Orders of magnitude (area)

This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects.

1 km2
An area of one square kilometre consists of 100 hectares each containing 10000 square metres.

1070 to 109 square metres

List of orders of magnitude for area 1070 to 109 square metres
Factor (m2) Multiple Value Item
1070   2.6×1070 m2 Planck area, [1]
1052   1052 m2 1 shed[2]
1048 1 square yoctometre (ym2)  1 ym2  
1043   100,000 ym2 1 femtobarn[3]
10−42 1 square zeptometre (zm2)  1 zm2  
10−36 1 square attometre (am2)  1 am2  
10−30 1 square femtometre (fm2)  1 fm2  
10−29   66.52 fm2 Thomson cross-section of the electron[4]
10−28   100 fm2 1 barn, roughly the cross-sectional area of a uranium nucleus[5]
10−24 1 square picometre (pm2)  1 pm2  
10−20 1 square angstrom2)  10,000 pm2  
10−19 100,000 pm2 Area of a lipid bilayer, per molecule[6]
75-260,000 pm2 Surface area of the 20 standard amino acids[7]
10−18 1 square nanometre (nm2)  1 nm2  
10−16 100 nm2 Globular proteins: solvent-accessible surface area of a typical globular protein, having a typical molecular mass of ~35000 u (quite variable)[8]
10−14 17,000 nm2 Cross-sectional area of a nuclear pore complex in vertebrates[9]
10−12 1 square micrometre (μm2) 6 μm2 Surface area of an E. coli bacterium[10]
10−10   100 μm2 Surface area of a red blood cell[11]
10−9   6,000 μm2 - 110,000 μm2 Range of common LCD screen pixel sizes[12]
  7,000 μm2 Area of a dot printed using 300 dots per inch resolution[13]
  8,000 μm2 Cross-sectional area of a straight human hair that is 100 μm[14] in diameter[15]

10−8 to 10−1 square metres

List of orders of magnitude for areas 10−8 to 10−1 square metres
Factor (m2) Multiple Value Item
10−8   55,000 μm2 Size of a pixel on a typical modern computer display
10−7   2-400,000 μm2 Cross-sectional area of a mechanical pencil lead (0.5-0.7 mm in diameter)[16]
10−6 1 square millimetre (mm2) 1–2 mm2 Area of a human fovea[17]
2 mm2 Area of the head of a pin
10−5   30–50 mm2 Area of a 6–8 mm hole punched in a piece of paper by a hole punch[18]
10−4 1 square centimetre (cm2) 290 mm2 Area of one side of a U.S. penny[19][20]
500 mm2 Area of a typical postage stamp
10−3   1,100 mm2 Area of a human retina[21]
4,600 mm2 Area of the face of a credit card[22]
4,800 mm2 Largest side of a cigarette box
10−2 1 square decimetre (dm2) 10,000 mm2 Index card (3 × 5 inches)[23]
60,000 mm2 American letter paper (11 × 8.5 inches, "A" size)
62,370 mm2 International A4 paper (210 × 297 mm)
92,903 mm2 1 square foot[24]
10−1   125,000 mm2 International A3 paper (297 × 420 mm)
180,000 mm2 Surface area of a basketball (diameter 24 cm)[25][26]
250,000 mm2 International A2 paper (420 × 594 mm)
500,000 mm2 International A1 paper (594 × 841 mm)

