The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS; French: Organisation des États de la Caraïbe orientale, OECO) is an inter-governmental organisation dedicated to economic harmonisation and integration, protection of human and legal rights, and the encouragement of good governance between countries and territories in the Eastern Caribbean. It also performs the role of spreading responsibility and liability in the event of natural disaster.
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
Organisation des États de la Caraïbe orientale (French)
Protocol member Associate member
|Type||Political and economic union|
• Treaty of Basseterre
|18 June 1981|
• Revised Treaty of Basseterre
|21 January 2011|
|2,709 km2 (1,046 sq mi)|
• Including Associate Members
|5,910 km2 (2,280 sq mi)|
• 2017 estimate
• Including Associate Members
|215.6/km2 (558.4/sq mi)|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
• Per capita
|Time zone||UTC-4 (OECS)|
OECS was created on 18 June 1981, with the Treaty of Basseterre, which was named after the capital city of St. Kitts and Nevis. OECS is the successor of the Leewards Islands' political organisation known as the West Indies Associated States (WISA).
One prominent aspect of OECS economic bloc has been the accelerated pace of trans-national integration among its member states.
All of the members-states of the OECS (except for Martinique) are either full or associate members of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and were among the second group of countries that joined the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME). Martinique is currently negotiating to become an associate member of the Caribbean Community.
OECS currently has eleven members which together form a continuous archipelago across the Leeward Islands and Windward Islands. Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe and Martinique are only associate members of OECS. Diplomatic missions of the OECS do not represent the associate members. For all other purposes, associate members are treated as equals of full members.
Six of the members were formerly colonies of the United Kingdom. Three others, Anguilla, the British Virgin Islands, and Montserrat remain overseas territories of the UK while Martinique and Guadeloupe are French departments and regions of France. Eight of the eleven members are constitutional monarchies with Queen Elizabeth II as their current monarch (Dominica is a republic with a President). There is no requirement for the members to have been British colonies; however, the close historical, cultural and economic relationship fostered by almost all of them having been British colonies is as much a factor in the membership of the OECS as their geographical proximity.
All seven full members are also the founding members of the OECS, having been a part of the organisation since its founding on 18 June 1981. The British Virgin Islands was the first associate member, joining on 22 November 1984 and Anguilla was the second, joining in 1995. Martinique became an associate member on April 12, 2016 becoming the first non-British or formerly British territory to join the OECS. Guadeloupe acceded as an associate member of the OECS on March 14, 2019 at a Special Meeting of the OECS Authority to be held on that island on March 14–15, 2019.
The list of full and associate members of the OECS is as follows:
|Area (km²)||GDP (Nominal)
(millions of US$)
New 2017 
|Antigua and Barbuda||St. John's||Founder||91,244||443||1,524||$16,702||0.780||East Caribbean dollar||English|
|Dominica||Roseau||Founder||70,693||751||557||$7,879||0.715||East Caribbean dollar||English|
|Grenada||St. George's||Founder||107,541||344||1,119||$10,405||0.772||East Caribbean dollar||English|
|Montserrat||Brades||Founder||5,152||102||63||$12,301||0.821||East Caribbean dollar||English|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Basseterre||Founder||55,411||261||964||$17,397||0.778||East Caribbean dollar||English|
|Saint Lucia||Castries||Founder||175,498||617||1,684||$9,607||0.747||East Caribbean dollar||English|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Kingstown||Founder||110,185||389||785||$7,124||0.723||East Caribbean dollar||English|
|Anguilla||The Valley||1995||15,253||96||337||$22,090||0.865||East Caribbean dollar||English|
|British Virgin Islands||Road Town||1984||35,015||151||1,164||$33,233||0.945||United States dollar||English|
Although almost all of the current full and associate members are past or present British dependencies, other islands in the region have expressed interest in becoming associate members of the OECS. The first was the United States Virgin Islands, which applied for associate membership in February 1990 and requested that US Federal Government allow the territory to participate as such. At that time, it was felt by the US government that it was not an appropriate time to make such a request. However, the US Virgin Islands remained interested in the OECS and, as of 2002, stated that it would revisit the issue with the US government at a later date. In 2001, Saba, an island of the Netherlands Antilles, decided to seek membership in the OECS. Saba's Island Council had passed a motion on May 30, 2001 calling for Saba's membership in the organisation and subsequently on June 7, 2001, the Executive Council of Saba decided in favour of membership. Saba's senator in the Netherlands Antilles parliament was then asked to present a motion requesting the Antillean parliament to support Saba's quest for membership. In addition to the support from the Antillean parliament, Saba also required a dispensation from the government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an associate member of the OECS. Saba's bid for membership was reportedly supported by St. Kitts and Nevis and discussed at the 34th meeting of OECS leaders in Dominica in July. Also in 2001, Sint Maarten, another part of the Netherlands Antilles, explored the possibility of joining the OECS. After learning of Saba's intentions to join, St. Maarten suggested exploring ways in which Saba and St. Maarten could support each other in their pursuit of membership.
