Orenburg

Orenburg (Russian: Оренбург, IPA: [ərʲɪnˈburk], Kazakh: Орынбор, translit. Orynbor) is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia. It lies on the Ural River, 1,478 kilometers (918 mi) southeast of Moscow, on the boundary of Europe and Asia. Orenburg is also very close to the border with Kazakhstan. Population: 548,331 (2010 Census);[5] 549,361 (2002 Census);[11] 546,501 (1989 Census).[12]

Orenburg

Оренбург
Clockwise from top: City Hall, Nikolsky Orthodox cathedral, Ural River Embankment, Ramazan Mosque, City skyline from Tchkalova street, Pedestrian bridge over Ural River, Monument to Orenburg cossacks
Clockwise from top: City Hall, Nikolsky Orthodox cathedral, Ural River Embankment, Ramazan Mosque, City skyline from Tchkalova street, Pedestrian bridge over Ural River, Monument to Orenburg cossacks
Flag of Orenburg

Flag
Coat of arms of Orenburg

Coat of arms
Location of Orenburg
Orenburg is located in Russia
Orenburg
Orenburg
Location of Orenburg
Orenburg is located in Orenburg Oblast
Orenburg
Orenburg
Orenburg (Orenburg Oblast)
Coordinates: 51°47′N 55°06′E / 51.783°N 55.100°ECoordinates: 51°47′N 55°06′E / 51.783°N 55.100°E
CountryRussia
Federal subjectOrenburg Oblast[1]
Founded1743[2]
Government
 • BodyCity Duma
 • HeadS. A. Nikolaev (acting Head tilL 12.20.2018)[3]
Area
 • Total259 km2 (100 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (490 ft)
Population
 • Total548,331
 • Estimate 
(2018)[6]
564,773 (+3%)
 • Rank28th in 2010
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,500/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toCity of Orenburg[1]
 • Capital ofOrenburg Oblast[1], Orenburgsky District[7]
 • Urban okrugOrenburg Urban Okrug[8]
 • Capital ofOrenburg Urban Okrug, Orenburgsky Municipal District
Postal code(s)[10]
460000
Dialing code(s)+7 3532
OKTMO ID53701000001
Websiteorenburg.ru

Geography

The city is in South Siberian forest steppe, in the basin of the middle current of the River Ural (near its confluence with the River Sakmara). The highest point of the city is 154.4 meters (507 ft).

The origins of the city's name

Several historians have tried to explain the origins of the city's name. It was traditionally accepted that the word "orenburg" means a fortress on the River Or.[13] In all probability, the word combination "orenburg" was proposed by I. K. Kirillov, who was the founder of the city. In 1734, in accordance with his project, a package of governmental documents was worked out. This was the starting point for Orenburg as a fortress city near the place where the Or and the Ural rivers cross.

On 7 June 1734, "A Privilege for Orenburg" (tsar's edict) was ordered by Empress Anna Ivanovna. While a construction site of the main fortress changed many times (down the River Ural), the very name "Orenburg" has not changed since its founding in 1743.

Between 1938 and 1957, the city was referred to as Chkalov,[14][15] named after the famous Soviet pilot Valery Chkalov, although he was not born in and never lived in Orenburg, and never visited Orenburg. In 1954, Chkalov's 5-meter bronze sculpture was erected on the occasion of his 50th birth anniversary; this was installed on a 7-meter pedestal in the Boulevard (on the riverside promenade of the city, commonly named "Belovka").

Orenburg was unofficially called the Asian capital of Russia.[16]

History

AFRE Orenburg
Map of Orenburg in 1828

In 1734, the Russian Empire began expanding its control and influence in Asia starting from the construction of the fortress city called "Orenburg" on its eastern border (in Southern Ural). For this purpose, a settlement was founded here in 1735 - at the place where the Or and the Ural rivers cross.

The initial site was chosen for settlement during the expedition of I.K. Kirilov, who initiated developmental activities in the region. He argued that the city was necessary "...for opening up transit routes to Bukhara, Badakhshan, Bulk, and to India", making it possible to receive "wealth from there — gold, lapis lazuli, and garnet." After his death, a new administrator of the Orenburg expedition, Vasily Tatishchev, was appointed. He did not consider this place to be convenient for construction of the city, because it was constantly flooded by the spring high waters. This encouraged to launch in 1739 preparations for building a new town with the old name downstream the river Ural (Yaik) on the mountain Krasnaya (Red). The old settlement was named the Orsk fortress (now the city of Orsk).