100 to 107 square metres

List of orders of magnitude for areas 100 to 107 square metres.
Factor (m2) Multiple Value Item
100 1 square metre 1 m2 International A0 paper (841 × 1189 mm)
1.73 m2 A number commonly used as the average body surface area of a human[27]
2–4 m2 Area of the top of an office desk
101   10–20 m2 A parking space
70 m2 Approximate surface area of a human lung[28]
102 1 square decametre (dam2) 100 m2 One are (a)
162 m2 Size of a volleyball court (18 × 9 metres)[29]
202 m2 Floor area of a median suburban three-bedroom house in the US in 2010: 2,169 sq ft (201.5 m2)[30]
261 m2 Size of a tennis court[31]
103   1,000 m2 Surface area of a modern stremma or dunam
1,250 m2 Surface area of the water in an Olympic-size swimming pool[32]
4,047 m2 1 acre[33]
5,400 m2 Size of an American football field[34][35]
7,140 m2 Size of a typical football (soccer) field[36][37]
104 1 square hectometre (hm2) 10,000 m2 1 hectare (ha)[38]
17,000 m2 Approximate area of a cricket field (theoretical limits: 6,402 m2 to 21,273 m2)[39]
22,100 m2 Area of a Manhattan city block
53,000 m2 Base of the Great Pyramid of Giza[40][41]
105   195,000 m2 Irish National Botanic Gardens[42]
440,000 m2 Vatican City[43]
600,000 m2 Total floor area of the Pentagon[44]
106 1 square kilometre (km2) 2 km2 Monaco (country ranked 192nd by area)[45]
2.59 km2 1 square mile[46]
2.9 km2 City of London (not all of modern London)[47]
107   59.5 km2 Manhattan Island (land area)[48]
61 km2 San Marino[49]

108 to 1014 square metres

Factor (m2) Multiple Value Item
108   105 km2 Paris (inner city only)[50]
110 km2 Walt Disney World[51]
272 km2 Taipei City[52]
630 km2 Toronto[53]
109   1100 km2 Hong Kong[54]
1290 km2 Los Angeles, California, United States (city)[55]
1962 km2 Jacksonville, Florida; largest city in the Continental US[56]
2188 km2 Tokyo[57]
5780 km2 Administrative area of Bali[58]
8030 km2 Community of Madrid, Spain
1010   11,000 km2 Jamaica[59]
30,528 km2 Belgium
68,870 km2 Lake Victoria[60]
84,000 km2 Austria[61]
1011   100,000 km2 South Korea[62]
167,996 km2 Jiuquan in China
301,338 km2 Italy[63]
357,000 km2 Germany[64]
377,900 km2 Japan[65]
510,000 km2 Spain[66]
780,000 km2 Turkey[67]
1012 1 square megametre (Mm2) 1.0 Mm2 Egypt (country ranked 29th by area)[68]
2 Mm2 Mexico
3.10 Mm2 Sakha (Yakutia) Republic in Russia (largest subnational governing body)[69]
5 Mm2 Largest extent of the Roman Empire[70][71]
7.74 Mm2 Australia (country ranked 6th by area)[72]
8.5 Mm2 Brazil
9.5 Mm2 China/ United States of America
1013   10 Mm2 Canada (including water)[73]
14 Mm2 Antarctica[74]
14 Mm2 Arable land worldwide[75]
16.6 Mm2 Surface area of Pluto[76]
17 Mm2 Russia (country ranked 1st by area)[77]
30 Mm2 Africa[78]
35.5 Mm2 Largest extent of the British Empire[79]
38 Mm2 Surface area of the Moon[80]
77 Mm2 Atlantic Ocean[81]
1014   144 Mm2 Surface area of Mars[82]
150 Mm2 Land area of Earth[83]
156 Mm2 Pacific Ocean[84]
360 Mm2 Water area of Earth[83]
510 Mm2 Total surface area of Earth[83]

1015 to 1026 square metres

List of orders of magnitude for areas 1015 to 1026 square metres.
Factor (m2) Multiple Value Item
1015   1,000 Mm2 Surface area of the white dwarf, Van Maanen's star
7,600 Mm2 Surface area of Neptune[85]
1016   43,000 Mm2 Surface area of Saturn[86]
61 000 Mm2 Surface area of Jupiter,[87] the "surface" area of the spheroid (calculated from the mean radius as reported by NASA). The cross-sectional area of Jupiter, which is the same as the "circle" of Jupiter seen by an approaching spacecraft, is almost exactly one quarter the surface-area of the overall sphere, which in the case of Jupiter is approximately 1.535e+16 square metres.
1017   2-600 000 Mm2 Surface area of the brown dwarf CT Chamaeleontis B.
460,000 Mm2 Area swept by the Moon's orbit of Earth
1018 1 square gigametre (Gm2) 6.1 Gm2 Surface area of the Sun[88]
1019   30 Gm2 Surface area of the star Vega
1020    100 Gm2  
1021 1 000 Gm2
1022   11 000 Gm2 Area swept by Mercury's orbit around the Sun
37 000 Gm2 Area swept by Venus' orbit around the Sun
71 000 Gm2 Area swept by Earth's orbit around the Sun
1023   160 000 Gm2 Area swept by Mars' orbit around the Sun
281 000 Gm2 Surface area of a Dyson sphere with a radius of 1 AU
1024 1 square terametre (Tm2) 1.9 Tm2 Area swept by Jupiter's orbit around the Sun
6.4 Tm2 Area swept by Saturn's orbit around the Sun
8.5 Tm2 Surface area of the red supergiant star Betelgeuse
1025   24 Tm2 Surface area of the hypergiant star VY Canis Majoris
26 Tm2 Area swept by Uranus' orbit around the Sun
64 Tm2 Area swept by Neptune's orbit around the Sun
1026   110 Tm2 Area swept by Pluto's orbit around the Sun