None of the prospective members have become associate members as yet, but Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten do participate in the meetings of the Council of Tourism Ministers (as the Forum of Tourism Ministers of the Eastern Caribbean, along with representatives of Saint-Martin, Saint Barthélemy, Martinique and Guadeloupe).
On 13 August 2008 the leaders of Trinidad & Tobago, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines announced their intention to pursue a sub-regional political union within CARICOM. As part of the preliminary discussions the Heads of Government for the involved states announced that 2011 would see their states entering into an economic union. This was however derailed by a change of government in Trinidad and Tobago in 2010.
The OECS Director General Len Ishmael confirmed Venezuela's application was discussed at the 48th Meeting of the OECS Authority held in Montserrat. But she said OECS decision makers within the sub-region were yet to determine whether membership should be granted for Venezuela.
The functions of the Organization are set out in the Treaty of Basseterre and are coordinated by the Secretariat under the direction and management of the Director General.
The OECS functions in a rapidly changing international economic environment, characterised by globalisation and trade liberalisation which are posing serious challenges to the economic and social stability of their small island members.
It is the purpose of the Organisation to assist its Members to respond to these multi-faceted challenges by identifying scope for joint or coordinated action towards the economic and social advancement of their countries.
The restructuring of the Secretariat was informed by considerations of cost effectiveness in the context of the need to respond to the increasing challenges placed on it, taking into account the limited fiscal capacities of its members. The Secretariat consists of four main Divisions responsible for: External Relations, Functional Cooperation, Corporate Services and Economic Affairs. These four Divisions oversee the work of a number of specialised institutions, work units or projects located in six countries: Antigua/Barbuda, Commonwealth of Dominica, St Lucia, Belgium, Canada, and the United States of America.
In carrying out its mission, the OECS works along with a number of sub-regional and regional agencies and institutions. These include the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB); the Caribbean Community (Caricom) Secretariat; the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (RNM)  and the Caribbean Development Bank (CDB).
The authority within the OECS Secretariat is led by the Director General. The current Director General of the OECS is Dr. Didacus Jules (Registrar and Chief Executive Officer of the Barbados-based Caribbean Examinations Council), who took his new position on 1 of May 2014. The former Dr. Len Ishmael demitted the office at the end of December 2013.
The Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC), which was created during the era of WISA, today handles the judicial matters in the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. When a trial surpasses the stage of High Court in an OECS member state, it can then be passed on to the ECSC at the level of Supreme court. Cases appealed from the stage of ECSC Supreme Court will then be referred to the jurisdiction of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) was established in 2003, but constitutional changes need to be put in place before the CCJ becomes the final Court of Appeal.
A common OECS Passport was originally planned for January 1, 2003 but its introduction was delayed. At the 38th OECS Authority Meeting in January 2004, the Secretariat was mandated to have the two companies expressing an interest in producing the common passport (De La Rue Identity Systems and the Canadian Banknote Company) make presentations at the next (39th) Authority Meeting. At the 39th Meeting the critical issue of the relationship between the OECS passport and the CARICOM passport was discussed and at the 40th OECS Authority Meeting in November 2004, the OECS Heads of Government agreed to give CARICOM a further 6 months (until May 2005) to introduce a CARICOM Passport. Failure to introduce the CARICOM Passport by that time would have resulted in the OECS moving ahead with its plans to introduce the OECS Passport. As the CARICOM Passport was first introduced in January 2005 (by Suriname) then the idea of the OECS Passport was abandoned. Had the passport been introduced however it would not have been issued to Economic Citizens within the OECS states.
It would also be unknown if the islands under British sovereignty would join the scheme (all British passports have the same European design).