On 6 August 1741, the new town was founded. However, its construction did not start. The location on the mountain Krasnaya — treeless, rocky and remote from the river — was also inappropriate for building the town. A new administrator of the Orenburg expedition, Ivan Neplyuyev, was appointed.

On 19 (30) April 1743, Orenburg was founded for a third time, on the compound that was once the Berda fortress, 70 versts (75 km; 46 mi) from the Krasnogorsk mountain area. In the summer of 1742, Neplyuev personally chose a new place surrounded by forests and crop fields, where the Yaik and the Sakmara rivers cross. Now it is the historical center of the city. The city built upon the mountain Krasnaya was named Krasnogorsk.

Orenburg, therefore, was successfully established by Ivan Neplyuyev in its present location approximately 250 kilometers (160 mi) west down the Ural from Orsk in 1743. This third Orenburg has functioned as an important military outpost on the border with the nomadic Kazakhs. It became the center of the Orenburg Cossacks.

Orenburg played a major role in Pugachev's Rebellion (1773–1774). At the time, it was the capital of a vast district and the seat of the governor. Yemelyan Pugachev besieged the city and its fortress from nearby Berda from October 1773 - March 26, 1774. The defense was organized by Governor of Orenburg lieutenant-general Reinsdorf.[17] General Golytsin defeated Pugachev at Berda, and later again at Kargala (north of Orenburg).[18] Most of the city was left in ruins, and thousands of inhabitants had died in the siege. Government forces crushed revolt towards the end of 1774 by General Michelsohn at Tsaritsyn. Further reprisals against rebel areas were carried out by General Peter Panin.

Alexander Pushkin visited Orenburg in 1833 during a research trip for his books The History of Pugachev and his famous novel The Captain's Daughter. He met his friend Vladimir Dal here, who would later write the first serious dictionary of the Russian language.

Orenburg was the base for General Perovsky's expeditions against the Khanate of Khiva in the 1830s through 1850s. After the incorporation of Central Asia into the Russian Empire, Orenburg became a trading station and, since the completion of the Trans-Aral Railway, a prominent railway junction en route to the new Central Asian possessions and to Siberia.

Orenburg functioned as the capital of the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (in present-day Kazakhstan) within Russia from 1920–1925. When that republic was renamed Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1925, Orenburg joined Russia and Kyzylorda became the new capital. Almaty became the capital in 1929 after the construction of the Turkestan–Siberia Railway. Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was promoted to the union republic status as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Kazakh SSR in 1936. Orenburg remained in Russia.

From 1938 to 1957, the city bore the name Chkalov (Чка́лов) (after the prominent test pilot Valery Chkalov). The city's distance from the German invasion during World War II led many Soviet enterprises to flee there, helping to spur the city's economic growth.

Administrative and municipal status

Orenburg is the administrative center of the oblast[1] and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Orenburgsky District,[7] even though it is not a part of it.[19] As an administrative division, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Orenburg[1]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the City of Orenburg is incorporated as Orenburg Urban Okrug.[8]

Economy

Orenburg is a home for several large companies or their subsidiaries: Orenburggazprom,[20] the subsidiary of Gazprom; Orenburgneft,[21] the subsidiary of TNK-BP oil company; Orenburgenergy, one of the biggest energy generating companies in Russia.

Transportation

VMZ trolleybus in Orenburg centre (15437607256)
VMZ Avantgarde low-floor trolleybus

Orenburg has been a major railway center ever since the Samara-Zlatoust and Orenburg-Tashkent railroads were completed, respectively in 1876 and 1905.[22]

Orenburg's main airport is the Orenburg Tsentralny Airport,[23] located about 25 kilometers (16 mi) east of the city, on the Orsk destination, and used to be the headquarters of now defunct Orenair.[23]

City public transport included bus, trolleybus and also marshrutkas (fixed-route cabs).

Military

There is an airbase located 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) southwest of the city.

Climate

Orenburg has a relatively dry humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with quite long and hot summers and long and cold winters. April and October are transition months, with the rest of the months being either summer or winter.

Education and culture

Orenburg is a regional center of education and has a number of cultural institutions and museums.