1027 square metres and larger

List of orders of magnitude for areas 1027 square metres and larger.
Factor (m2) Multiple Value Item
1030 1 square petametre (Pm2)
1031 10 Pm2
1032 200 Pm2 Roughly the surface area of an Oort Cloud
300 Pm2 Roughly the surface area of a Bok globule
1033 1 000 Pm2
1034 30 000 Pm2 Roughly the surface area of The Bubble nebula
1035 100 000 Pm2
1036 1 square exametre (Em2)
...
1041 700 000 Em2 Roughly the area of Milky Way's galactic disk
1042 1 square zettametre (Zm2)
...
1048 1 square yottametre (Ym2)
1054 2400 Ym2 Surface area of the observable universe[89]

See also

References

  1. ^ Calculated: square of the Planck length = (1.62e-35 m)^2 = 2.6e-70 m^2
  2. ^ Russ Rowlett (September 1, 2004). "Units: S". How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
  3. ^ "Femtobarn". CERN writing guidelines. CERN. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
  4. ^ Eric W. Weisstein. "Thomson Cross Section". Eric Weisstein's World of Science. Wolfram Research. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
  5. ^ "Other non-SI units". SI brochure. BIPM. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21. Retrieved 2011-10-25.
  6. ^ ""Rule of thumb" for the area per molecule in lipid bilayer". BioNumbers. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
  7. ^ "Individual Properties of the 20 Standard Amino Acids: Properties and Images". The Amino Acid Repository. Jena Library of Biological Macromolecules. Retrieved 2011-10-10.
  8. ^ Janin, J. E. L. (1979). "Surface and inside volumes in globular proteins". Nature. 277 (5696): 491–492. Bibcode:1979Natur.277..491J. doi:10.1038/277491a0. PMID 763335.
  9. ^ "The Nuclear Pore Complex". UIUC Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
  10. ^ "E. coli Statistics". The CyberCell Database. Archived from the original on 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
  11. ^ Marcelli, Gianluca; Parker, Kim H.; Winlove, C. Peter (2005). "Thermal Fluctuations of Red Blood Cell Membrane via a Constant-Area Particle-Dynamics Model". Biophysical Journal. 89 (4): 2473–2480. Bibcode:2005BpJ....89.2473M. doi:10.1529/biophysj.104.056168. PMC 1366746. PMID 16055528. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  12. ^ Calculated: Smallest and largest common pitches were 77 micrometers and 337 micrometers. (77e-6 m)^2 ~= 6e-9 m^2. (337e-6 m)^2 ~= 114e-9 m^2 ~= 110e-9 m^2
  13. ^ Calculated: (300 dots per inch / 2.54e-2 m/inch)^(-2) = 7.2e-9 m^2
  14. ^ "Hair Fiber Composition". Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  15. ^ Calculated: 100 μm in diameter => pi * ((1e-4 m)/2)**2 = 7.9e-9 m^2
  16. ^ Calculated: pi * (0.5mm/2)^2 = 2.0e-7 m^2 and pi * (0.7mm/2)^2 = 3.8e-7 m^2)
  17. ^ "Part XIII: Facts and Figures concerning the human retina". Webvision. University of Utah. Archived from the original on 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2011-09-28.
  18. ^ Calculated: ((6e-3 m)/2)**2 * pi = 2.8e-5 m^2 and ((8e-3 m)/2)**2 * pi = 5.0e-5 m^2
  19. ^ "Coin specifications". United States Mint. Retrieved 2011-12-28.
  20. ^ Calculated: area = pi * diameter^2 / 4 = 3.14 * (19.05e-3 m)^2 = 2.850e-4 m^2
  21. ^ Taylor, Enid; Jennings, Alan (1971). "Calculation of total retinal area". Br. J. Ophthalmol. 55 (4): 262–5. doi:10.1136/bjo.55.4.262. PMC 1208280. PMID 5572268.
  22. ^ "Credit Card Dimensions". Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  23. ^ Calculated: 3 inches * 5 inches * (2.54e-2 m/inch)^2 = 9.7e-3 m^2 ~= 0.01 m^2
  24. ^ Calculated: 1 foot * 1 foot * (0.3048 meters / foot)^2 = 0.092.90304 m^2
  25. ^ "Rules of the Game". USA Basketball. Archived from the original on 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  26. ^ Calculated: 29.5-29.75 inch circumference * 2.54 cm / in = 23.85-24.05 cm diameter => radius = 0.119-0.120 m => Area = 4 * pi * (0.119 m)^2 = 0.18 m^2
  27. ^ Sacco, Joseph J.; Botten, Joanne; Macbeth, Fergus; Bagust, Adrian; Clark, Peter (2010). "The Average Body Surface Area of Adult Cancer Patients in the UK: A Multicentre Retrospective Study". PLoS ONE. 5 (1): e8933. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...5.8933S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008933. PMC 2812484. PMID 20126669. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  28. ^ Notter, Robert H. (2000). Lung surfactants: basic science and clinical applications. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. p. 120. ISBN 0-8247-0401-0. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  29. ^ "Section 1.1". Official Volleyball Rules 2011-2012 (PDF). FIVB. 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-27. The playing court is a rectangle measuring 18 x 9 m, surrounded by a free zone which is a minimum of 3 m wide on all sides.
  30. ^ "Median and Average Square Feet of Floor Area in New Single-Family Houses Completed by Location" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-26.
  31. ^ "Area of a Tennis Court". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  32. ^ Calculated: 50 m * 25 m = 1250 m^2
  33. ^ "General Tables of Units of Measurement" (PDF). NIST. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-26. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 4046.87
  34. ^ "What are the Dimensions of a Football Field". Dimensions Guide. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
  35. ^ Calculated: 360 feet * 160 feet * (0.3048 m/ft)^2 = 5351 m^2 ~= 5400 m^2
