The Order of the White Rose of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunta; Swedish: Finlands Vita Ros’ orden) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the Cross of Liberty, and the Order of the Lion of Finland. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members. The orders of the White Rose of Finland and the Lion of Finland have a joint board.
The Order of the White Rose of Finland was established by Gustaf Mannerheim in his capacity as regent (temporary head of state) on January 28, 1919. The name comes from the nine roses argent in the coat of arms of Finland. The order's rules and regulations were confirmed on May 16, 1919, and its present rules date from June 1, 1940. The revised scale of ranks was confirmed most recently in 1985. The original decorations were designed by Akseli Gallen-Kallela. The swastikas of the collar was replaced by fir crosses in 1963, designed by heraldic artist Gustaf von Numers. The honour can be granted for military as well as civilian merit. The ribbon for all classes is ultramarine. The motto of the Order appears on the medallion and is Isänmaan hyväksi, which means in Finnish: "For [the well-being or benefit or advantage of] the Fatherland".
The President of Finland wears the Grand Cross of the White Rose of Finland with Collar (a neck chain). The Collar is worn four centimetres from either side and hangs at equal distances at the front and back. The Grand Cross and Commander marks are awarded with a breast star.
|Order of the White Rose of Finland|
Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun ritarikunta
|Awarded by Finland|
|Awarded for||Civil or military merit|
|Established||28 January 1919|
|Next (higher)||Order of the Cross of Liberty|
|Next (lower)||Order of the Lion of Finland|
Commander of the Order of the White Rose of Finland
The classes of the Order of the White Rose of Finland are:
Generally the Grand Cross with Collar is awarded only to foreign heads of state, e.g. to King Fuad I of Egypt (1935), Charles de Gaulle (1962), Josip Broz Tito (1963) and King Birendra of Nepal (1988). Prime Ministers of Finland customarily receive the Grand Cross. (Certain leftist politicians refused the cross or didn't wear it, and the transient term in office of Anneli Jäätteenmäki did not lead to the President awarding the cross.)
Annie Fredrika Furuhjelm (11 December 1859 – 17 July 1937) was a Finnish journalist, feminist activist, and writer. She was a member of the Parliament of Finland from 1913 to 1924 and again from 1927 to 1929, representing the Swedish People's Party of Finland (SFP). She was the first enfranchised woman in Europe to serve as a delegate to the International Women Suffrage Alliance and the first elected female legislator to speak before the British Parliament. She was awarded the Order of the White Rose of Finland for her service to the nation.Daithí Ó Ceallaigh
Daithí Ó Ceallaigh is a former Irish diplomat.Debora Vaarandi
Debora Vaarandi (October 1, 1916 – April 28, 2007) was an Estonian writer, considered to be a leading literary figure in post-World War II Estonia.She was born in Võru and grew up on the island of Saaremaa. Vaarandi studied language and literature at the University of Tartu. She joined the Communist Party of Estonia in 1940. When the Germans invaded Estonia, she escaped to Russia, returning to Estonia in 1944. Although not trained as a journalist, she worked as editor in chief of the Communistic publication Sirbi ja Vasara. She was forced to resign that post after contracting tuberculosis.In 1936, she married Aadu Hint; the couple later divorced. In 1952, she married writer Juhan Smuul.In 1946, her first collection of poetry Põleva laotuse all ("Under a Blazing Sky") was published. Her work celebrates values such as the love of nature, the importance of family and the beauty of small things. Many of her poems have been set to music. After 1977, she focused on translating works by Anna Akhmatova, Georg Trakl and Edith Södergran into Estonian. She was awarded the Order of the White Rose of Finland for her work in translating Finnish poetry into Estonian.In 1965, she received the first Juhan Liiv Poetry Award and, in 2005, she was recognized with the Cultural Award of the Republic of Estonia for outstanding lifetime achievement.Edward Theodore Salvesen
The Hon. Edward Theodore Salvesen, Lord Salvesen (20 July 1857 – 23 February 1942) was a Scottish lawyer, politician and judge who rose to be a Senator of the College of Justice.Eliza Reid
Eliza Jean Reid (born 1976) is a Canadian-born current First Lady of Iceland since 2016. Before her appointment as First Lady, she was a freelance writer for multiple Icelandic magazines and editor of the Icelandair Stopover from 2012 to 2016. She is also the cofounder of the Iceland Writers Retreat.Finnish order of precedence
The Finnish order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the government of Finland. It has no legal standing, it does not reflect the Finnish presidential line of succession or the co-equal status of the branches of government under the constitution, and is only used to indicate ceremonial protocol.
