Order of the Star of Ethiopia

The Order of the Star of Ethiopia was established as an order of knighthood of the Ethiopian Empire, founded by the Negus of Shoa and later emperor of Ethiopia Menelik II in 1884-1885. It is currently awarded as a house order by the Crown Council of Ethiopia.

The Order was established to honor foreign and domestic civilian and military officials and individuals for service to the country, and was considered the fifth ranking order of the Empire of Ethiopia alongside the Order of Menelik II.

Order of the Star of Ethiopia
ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Member BAR
Ribband of the order
TypeOrder
CountryEthiopian Empire
Religious affiliationEthiopian Orthodox
Emperor of Ethiopia
Badge of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia (member)

Badge of the order

Grades

First Class
  1. ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Grand Cross BAR
    Grand Cross (GCSE)
ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Grand Cross BAR
Second Class
  1. ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Grand Officer BAR
    Grand Officer (GOSE)
  2. ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Commander BAR
    Commander (CSE)
ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Grand Officer BAR
ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Commander BAR
Third Class
  1. ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Officer BAR
    Officer (OSE)
  2. ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Member BAR
    Member (MSE)
ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Officer BAR
ETH Order of the Star of Ethiopia - Member BAR

References

Literature

  • Honneur & Gloire. Les trésors de la collection Spada, Paris: Musée national de la Légion d’honneur et des ordres de chevalerie, 2008, p. 354–355.
  • «Ethiopian Imperial Orders» i Guy Stair Sainty og Rafal Heydel-Mankoo: World Orders of Knighthood and Merit, andre bind, Buckingham: Burke's Peerage, 2006, p. 779–781.
  • Gregor Gatscher-Riedl: Die Orden des äthiopischen Kaiserreichs und der salomonidischen Dynastie. In: Zeitschrift der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Ordenskunde, Nr. 91, Wien, August 2013, p. 1-22.
Amha Selassie

Amha Selassie (27 July 1914 – 17 February 1997) was Emperor-in-exile of Ethiopia. As son of Haile Selassie I, he was Crown Prince and proclaimed Emperor three times. He was first proclaimed Emperor during an unsuccessful coup attempt against his father in December 1960. He was again proclaimed on the deposition of his father by the Derg on 12 September 1974 - an act he never accepted as legitimate - which ended in the abolition of the Ethiopian monarchy in March 1975. He was again proclaimed in exile on 8 April 1989. This time he sanctioned the proclamation and accepted its legitimacy. After his accession, his full reign name was His Imperial Majesty Emperor Amha Selassie I, Elect of God, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah and King of Kings of Ethiopia.

Clifford Henry Fitzherbert Plowman

Clifford Henry Fitzherbert Plowman CMG OBE BA JP (23 July 1889 - 25 October 1948) was a British diplomat and Colonial Service administrator. He was the only child of the Rev'd Herbert William Thomas Plowman MA and Louisa Plowman (née Goodwin). He was educated at the King's School, Ely and Trinity College, Cambridge.

He married, in 1924, Nora Margaret Pottinger Tweedy, the only daughter of George Alfred Tweedy I.C.S. They had two daughters and a son.

Desta Damtew

Ras Desta Damtew (Amharic: ደስታ ዳምጠው ; ca. 1892 - 24 February 1937) was an Ethiopian noble, an army commander, and a son-in-law of Emperor Haile Selassie I.

George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

Known publicly as Albert until his accession, and "Bertie" among his family and close friends, George VI was born in the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, and was named after his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort. As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He attended naval college as a teenager, and served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during the First World War. In 1920, he was made Duke of York. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923 and they had two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret. In the mid-1920s, he had speech therapy for a stammer, which he never fully overcame.

George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII upon the death of their father in 1936. However, later that year Edward revealed his desire to marry divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. British prime minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry a divorced woman and remain king. Edward abdicated to marry Simpson, and George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor.

During George's reign, the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations accelerated. The parliament of the Irish Free State removed direct mention of the monarch from the country's constitution on the day of his accession. The following year, a new Irish constitution changed the name of the state to Ireland and established the office of President. From 1939, the Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – was at war with Nazi Germany. War with Italy and Japan followed in 1940 and 1941, respectively. Though Britain and its allies were ultimately victorious in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, George remained king of both countries, but relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948. Ireland formally declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth in 1949, and India became a republic within the Commonwealth the following year. George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth. He was beset by smoking-related health problems in the later years of his reign. He was succeeded by his elder daughter, Elizabeth II.