  36. ^ "How Big Is An Olympic Soccer Field?". LIVESTRONG.COM. Retrieved 2012-01-04. For the Olympics, fields are supposed to measure exactly 105 meters long and 68 meters wide
  37. ^ Calculated: 105 m * 68 m = 7140 m^2
  38. ^ "General Tables of Units of Measurement" (PDF). NIST. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-26. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  39. ^ "AFL Ground Sizes | Passy's World of Mathematics". passyworldofmathematics.com. Retrieved 2016-11-12.
  40. ^ Greenberg, Ralph. "THE GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA (Some Elegant Numerical Relationships)". Retrieved 2012-01-04. average length of the four sides is 230.364 meters
  41. ^ Calculated: 230.364 m^2 ~= 53068 m^2
  42. ^ Gartland, Fiona. "Valuable lead roofing stolen from Dublin bandstands". Archived from the original on 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  43. ^ "Holy See (Vatican City)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  44. ^ "The Pentagon - George Bergstrom". Great Buildings Online. Retrieved 2011-10-28. Floor area of 6.5 million square feet, 34 acres, 13.8 hectares, of which 3.7 million square feet are used for offices.
  45. ^ "Monaco". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  46. ^ Calculated: 1 mile * 1 mile * (1.61 km / mile)^2 = 2.59 km^2
  47. ^ "Jurisdictions: London". The International Finance Centre Portal. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  48. ^ "New York -- Place and County Subdivision: Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density 2000". Census 2000 Summary File 1. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  49. ^ "San Marino". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  50. ^ "Paris" (PDF). INSEE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  51. ^ "Walt Disney World Resort". Disney By The Numb3rs. Archived from the original on 2015-06-12. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 30,500 acres
  52. ^ "Appendix II Statistics". Taipei Yearbook 2010. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  53. ^ "Population and Dwelling Counts". 2001 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  54. ^ "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  55. ^ "California by Place: Los Angeles city". US Census. Retrieved 2011-10-28. 498.29 square miles
  56. ^ "Cities with 100,000 or More Population in 2000 ranked by Land Area (square miles) /1, 2000 in Rank Order". U.S. Census Bureau, Administrative and Customer Services Division, Statistical Compendia Branch. March 16, 2004. Archived from the original on October 17, 2002. Retrieved 2010-10-26.
  57. ^ "OVERVIEW OF TOKYO". Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  58. ^ "Kabupaten Klungkung : Data Agregat per Kecamatan" (PDF). Sp2010.bps.go.id. 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  59. ^ "Jamaica". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  60. ^ "Lake Profile: Victoria". World Lakes. LakeNet. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  61. ^ "Austria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  62. ^ "South Korea". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  63. ^ "Italy". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  64. ^ "Germany". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  65. ^ "Japan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  66. ^ "Spain". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  67. ^ "Turkey". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  68. ^ "Egypt". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  69. ^ Rosstat (Russian Statistical Service), 2010 Archived 2012-10-18 at the Wayback Machine (xls). Retrieved 2012-06-15.
  70. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  71. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  72. ^ "Australia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  73. ^ "Canada". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  74. ^ "Antarctica". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-10-28.
  75. ^ "FAO Resources page". FAO.org. 2010.
  76. ^ "Pluto: By the Numbers". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
  77. ^ "Russia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  78. ^ "Map of Africa". Worldatlas.com. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 30,065,000 sq km
  79. ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 502. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.
  80. ^ "Earth's Moon: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  81. ^ "The World Factbook: Atlantic Ocean". Central Intelligence Agency. 2011-03-24. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  82. ^ "Mars: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  83. ^ a b c "The World Factbook: World". Central Intelligence Agency. 2011-08-31. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
  84. ^ "The World Factbook: Pacific Ocean". Central Intelligence Agency. 2011-11-17. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
  85. ^ "Neptune: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  86. ^ "Saturn: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  87. ^ "Jupiter: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  88. ^ "Sun: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Archived from the original on 2011-07-03. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
  89. ^ "Wolfram|Alpha: Computational Knowledge Engine". www.wolframalpha.com. Retrieved 2016-03-01.
Barn (unit)