President of the Republic Sauli Niinistö
Retired Presidents of the Republic in order of term:
President Martti Ahtisaari
President Tarja Halonen
Speaker of the Parliament Paula Risikko
Prime Minister Juha Sipilä
President of the Supreme Court Timo Esko
President of the Supreme Administrative Court Pekka Vihervuori
Chief of Defence Jarmo Lindberg
Chancellor of Justice Jaakko Jonkka
Archbishop of Turku Tapio Luoma
Chancellor of the Order of the Cross of Liberty Gustav Hägglund
Chancellor of the Order of the White Rose of Finland and the Order of the Lion of Finland Aino Sallinen
Chancellor of the University of Helsinki Thomas WilhelmssonJohannes Orasmaa
Johannes Orasmaa, until 1935 Johannes Roska (3 December 1890 – 24 May 1943) was an Estonian General.
Johannes Orasmaa fought in the Estonian War of Independence and then pursued a military career. He was promoted to the rank of major-general in 1928 and was commander of the Estonian Defence League between 1925 and 1940. He was awarded the Estonian Cross of Liberty and also the Order of the White Rose of Finland and the Polish Gold Cross of Merit. During the Soviet occupation of Estonia, he was arrested and sent to labour camp by Soviet authorities, where he died in 1943.Lars Slagsvold
Lars Magnussen Slagsvold (24 April 1887 – 2 September 1959) was a Norwegian veterinarian.
He was born in Romedal as a son of farmer Magnus Slagsvold (1854–1921) and Inger Krogstie (1855–1924). He finished his education in 1909 in Copenhagen. After several years of practice he was hired as a head of department in the National Veterinary Institute in 1924. He was a professor at the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science from 1936 to 1946, and from 1946 to 1957 he headed the State Animal Authority.Slagsvold was also noted for his work to eliminate the diseases bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis, together with Niels Thorshaug and Halfdan Holth. Slagsvold was decorated as a Knight, 1st Class of the Order of St. Olav in 1951 and he was also held the Order of the Dannebrog (Commander) and the Order of the White Rose of Finland.Leif Høegh
Leif Høegh (21 April 1896 - 23 May 1974) was a Norwegian shipowner. He founded the international shipping company, Leif Höegh & Co in 1927.List of Commanders of the Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose of Finland
This is a list of Commanders of the Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose of Finland. Living Commanders are in bold and foreign Commanders are on blue background.
The Grand Cross can be awarded with a Collar.List of honours of Finland awarded to heads of state and royalty
This article serves as an index – as complete as possible – of all the honorific orders or similar decorations awarded by Finland, classified by Monarchies chapter and Republics chapter, and, under each chapter, recipients' countries and the detailed list of recipients.Maggie Gripenberg
Maggie Gripenberg (11 June 1881 – 28 July 1976) was a pioneer of modern dance in Finland. She was the first to introduce Dalcroze Eurhythmics to Finland and modeled her early works on the improvisational style of Isadora Duncan. As a dancer, choreographer and teacher, she laid the educational foundations for the study of movement and dance. She was recognized by numerous awards for her choreographic work as well as being honored with the Pro Finlandia Medal and as a knight of the Order of the White Rose of Finland.Matti Alahuhta
Matti Juhani Alahuhta (born 22 June 1952 in Alahärmä, Finland) was the President & CEO of KONE Corporation (2005–2014). Earlier he worked 26 years at Nokia Corporation and was Member of Nokia´s Executive Board from 1993 to 2004. He is Chairman of the Board of DevCo Partners Oy and Outotec Corporation. He is also Member of the Board of Directors of Kone Corporation (2003-), Volvo AB (2014-)and ABB Group (2014-).Order of the Cross of Liberty
The Order of the Cross of Liberty (Finnish: Vapaudenristin ritarikunta; Swedish: Frihetskorsets orden) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the White Rose of Finland and the Order of the Lion of Finland. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of the two orders, and usually of the Order of the Cross of Liberty as well, Grand Mastership of which is attached to the position of Commander-in-chief. In 1944, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (1867–1951) was designated as Grand Master for life. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members. The orders of the White Rose of Finland and the Lion of Finland have a joint board.