Education

  • Orenburg State University
  • Orenburg State Medical Academy. Established in 1944 as Chkalov State Medical Institute. It was renamed to Orenburg State Medical Institute in 1957 (at that time Orenburg city regained its original name after being named Chkalov from 1937 till 1957). It gained the status of academy in 1994. Currently there are eight faculties: Medicine, Pediatric, Stomatology (Dentistry), Pharmacy, Clinical Psychology, Nursing, Public Health (Медико-профилактический), and Continuing Education.
  • Orenburg State Agrarian University. Established in 1930 as Orenburg Agricultural Institute. It was transformed to Orenburg State Agricultural Academy in 1992. Since 1995 named as Orenburg State Agrarian University. There are 8 faculties and four institutes.
  • Orenburg State Pedagogical University. Established in 1919 as Institute of Public Education. Renamed to Pedagogical Institute in 1930. Transformed to Pedagogical University in 1996. There are 10 faculties and four research institutes.
  • Orenburg Branch of Kutafin Moscow State Law University
  • Orenburg Branch of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas
  • Physics and Mathematics Lyceum

Museums

  • Orenburg Regional Museum of History and Natural Science
  • Orenburg Regional Museum of Fine Arts
  • Museum of Orenburg History
  • Memorial Apartment of Yuri and Valentina Gagarin
  • Memorial Apartment of Leopold and Mstislav Rostropovich
  • Memorial Apartment of T.G. Shevchenko
  • Orenburg City Memorial House

Theaters

  • Orenburg Maxim Gorky State Drama Theater [26]
  • Orenburg State Regional Music Theater [27]
  • Orenburg State Tatar Drama Theater
  • Orenburg State Regional Puppet Theater
  • Orenburg Municipal Puppet Theater "Pierrot"
  • Orenburg Municipal Chamber Choir
  • Orenburg State Academic Russian Folk Choir

Tourism

Pedestrian bridge in Orenburg
Pedestrian bridge over Ural River.The bridge is between Europe and Asia

Mountain and river tourism are developed in the region. There are a number of fast mountain rivers and rocks in pleated spurs of the southern edge of the Urals range, popular with tourists. The city is known for its location between Europe and Asia. The Ural River marks the border of Asia and Europe, and there is a bridge which connects the two sides.

The city is famous for its down Orenburg shawls. The thinnest lacy design, knitted by hand shawls and cobweb-like kerchiefs (pautinkas), is not only warm, but also is used for decorative purposes.

Architecture

A famous boulevard on the embankment of the Ural River is one of the most notable places in Orenburg.

Orenburg TV Tower is a guyed mast of unusual design. It is a 200-meter (660 ft) tall mast equipped with six crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys.[28]

Sports

National events

In October 2015, the Russian Rink Bandy Cup was to be organised.[32]

Honors

The asteroid 27709 Orenburg was named after the city on June 1, 2007.

Notable people

International relations

Orenburg has the following sister cities:[33]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Law #1370/276-IV-OZ
  2. ^ Из истории Казахстана XVIII в
  3. ^ "Глава города Оренбурга". Официальный портал города Оренбурга. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2012.
  4. ^ Генеральный план Оренбурга. Материалы по обоснованию проекта. Раздел 4.1. Территория города. Стр. 29
  5. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  6. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  7. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 53 234», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 53 234, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  8. ^ a b Law #2367/495-IV-OZ
  9. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  10. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  11. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  12. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  13. ^ Поспелов Е.М. Географические названия мира: топонимический словарь. — М.: Русские словари; Астрель; ACT, 2002. — ISBN 5-17-002938-1 ; 5-271-00446-5 ; 5-93259-014-9 ; 5-17-001389-2.
  14. ^ Оренбург — статья из Большой советской энциклопедии.
  15. ^ Город был переименован Указом ПрезидиумаПрезидиума Верховного Совета СССР от 26 декабря 1938 г.
  16. ^ Глущенко Е. А. Россия в Средней Азии. Завоевания и преобразования. М.: Центрполиграф, 2010. 575 с. (Россия забытая и неизвестная. Золотая коллекция). С.62. ISBN 978-5-227-02167-0.
  17. ^ Shane O'Rourke The Cossacks Manchester University Press, 2008 ISBN 9780719076800
  18. ^ Tatishchevo 1774 in Tony Jaques Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z ISBN 9780313335396
  19. ^ Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 53 401», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 53 401, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved April 11, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 3, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ Correspondence, Foreign (November 7, 1904). "RUSSIA'S NEW GREAT RAILROAD IN ASIA; Orenburg-Tashkent Line Was Completed a Few Days Ago. GREAT VALUE STRATEGICALLY Prince Hilkoff Pushed the Construction of the Road with Much Energy -- The Cities Traversed" (PDF). The New York Times.
  23. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 3, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "КЛИМАТ ОРЕНБУРГА" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  25. ^ "Orenburg Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  26. ^ Orenburg Maxim Gorky State Drama Theater
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved April 14, 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ http://vcfm.ru/vc/Cities/orenburg.htm
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ [2]
  31. ^ fakelgazproma.ru/
  32. ^ [3]
  33. ^ profile documents, Orenburg