A barn (symbol: b) is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2 (or 100 fm2). Originally used in nuclear physics for expressing the cross sectional area of nuclei and nuclear reactions, today it is also used in all fields of high-energy physics to express the cross sections of any scattering process, and is best understood as a measure of the probability of interaction between small particles. A barn is approximately the cross-sectional area of a uranium nucleus. The barn is also the unit of area used in nuclear quadrupole resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance to quantify the interaction of a nucleus with an electric field gradient. While the barn is not an SI unit, the SI standards body acknowledges its existence due to its continued use in particle physics.

List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "notes" column for each country for clarification.

Not included in the list are individual country claims to parts of the continent of Antarctica, entities such as the European Union that have some degree of sovereignty but do not consider themselves to be sovereign countries or dependent territories, and unrecognised micronations such as the Principality of Sealand.

This list includes three measurements of area:

Total area: the sum of land and water areas within international boundaries and coastlines.

Land area: the aggregate of all land within international boundaries and coastlines, excluding water area.

Water area: the sum of the surface areas of all inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, and rivers) within international boundaries and coastlines. Coastal internal waters (some small bays) may be included. Territorial waters are not included unless otherwise noted. Contiguous zones and exclusive economic zones are not included.Data is taken from the United Nations Statistics Division unless otherwise noted.

List of country subdivisions by area

This is a list of the 50 largest country subdivisions and dependent territories by area (including surface water) in square kilometres.

List of geographic bodies by area

This article contains lists of geographic bodies by area.

List of political and geographic subdivisions by total area

This is an index of a series of comprehensive lists of continents, countries, and first level administrative country subdivisions such as states, provinces, and territories, as well as certain political and geographic features of substantial area. Some divisions are listed twice, with one listing including territory that is excluded in the other for various reasons, including territorial disputes. Names of currently existing countries are bolded, while names of geographic features are italicized. There is intentional overlap between the lists in order to maximize ease of use.