The Order of the Cross of Liberty was founded on March 4, 1918, upon the initiative of General C. G. E. Mannerheim. The Finnish artist Akseli Gallen-Kallela was commissioned to design the Order's insignia with the swastika.
At its foundation there were seven classes: grand cross, cross of liberty (1st to 4th class) and the medal of liberty (1st and 2nd class). The decorations of the Order of the Cross of Liberty were initially conferred only in time of war. A decree was issued on 18 August 1944 enabling the decorations to be awarded in peacetime.
The Cross of Liberty has a red ribbon when it is granted in wartime and a yellow ribbon when it is awarded in peacetime.
Decorations of the order were awarded in great numbers during the World War II, partly due to Marshal Mannerheim having issued an order that wounded soldiers were to be awarded for their sacrifice, and Finland has no separate decoration for wounded. The Cross of Liberty is usually reserved for commissioned officers, with the Medal of Liberty being awarded for soldiers of junior rank and NCOs.Order of the Lion of Finland
The Order of the Lion of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Leijonan ritarikunta; Swedish: Finlands Lejons orden) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the Cross of Liberty and the Order of the White Rose of Finland. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members. The orders of the White Rose of Finland and the Lion of Finland have a joint board.
The Order of the Lion of Finland was founded on September 11, 1942. It was introduced in an effort to preserve the prestige of the Order of the White Rose of Finland, which could have been diminished if granted too frequently, and to facilitate the awarding of honours for various types of merit. The Lion of Finland is awarded for civilian and military merit. The ribbon for all classes of insignia is dark red.
The President of Finland wears the Star of the Order of the Lion of Finland.Orders, decorations, and medals of Finland
The orders, decorations and medals of Finland form a system through which the Finnish government shows its respect to persons who have distinguished themselves on some walk of life. The legal basis of the system is the Act on the displays of public recognition (1215/1999) which grants the president the authority to issue decrees on orders, medals and titles.
The system is divided into three groups:
medals and decorations
Pekka Ala-Pietilä, January 13.1957, Asikkala, is CEO and co-founder of Blyk. He was also President of Nokia Corporation (1999–2005) and President of Nokia Mobile Phones (1992–1998). He holds an honorary Doctor in Technology from Tampere University of Technology and in Science from the University of Helsinki, and is a Knight 1st Class of the Order of the White Rose of Finland.Shaul Tchernichovsky
Shaul Tchernichovsky (20 August 1875 – 14 October 1943; Hebrew: שאול טשרניחובסקי; Russian: Саул Гутманович Черниховский) was an Imperial Russian-born Hebrew poet. He is considered one of the great Hebrew poets, identified with nature poetry, and as a poet greatly influenced by the culture of ancient Greece.Vishnu Khare
Vishnu Khare (2 February 1940 – 19 September 2018) was an Indian Hindi poet, translator, literary and film critic, journalist and scriptwriter. He wrote both in Hindi and English. He taught English literature at university level, served as the Programme Secretary of Sahitya Akademi, the National Academy of Letters in India and was editor of the Hindi daily Navbharat Times" in Lucknow, Jaipur and New Delhi.Vishnu Khare died on 19 September 2018 due to a brain haemorrhage in New Delhi.