Sources

  • Законодательное Собрание Оренбургской области. Закон №1370/276-IV-ОЗ от 11 июля 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Оренбургской области», в ред. Закона №2826/783-V-ОЗ от 15 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Оренбургской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Оренбургской области"». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южный Урал", №№134–135 (спецвыпуск №40 с документами Законодательного Собрания Оренбургской области), 21 июля 2007 г. (Legislative Assembly of Orenburg Oblast. Law #1370/276-IV-OZ of July 11, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Orenburg Oblast, as amended by the Law #2826/783-V-OZ of December 15, 2014 On Amending the Law of Orenburg Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Orenburg Oblast". Effective as of after the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Оренбургской области. Закон №2367/495-IV-ОЗ от 15 сентября 2008 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований Оренбургской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Закона №3322/917-V-ОЗ от 24 августа 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Оренбургской области "Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований Оренбургской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бюллетень Законодательного Собрания Оренбургской области", 22 заседание, I часть, 29 августа 2008 г. (Legislative Assembly of Orenburg Oblast. Law #2367/495-IV-OZ of September 15, 2008 On Adopting the Registry of the Municipal Formations of Orenburg Oblast and the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Law #3322/917-V-OZ of August 24, 2015 On Amending the Law of Orenburg Oblast "On Adopting the Registry of the Municipal Formations of Orenburg Oblast and the Inhabited Localities They Comprise". Effective as of after 10 days following the official publication.).

External links

13th Red Banner Rocket Division

The 13th Orenburg Red Banner Rocket Division (Military Unit Number 68545) is a military formation of the 31st Rocket Army, Strategic Missile Forces, located in Yasny, ZATO Komarovsky, Orenburg Oblast.

The deployment site for the division was chosen specifically for the location of the R-36 intercontinental ballistic missile.

2018–19 Russian Premier League

The 2018–19 Russian Premier League is the 27th season of the premier football competition in Russia since the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the 16th under the current Russian Premier League name. Lokomotiv Moscow come into the season as the defending champions.

The new logo was presented on 24 July 2018, there was no title sponsor announced for the season.

Administrative divisions of Orenburg Oblast

Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction:

Orenburg (Оренбург) (administrative center)

City districts:

Dzerzhinsky (Дзержинский)

with 1 selsovet under the city district's jurisdiction.

Leninsky (Ленинский)

with 2 selsovets under the city district's jurisdiction.

Promyshlenny (Промышленный)

with 2 selsovets under the city district's jurisdiction.

Tsentralny (Центральный)

with 1 selsovet under the city district's jurisdiction.

Abdulino (Абдулино)

Buguruslan (Бугуруслан)

with 1 selsovet under the town's jurisdiction.

Buzuluk (Бузулук)

Gay (Гай)

with 1 settlement council under the town's jurisdiction.

Kuvandyk (Кувандык)

Mednogorsk (Медногорск)

with 1 selsovet under the town's jurisdiction.

Novotroitsk (Новотроицк)

with 3 selsovets under the city's jurisdiction.

Orsk (Орск)

city districts:

Leninsky (Ленинский)

Oktyabrsky (Октябрьский)

with 1 selsovet under the city district's jurisdiction.

Sovetsky (Советский)

with 3 selsovets under the city district's jurisdiction.

Sol-Iletsk (Соль-Илецк)

Sorochinsk (Сорочинск)

Yasny (Ясный)

Districts:

Abdulinsky (Абдулинский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Adamovsky (Адамовский)

with 10 selsovets and 2 settlement councils under the district's jurisdiction.