Gordon MacCreagh

Gordon MacCreagh (1886 in Perth, Indiana – 1953) was an American writer.

MacCreagh studied in Scotland and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Mistakenly believing he had killed a fellow student in a German sabre duel, he fled to Southeast Asia, where he lived for several years. He wrote several short adventure stories for magazines such as Argosy, Adventure and Short Stories. He travelled in South America on the Mulford Expedition. His book White Waters and Black published 1926 is an account of the expedition.He also travelled to Abyssinia with his wife in 1927, on an expedition to locate the Ark of the Covenant. His account was serialised in Adventure and published as a book The Last of Free Africa. After the book's publication, MacCreagh was made a "Knight of the Empire" by Emperor Haile Selassie.MacCreagh died in 1953 of abdominal cancer.

Hussein Refki Pasha

Hussein Refki Pasha Ahmed Hafez Mohammed Hafez (Arabic: حسين رفقي باشا ‎; 1876–1950) was an Egyptian military general and politician who served as Egypt's 25th Minister of War and Marine.

Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer)

General Sir Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson, (25 December 1891 – 29 April 1959) was a senior British Army officer who saw service in both world wars. He is mainly remembered as the commander of the British First Army during Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa and the subsequent Tunisian Campaign. An outwardly reserved character, he did not court popularity either with his superiors or with the public. His American superior, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, wrote that he was "blunt, at times to the point of rudeness". In consequence he is less well known than many of his contemporaries. However, "he handled a difficult campaign more competently than his critics suggest, but competence without flair was not good enough for a top commander in 1944".

Leonid Artamonov

Leonid Konstantinovich Artamonov (Russian: Леони́д Константи́нович Артамо́нов; 25 February 1859 – 1 January 1932) was a Russian military engineer, adviser and general, geographer and traveler, explorer of Africa, writer, veteran of the First World War and the Russo-Japanese War.

Lord Edward Gleichen

Major General Lord Albert Edward Wilfred Gleichen (15 January 1863 – 14 December 1937) was a British courtier and soldier.

Mary of Teck

Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King George V.

Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England. Her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, who was of German extraction, and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, who was a granddaughter of King George III. She was informally known as "May", after her birth month.

At the age of 24, she was betrothed to her second cousin once removed Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, but six weeks after the announcement of the engagement, he died unexpectedly of pneumonia. The following year, she became engaged to Albert Victor's next surviving brother, George, who subsequently became king. Before her husband's accession, she was successively Duchess of York, Duchess of Cornwall, and Princess of Wales.

As queen consort from 1910, she supported her husband through the First World War, his ill health, and major political changes arising from the aftermath of the war. After George's death in 1936, she became queen mother when her eldest son, Edward VIII, ascended the throne, but to her dismay, he abdicated later the same year in order to marry twice-divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. She supported her second son, George VI, until his death in 1952. She died the following year, during the reign of her granddaughter Elizabeth II, who had not yet been crowned.

Meir Dizengoff

Meir Dizengoff (Hebrew: מאיר דיזנגוף‬, Russian: Меер Янкелевич Дизенгоф Meer Yankelevich Dizengof, 25 February 1861 – 23 September 1936) was a Zionist politician and the first mayor of Tel Aviv (1911-1922 as head of town planning, 1922-1936 as mayor).

Mekonnen Haile Selassie

Prince Makonnen Haile Selassie, Duke of Harar (baptismal name: Araya Yohannes; 16 October 1924 – 13 May 1957) was the second son, and second-youngest child, of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia and Empress Menen Asfaw. He was made Mesfin (or Duke) of Harar upon the coronation of his parents in 1930.

Philip Norton Banks

Philip Norton Banks KPM, CSE (1889 – 2 April 1964) was the ninth British colonial Inspector-General of Police in Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

Banks entered the Ceylon Police in 1909 and advanced to the position of Assistant Superintendent in 1912 and then to Superintendent in 1917. Following the outbreak of World War I he returned to the UK, was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 1st Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps and saw active service on the Western Front in France and Flanders.

