including at its facility, Chicago House, in Luxor, Egypt. The Institute publicly exhibits an extensive collection of artifacts related to ancient civilizations at its on-campus building in the Hyde Park, Chicago community.

Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft

The Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (English: "Journal of the German Oriental Society") is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering Oriental studies, published by Harrassowitz Verlag on behalf of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft. It was established in 1847 and the editor-in-chief is Florian C. Reiter (Humboldt University of Berlin).

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