Akbulaksky (Акбулакский)

with 16 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Alexandrovsky (Александровский)

with 14 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Asekeyevsky (Асекеевский)

with 21 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Belyayevsky (Беляевский)

with 10 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Buguruslansky (Бугурусланский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Buzuluksky (Бузулукский)

with 28 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Dombarovsky (Домбаровский)

with 6 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Gaysky (Гайский)

with 6 selsovets and 2 settlement councils under the district's jurisdiction.

Grachyovsky (Грачёвский)

with 13 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ileksky (Илекский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Krasnogvardeysky (Красногвардейский)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kurmanayevsky (Курманаевский)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kuvandyksky (Кувандыкский)

with 18 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Kvarkensky (Кваркенский)

with 12 selsovets and 2 settlement councils under the district's jurisdiction.

Matveyevsky (Матвеевский)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Novoorsky (Новоорский)

with 7 selsovets and 2 settlement councils under the district's jurisdiction.

Novosergiyevsky (Новосергиевский)

with 18 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Oktyabrsky (Октябрьский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Orenburgsky (Оренбургский)

with 30 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Perevolotsky (Переволоцкий)

with 18 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Pervomaysky (Первомайский)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Ponomaryovsky (Пономарёвский)

with 16 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Sakmarsky (Сакмарский)

with 15 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Saraktashsky (Саракташский)

with 19 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Severny (Северный)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Sharlyksky (Шарлыкский)

with 17 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Sol-Iletsky (Соль-Илецкий)

with 21 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Sorochinsky (Сорочинский)

with 15 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Svetlinsky (Светлинский)

with 9 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Tashlinsky (Ташлинский)

with 18 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Totsky (Тоцкий)

with 22 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

Tyulgansky (Тюльганский)

with 14 selsovets and 1 settlement council under the district's jurisdiction.

Yasnensky (Ясненский)

with 6 selsovets under the district's jurisdiction.

FC Nosta Novotroitsk

FC Nosta Novotroitsk is a Russian association football club based in Novotroitsk, Orenburg Oblast. The club finished 16th in the Russian First Division in 2009 and was relegated to the Russian Second Division. In early 2010 it was announced that the club is dissolved due to lack of financing. However, in February 2010, the new sponsorship was arranged and the club continued playing.

FC Orenburg

FC Orenburg (Russian: ФК «Оренбург») is a Russian professional football club from Orenburg, founded in 1976. As of the 2018–19 season, it plays in the Russian Premier League.

Nadezhda Orenburg

PBC Nadezhda Orenburg (Russian: ПБЦ «Надежда») is a Russian women's basketball club from Orenburg founded in 1994.

Nadezhda has been 3rd in the Russian Premier League in 2010 and 2011, and reached the Russian Cup's final from 2011–12, as well as from 2014-16, everytime losing to UMMC Ekaterinburg. In addition they have been regularly playing in FIBA Europe competitions since 2005, reaching the final of the 2010 Eurocup. Additionally, they played in the Euroleague since 2008, except in the 2009–10 season.

Nağaybäk

Nağaybäks (Nağaybäk pronounced in Tatar language [nʌɣɑɪbæk]; Tatar plural: Nağaybäklär; plural in Russian: Нагайбаки) are an indigenous Turkic people in Russia recognized as a separate people under Russian legislation. The majority of the Nağaybäks live in the Nagaybaksky and Chebarkulsky Districts of the Chelyabinsk Oblast. They speak a sub-dialect of the Tatar language's Middle dialect. Russian and Tatar historians usually treat the Nağaybäks as an integral part of Volga Tatars; a minority considers Nağaybäks a separate ethnicity in their own right. In the 1989 Russian census, 11,200 people identified themselves as Nağaybäks, falling to 9,600 in 2002.

Orenair

Orenburg Airlines or JSC Orenair (Russian: Оренбургские авиалинии) was a Russian airline with its head office on the property of Orenburg Tsentralny Airport in Orenburg. It operated domestic passenger services and inclusive tour charters, as well as aerial work and special flights. Its main base was Orenburg Tsentralny Airport and it had hubs at Domodedovo and Simferopol International Airport.

Orenburg Cossacks

The Orenburg Cossack Host (Russian: Оренбургское казачье войско) was a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province (today's Orenburg Oblast, part of the Chelyabinsk Oblast and Bashkortostan).