The decision to establish an economic union was taken by OECS Heads of Government at the 34th meeting of the Authority held in Dominica in July 2001. At the 35th meeting of the Authority in Anguilla in January 2002, the main elements of an economic union implementation project were endorsed. The project was expected to be implemented over a two-year period with seven of the nine OECS member states (i.e. Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) participating in the economic union initiative. The remaining two member states, Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands, would not have participated immediately, but would have requested time to consider the issue further. In 2003, work had been initiated on the central issue of the creation of new Treaty arrangements to replace the Treaty of Basseterre which established the OECS. Among the elements of the project was the creation of a technical committee for a draft OECS Economic Union Treaty. This technical committee was inaugurated on May 4, 2004 and began designing the draft Treaty.
The new OECS Economic Union Treaty was finally presented at the 43rd OECS Meeting in St. Kitts on June 21, 2006. The current draft Treaty was commended at the meeting, but the Authority directed the formulation of some additional provisions to allow a role for national parliamentary representatives (both government and opposition) of the Member States in the form of a regional Assembly of Parliamentarians. This body, it was felt, was necessary to act as a legislative filter to the Authority in its law making capacity. The Heads further directed that the Treaty be reviewed by a meeting of members of the Task Force, Attorneys General, the draftsperson for the Treaty and representatives of the OECS Secretariat.
The presentation of the Treaty at the Meeting was followed by the signing of a Declaration of Intent to implement the Treaty by the Heads of Government or their representatives (except that of the British Virgin Islands). It was agreed in the Declaration, that implementation of the Treaty would occur only after a year of public consultation, through a mass national and regional education programme with strong political leadership and direction. According to the Declaration, the Treaty was to be signed, and the Economic Union was to be established by July 1, 2007.
This intended deadline was missed, however, and after the signing of the Revised Treaty of Basseterre Establishing the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States Economic Union on June 18, 2010, the newest target date of January 21, 2011 was met when five of the six independent signatory Member States ratified the Treaty. These were Antigua and Barbuda (December 30, 2010), St. Vincent and the Grenadines (January 12, 2011), St. Kitts and Nevis (January 20, 2011), Grenada (January 20, 2011) and Dominica (January 21, 2011). In order for the Treaty to have entered into force at least four of the independent Member States must have ratified it by January 21, 2011. Montserrat had received entrustments from the United Kingdom to sign the Treaty but is unlikely to be in a position ratify the Treaty before a new constitution comes into force in the territory. Following the need of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank to temporarily assume control of two indigenous commercial banks in Anguilla, the Chief Minister of Anguilla, Hubert Hughes, announced on August 12, 2013 that Anguilla will seek to join the OECS Economic Union as soon possible in order to fully participate in the strategy of growth conceived by the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (which was crafted within the context of the Economic Union). He was supported in his position by St. Lucia's Prime Minister, Dr. Kenny Anthony, who also called on Anguilla to join the Economic Union to complement its membership of the Currency Union.
Some of these provisions would already have been covered to some extent by the CSME, but some, such as the Assembly of Parliamentarians, would be unique to the OECS. Although some of the provisions would seem to duplicate efforts by the CSME, the Declaration of Intent and statements by some OECS leaders, acknowledge the CSME and give assurance that the OECS Economic Union would not run counter to CARICOM integration but that it would become seamlessly integrated into the CSME. To this end, the OECS Heads of Government agreed that steps should be taken to ensure that the OECS Economic Union Treaty would be recognised under the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas, just as the original Treaty of Chaguaramas had recognised the Treaty of Basseterre. 
This was achieved in 2013 at the Twenty-Fourth Inter-Sessional Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of CARICOM held in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from 18–19 February 2013. At that conference CARICOM leaders adopted the OECS’ Revised Treaty of Basseterre into CARICOM’s Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas, which St. Vincent and the Grenadines Prime Minister, Ralph Gonsalves said would effectively give CARICOM member states the opportunity of integrating initially with the OECS and taking a seemingly quicker path to integration. In order to achieve this the Conference agreed that the Inter-Governmental Task Force (IGTF) revising the Treaty of Chaguaramas would recognise the provisions of the Treaty establishing the Economic Union of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). The IGTF was mandated to refer back to the Conference at its next meeting on this issue.