Measuring instrument

A measuring instrument is a device for measuring a physical quantity. In the physical sciences, quality assurance, and engineering, measurement is the activity of obtaining and comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. Established standard objects and events are used as units, and the process of measurement gives a number relating the item under study and the referenced unit of measurement. Measuring instruments, and formal test methods which define the instrument's use, are the means by which these relations of numbers are obtained. All measuring instruments are subject to varying degrees of instrument error and measurement uncertainty.

Scientists, engineers and other humans use a vast range of instruments to perform their measurements. These instruments may range from simple objects such as rulers and stopwatches to electron microscopes and particle accelerators. Virtual instrumentation is widely used in the development of modern measuring instruments.

Rai (unit)

A rai (Thai: ไร่, pronounced [râj]) is a unit of area equal to 1,600 square metres (16 ares, 0.16 hectares, 0.3954 acres), and is used in measuring land area for a cadastre or cadastral map. Its current size is precisely derived from the metre, but is neither part of nor recognized by the modern metric system, the International System (SI).

The rai is defined as 1 square sen or (40 m × 40 m). It can be divided in four ngaan or 400 square wa.

It is commonly used in Thailand. Although recognized by the SI, its use is not encouraged. The word rai also means plantation.

Square foot

The square foot (plural square feet; abbreviated sq. ft, sf, ft2) is an imperial unit and U.S. customary unit (non-SI, non-metric) of area, used mainly in the United States and partially in Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore and the United Kingdom. It is defined as the area of a square with sides of 1 foot.

Although the pluralisation is regular in the noun form, when used as an adjective, the singular is preferred. So, a flat measuring 700 square feet could be described as a 700 square-foot flat. This corresponds to common linguistic usage of foot.

Square metre

The square metre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit of area with symbol m2.Adding and subtracting SI prefixes creates multiples and submultiples; however, as the unit is exponentiated, the quantities grow geometrically by the corresponding power of 10. For example, a kilometre is 103 (a thousand) times the length of a metre, but a square kilometre is 1032 (106, a million) times the area of a square metre, and a cubic kilometre is 1033 (109, a billion) cubic metres.

Square yard

The square yard (India: gaj) is an imperial unit of area, formerly used in most of the English-speaking world but now generally replaced by the square metre, however it is still in widespread use in the U.S., Canada, the U.K. and India. It is defined as the area of a square with sides of one yard (three feet, thirty-six inches, 0.9144 metres) in length.

Tarang wa

A tarang wa (Thai: ตารางวา, RTGS: tarang wa, IPA: [tāːrāːŋ wāː]) or square wa, sometimes transliterated as 'waa' or 'wah' is a unit of area used in Thailand for measuring land or property. It is defined as the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one wa (two metres), equivalent to four square metres. Although its current size is precisely derived from the metre, it is neither part of nor recognized by the modern metric system, the International System (SI).

The square wa equals 1/100 ngaan or 1/400 rai, two units of area frequently used in Thailand. It also equals 1/25 are, another metre-derived unit of area not officially part of the SI.

As with many terms normally written with the Thai alphabet, there are many variant transliterations into English, e.g. dta-raang waa and tarang wah.

Wa (unit)

Wa (Thai: วา [wāː], also waa or wah, abbreviated ว.) is a unit of length, equal to two metres (2 m) or four sok (ศอก.) Wa as a verb means to outstretch (one's) arms to both sides, which relates to the fathom's distance between the fingertips of a man's outstretched arms. The 1833 Siamese-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce, reads, "[The] Siamese fathom...being computed to contain 78 English or American inches, corresponding to 96 Siamese inches." The length then would have been equivalent to a modern 1.981 metres. Since conversion to the metric system in 1923, the length as derived from the metre is precisely two metres, but the unit is neither part of nor recognized by the modern International metric system (SI).

Wa also occurs as a colloquialism for "square wa" (tarang wa) a unit of area abbreviated ตร.ว. or ว๒.)

As with many terms normally written in the Thai alphabet, romanization of Thai causes spelling variants such as waa and wah.

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