After having constructed fortifications around the future town of Orenburg in 1734, they officially founded it in 1735. For the purpose of defending the city and colonizing the region, The Russian government relocated the Cossacks from Ufa, Iset, Samara and other places and created the Orenburg non-regular corps in 1748. In 1755, a part of it was transformed into the Orenburg Cossack Host (or Voisko) with 2,000 men.

In 1773—1774, the Orenburg Cossacks took part in Yemelyan Pugachev's insurrection. In 1798, all of the Cossack settlements in the Southern Urals were incorporated into the Orenburg Cossack Host (except for the Ural Cossacks). A decree of 1840 established the borders of the Host and its composition (10 cavalry regiments and 3 artillery battalions). In the mid-19th century, the Cossack population of this region equaled 200,000 people.

The Orenburg Host participated in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–1790, and later in the campaigns that Russia waged in order to conquer Central Asia.

The Orenburg Host consisted of 2 districts, or okrugs (after 1878 - 3 departments, or otdels). By 1916, the Cossack population of this region had grown to 533,000 people occupying a territory of 7,45 million desyatinas. One desyatina equaled 2,7 acres (11,000 m²). In the early 19th century, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 6 cavalry regiments, 3 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya (100 men) of guards and 2 detached sotnyas. During World War I, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 18 cavalry regiments, 9,5 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya of guards, 9 unmounted sotnyas, 7,5 reserve sotnyas and 39 detached and special sotnyas (to a total of about 27,000 men).

After the October Revolution of 1917, the leadership of the Orenburg Cossack Host, under the command of Ataman Alexander Dutov, fought against the Soviets. The poorer Cossacks joined the ranks of the Red Army. The 1st Orenburg Cossack Socialist Regiment took part in the Ural Army Campaign of 1918.

In 1920, the Orenburg Cossack Host ceased to exist.

Orenburg Governorate

Orenburg Governorate (Russian: Оренбургская губерния) was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Russian Empire with the center in the city of Orenburg.

The governorate was created in 1744 from the lands annexed from Siberian and Astrakhan Governorates. In 1782, the governorate, along with Chelyabinsky Uyezd of Perm Viceroyalty were transformed into Ufa Viceroyalty, which was divided into Ufa and Orenburg Oblasts. In 1796, Ufa Viceroyalty was renamed Orenburg Governorate, and in 1865 it was split in two—a smaller Orenburg Governorate, and Ufa Governorate. In 1919, Chelyabinsk Governorate was split off from Orenburg Governorate, and in 1928 the governorate was merged into a newly created Middle Volga Oblast.

Orenburg Nature Reserve

Orenburg Nature Reserve (Russian: Оренбургский заповедник) (also Orenburgsky) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) dedicated to the preservation and restoration of four separate types of steppe landscape: Transvolga, Ural Mountains, Southern Urals and Trans-Urals. The reserve does this by spreading out across four sections across 400 km of steppes in Orenburg Oblast below the southern terminus of the Ural Mountains. The city of Orenburg sits in the middle of the four sectors, approximately 1,200 km southeast of Moscow. The reserve also protects historical and archaeological sites of the Sarmation people from the seventh to third century BCE. The reserve was formally established in 1988, and covers a total area of 21,653 ha (83.60 sq mi).

Orenburg Oblast

Orenburg Oblast (Russian: Оренбу́ргская о́бласть, Orenburgskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Orenburg. From 1938 to 1957, it bore the name Chkalov Oblast (Чка́ловская о́бласть) in honor of Valery Chkalov. Population: 2,033,072 (2010 Census).

Orenburg Tsentralny Airport

Tsentraly may also refer to airports in Riga, Moscow, Omsk, or Saratov.Orenburg Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Оренбург) (IATA: REN, ICAO: UWOO) is a civil airport located about 25 km east of Orenburg city. Now defunct Orenair had its head office on the airport property.

Orenburg shawl

The Orenburg Shawl is a Russian knitted lace textile using goat down and stands as one of the classic symbols of Russian handicraft, along with Tula Samovar, the Matrioshka doll, Khokhloma painting, Gzhel ceramics, the Palekh miniature, Vologda lace, Dymkovo toys, Rostov finift (enamel), and Ural malachite.

Orenburzhye

Orenburzhie is a commercial airline headquartered in Orenburg, Russia, on the ground of Orenburg Airport. It serves as regular and charter passenger airline out of Orenburg and Izhevsk Airport.