The Economic Union Treaty's provisions are now expected to establish a Single Financial and Economic Space within which goods, people and capital move freely; harmonize monetary and fiscal policies Member States are expected continue to adopt a common approach to trade, health, education and environment, as well as to the development of such critical sectors as agriculture, tourism and energy. The Economic Union Treaty (or Revised Treaty as it is sometimes known) will also create two new organs for governing the OCES; The Regional Assembly (consisting of members of parliaments/legislatures) and The Commission (a strengthened Secretariat). The free movement of OECS nationals within the subregion is expected to commence in August 2011 after a commitment towards that goal by the Heads of Government at their meeting in May 2011.
This was achieved on schedule with the six independent OECS members and later Montserrat with nationals being allowed to enter the participating Member States without hindrance and remain for an indefinite period in order to work, establish businesses; provide services or to reside. The free movement of OECS nationals throughout the Economic Union is underpinned by legislation and is facilitated by administrative mechanisms  This is achieved by OECS nationals entering the special immigration lines for CARICOM nationals when traveling throughout the Economic Union and presenting a valid photo ID and completed Entry/Departure form whereupon the immigration officer shall grant the national entry for an indefinite period save where the national presents a security risk or where there exists some other legal basis for prohibiting entry.
The majority of the OECS members-states are participants of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) monetary authority. The regional central bank oversees financial and banking integrity for the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States economic bloc of states. Part of the bank's oversight lends to maintaining the financial integrity of the East Caribbean dollar (XCD). Of all OECS member-states, only the British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe and Martinique do not use the East Caribbean dollar as their de facto native currency.
All other members belong to the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union.
The OECS sub-region has a military support unit known as the Regional Security System (RSS). It is made up of the independent countries of the OECS along with Barbados. The unit is based in the island of Barbados and receives funding and training from various countries including the United States, Canada and the People's Republic of China.
The Pharmaceutical Procurement Service, also known as the Eastern Caribbean Drug Service, procures medicines and allied health equipment on behalf of the member States. It has an 840 item product portfolio based on the regional formulary. it is said to generate savings of $5 million a year.
|Belgium||Brussels||Shirley Skerritt-Andrew, Ambassador to Belgium and the European Union|
|Switzerland||Geneva||Ricardo James, Chargé d'affaires to the World Trade Organization (WTO)|
The flag and logo of the OECS consists of a complex pattern of concentric design elements on a pale green field, focused on a circle of nine inwardly pointed orange triangles and nine outwardly pointed white triangles. It was adopted June 21, 2006, and first raised on that day at Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis. 
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Brendon Browne was the High Commissioner of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States in Ottawa in Canada from 2007 to 2011.
Browne's commission began on 14 September 2007, when he presented his credentials to the Governor General of Canada at the Citadelle of Québec.Caribbean Congress of Labour
The Caribbean Congress of Labour (CCL) is a regional trade union federation. It represents 500,000 members in 33 affiliated unions across 17 Caribbean nations.
The federation represents trade union concerns to the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), as well as the Association of Caribbean States (ACS), and the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).
The CCL works with both the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) and the Inter American Regional Organisation (ORIT).Caribbean Peace Force
The Caribbean Peace Force (CPF), also known as the Eastern Caribbean Peace Force (ECPF), was an OECS mandated 350-member peacekeeping force operating in Grenada, from October 1983 to June 1985, after the Invasion of Grenada, codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, by the United States of America and several other nations in response to the illegal deposition and execution of Grenadan Prime Minister Maurice Bishop. On October 25, 1983, the United States, Barbados, Jamaica and members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States landed ships on Grenada, defeated Grenadian and Cuban resistance and overthrew the military government of Hudson Austin.Eastern Caribbean Central Bank
The Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) is the central bank for the Eastern Caribbean dollar and is the monetary authority for the members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), with the exception of the British Virgin Islands and Martinique. Two of its core mandates are to maintain price and financial sector stability, by acting as a stabilizer and safe-guard of the banking system in the Eastern Caribbean Economic and Currency Union (OECS/ECCU.) It was founded in October 1983 with the goal of maintaining the stability and integrity of the subregion's currency and banking system in order to facilitate the balanced growth and development of its member states.
The bank is headquartered in Basseterre, St. Kitts, and is currently overseen by Mr. Timothy Antoine, the Bank Governor. Prior to assuming his post in February 2016, the bank was overseen by the late Sir K. Dwight Venner. In early 2015, the bank announced plans to phase out the production of the 1 and 2 cent pieces. The date was finalised as July 1, 2015. When a motive was sought, it was stated that it takes about six cents to make one cent pieces and about eight cents to make a 2 cent piece.Eastern Caribbean Central Securities Registry
The Eastern Caribbean Central Securities Registry (ECCSR) is the Central Securities Depository for the securities traded on the Eastern Caribbean Securities Exchange (ECSE).It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the ECSE, part of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States.
The depository is based in Basseterre in Saint Kitts and Nevis.Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority
The Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority (ECCAA) is a civil aviation authority serving the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). The headquarters are in Saint John's, Antigua and Barbuda. The agency serves as the aviation accident and incident investigation authority of its jurisdiction.Eastern Caribbean Currency Union
The Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU) is a development of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. This organization is composed of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. It is under the supervision of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank. The member countries use a common currency, the East Caribbean dollar, which is pegged at EC$2.70 to US$1.Eastern Caribbean Davis Cup team
The Eastern Caribbean Davis Cup team represented member nations of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States in Davis Cup tennis competition.
The team represents full members of The Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and associate members whose population does not exceed 200,000.
Eastern Caribbean have not competed since 2004. They reached the quarterfinals of Group II in 1991.Eastern Caribbean Securities Exchange
The Eastern Caribbean Securities Exchange (ECSE) is the first regional securities market in the Western Hemisphere and a regional Stock exchange, established by the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) to serve the eight member territories of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its headquarters are located in the city of Basseterre, on the island of St. Kitts.Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
The Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is a superior court of record for the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), including six independent states: Antigua and Barbuda, the Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and three British Overseas Territories (Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, and Montserrat). It has unlimited jurisdiction in each member State.Eastern Caribbean dollar
The Eastern Caribbean dollar (symbol: $; code: XCD) is the currency of all seven full members and one associate member of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). The successor to the British West Indies dollar, it has existed since 1965, and it is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $ or, alternatively, EC$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. The EC$ is subdivided into 100 cents. It has been pegged to the United States dollar since 7 July 1976, and the exchange rate is US$1 = EC$2.70.High Commission of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States in Ottawa
The High Commission of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States in Ottawa (OECS) was a regional High Commission office for multiple island-nations that are members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. The office was located on Albert Street in the Canadian capital Ottawa. The office was closed permanently in 2011 for financial reasons. It has been replaced by an Eastern Caribbean Liaison Service which works with the Canada/Caribbean Seasonal Agricultural Workers ProgrammeLen Ishmael
Len Ishmael is a St. Lucian development planner and geographer who was the Director General of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States from 12 May 2003 until the end of December 2013.She holds a first degree in geography and economics from the University of the West Indies, Mona campus, and a doctorate in urban planning and development economics from the University of Philadelphia.List of British currencies
A variety of currencies are tender in the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and crown dependencies. This list covers all of those currently in circulation.List of OECS records in athletics
The following is a list of the best records in the sport of athletics – including track and field, road running and racewalking – set by athletes representing one of the member states of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States.List of central banks
This is a list of central banks.OECS Track and Field Championships
The OECS Track and Field Championships is an annual track and field competition between athletes representing one of the member states of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). This event started in 1986 and was first held at Queen’s Park, in Grenada. The second was also held in Grenada and thereafter moved around the OECS until 1992. Under the auspices of the OECS Athletics Congress (OAC) the first edition of the revived OECS Track and Field Championships was held in St. Kitts in 2014.Roosevelt Skerrit
Roosevelt Skerrit (born 8 June 1972) is a Dominican politician who has been Prime Minister of Dominica since 2004; he has also been the Member of Parliament for the Vieille Case constituency since 2000. Regionally, he has served as the chairman of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and most recently as chairman of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) in 2010.United States Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean
The Ambassador of the United States to Barbados, the Eastern Caribbean, and the OECS is the official title of the U.S. Ambassador to several island nations of the Caribbean. The ambassador concurrently represents the United States to Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The ambassador is resident at the U.S. Embassy in Bridgetown, Barbados and is also accredited to the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).
Larry Leon Palmer, a former ambassador to Honduras, was appointed to the post in 2012.For the individual posts, see:
United States Ambassador to Antigua and Barbuda (established 1981)
United States Ambassador to Barbados (established 1966)
United States Ambassador to Dominica (established 1979)
United States Ambassador to Grenada (established 1975)
United States Ambassador to Saint Kitts and Nevis (established 1984)
United States Ambassador to Saint Lucia (established 1983)
United States Ambassador to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (established 1981)
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
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