Orsk

Orsk (Russian: Орск, Kazakh: Жаманқала, translit. Jamanqala) is the second largest city in Orenburg Oblast, Russia, located on the steppe about 100 kilometers (62 mi) southeast of the southern tip of the Ural Mountains. The city straddles the Ural River. Since this river is considered a boundary between Europe and Asia, Orsk can be said to lie in two continents. Population: 239,800 (2010 Census); 250,963 (2002 Census); 270,711 (1989 Census).

Orsk Airport

Orsk Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Орск) (IATA: OSW, ICAO: UWOR) is an international airport in Russia located 16 km (10 mi) south of Orsk. It services medium-sized airliners. The terminal building is located around 3 km from the border to Kazakhstan, with some equipment located in Kazakhstan.

Ural River

The Ural (Russian: Урал, pronounced [ʊˈraɫ]), known as Yaik (Russian: Яик, Bashkir: Яйыҡ, translit. Yayıq, pronounced [jɑˈjɯq]; Kazakh: Жайық, translit. Jaıyq, جايىق, pronounced [ʑɑˈjəq]) before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia. It originates in the southern Ural Mountains and discharges into the Caspian Sea. At 2,428 kilometres (1,509 mi), it is the third-longest river in Europe after the Volga and the Danube, and the 18th-longest river in Asia. The Ural River is conventionally considered part of the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia.

The Ural River arises near Mount Kruglaya in the Ural Mountains, flows south parallel and west of the north-flowing Tobol River, through Magnitogorsk, and around the southern end of the Urals, through Orsk where it turns west for about 300 kilometres (190 mi), to Orenburg, when the Sakmara River joins. From Orenburg it continues west, passing into Kazakhstan, then turning south again at Oral, and meandering through a broad flat plain until it reaches the Caspian a few miles below Atyrau, where it forms a fine digitate delta at (46°53′N 51°37′E).

Đorđe Despotović

Đorđe Despotović (Serbian Cyrillic: Ђорђе Деспотовић; born 4 March 1992) is a Serbian footballer who plays for Russian Premier League club FC Orenburg as a centre forward.

Climate data for Orenburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.8
(42.4)
18.9
(66.0)
31.3
(88.3)
36.5
(97.7)
39.8
(103.6)
41.6
(106.9)
40.9
(105.6)
38.0
(100.4)
27.0
(80.6)
19.2
(66.6)
8.1
(46.6)
41.6
(106.9)
Average high °C (°F) −8
(18)
−7.2
(19.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
12.8
(55.0)
22.1
(71.8)
27.5
(81.5)
29.0
(84.2)
27.4
(81.3)
20.9
(69.6)
11.2
(52.2)
0.3
(32.5)
−5.9
(21.4)
10.8
(51.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.8
(10.8)
−11.5
(11.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
6.9
(44.4)
15.2
(59.4)
20.6
(69.1)
22.3
(72.1)
20.3
(68.5)
14.0
(57.2)
5.9
(42.6)
−3.2
(26.2)
−9.5
(14.9)
5.3
(41.5)
Average low °C (°F) −15.6
(3.9)
−15.7
(3.7)
−9.3
(15.3)
1.7
(35.1)
8.5
(47.3)
13.8
(56.8)
15.6
(60.1)
13.6
(56.5)
7.9
(46.2)
1.6
(34.9)
−6.1
(21.0)
−13.1
(8.4)
0.2
(32.4)
Record low °C (°F) −43.2
(−45.8)
−40.1
(−40.2)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−26
(−15)
−5.7
(21.7)
−0.7
(30.7)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
−5.3
(22.5)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−35.7
(−32.3)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−43.2
(−45.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.1)
22
(0.9)
25
(1.0)
28
(1.1)
30
(1.2)
36
(1.4)
41
(1.6)
29
(1.1)
27
(1.1)
34
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
31
(1.2)
365
(14.4)
Average rainy days 4 3 6 11 15 15 14 13 13 14 11 6 125
Average snowy days 23 20 13 4 0.2 0 0 0 0.3 4 15 21 101
Average relative humidity (%) 80 78 79 65 53 55 57 57 60 70 81 81 68
Mean monthly sunshine hours 76 118 158 224 307 307 330 286 212 126 63 62 2,269
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[24]
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[25]
Districts
Closed administrative-territorial
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Cities and towns
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