In 1919 following the end of the war he returned to his previous employ in Ceylon, after serving in the 5th (Reserve) Battalion of the King's Royal Rifle Corps, Banks was promoted to Superintendent of Police (Grade 1) in 1924 and to Deputy Inspector-General in the Criminal Investigation Department in March 1932. Banks was appointed Inspector-General of Police in 1937, after earlier in the year being presented with the King's Police Medal by the Governor of Ceylon Sir Reginald Stubbs in a special ceremony held at Queen’s House, Colombo. The same year also saw Banks’ involvement in the proposed deportation of Mark Anthony Bracegirdle, an Anglo-Australian Marxist activist, investigated by a Commission of Inquiry. As a result of this much publicised case the Foreign Office transferred him to Ethiopia in 1942, as Commissioner of Police, where he was responsible for re-establishing the Ethiopian police force.In July 1949 Banks was awarded the Officer of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia by the Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie. In September 1956 Banks retired and was replaced by General Tsige Dibu. In July 1959 he was awarded the Commander of the Star of Ethiopia.

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942) was a member of the British royal family who served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canadian Confederation and the only British prince to do so.

Born the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, Arthur was educated by private tutors before entering the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich at the age of 16. Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the British Army, where he served for some 40 years, seeing service in various parts of the British Empire. During this time he was also created a royal duke, becoming the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, as well as the Earl of Sussex. In 1911, he was appointed as Governor General of Canada, replacing the Earl Grey as viceroy. He occupied this post until he was succeeded by the Duke of Devonshire in 1916. He acted as the King's, and thus the Canadian Commander-in-Chief's, representative through the first years of the First World War.

After the end of his viceregal tenure, Arthur returned to the United Kingdom and there, as well as in India, performed various royal duties, while also again taking up military duties. Though he retired from public life in 1928, he continued to make his presence known in the army well into the Second World War, before his death in 1942. He was Queen Victoria's last surviving son.

Ralph Cobbold

Lieutenant-Colonel Ralph Patteson Cobbold, DSO (10 February 1869 – 5 December 1965) was a British soldier and writer, who served in the 60th Rifles in India.

Ralph Cobbold was born in Ipswich, the second son of the Ipswich MP John Patteson Cobbold. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the King's Royal Rifle Corps on 17 October 1888, and promoted to lieutenant on 1 October 1890. He explored the Pamirs in 1897–1898. His report on Russian plans to occupy Chitral was an important episode in the Great Game between the Russian and British empires. In his 1900 book about his travels through the Pamirs, Cobbold wrote " “My original object in visiting the Pamir region of Central Asia was that of a sportsman, and I had no idea of either troubling myself with inquiries into the social and political conditions of the people", but in actuality Cobbold was an agent in the British government and was ordered to travel through the Pamirs.

He was appointed to the reserve in March 1899, but re-enlisted to serve in the Second Boer War which started later the same year. Leaving for South Africa in February 1900, he was appointed a Deputy Assistant Adjutant General in South Africa on 19 July 1900. He later took part in British military operations in Somaliland, and in 1902 received the Second class of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia in recognition of services while attached to the Abyssinian Force which cooperated with the British Force.Cobbold's first marriage was to Minnie Diana Pitt, with whom he had a son, Ralph Hamilton Cobbold. In 1929, he married Joan Rosemary Graves-Sawle, daughter of Rear-Admiral Sir Charles John Graves-Sawle and, in 1932, he changed his name to Ralph Patterson Sawle by royal licence.

Seyoum Mengesha

Seyoum Mengesha KBE (Amharic: ሥዩም መንገሻ ; 21 June 1887 – 15 December 1960) was an army commander and a member of the Royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.

Sidney Barton

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Wilfred Gilbert Thesiger

Honourable Wilfred Gilbert Thesiger, DSO (25 March 1871- 31 January 1920) was a British officer and diplomat, who was British Minister in Ethiopia from 1909 to 1919.

William Horwood (police commissioner)

Brigadier-General Sir William Thomas Francis Horwood, (9 November 1868 – 16 November 1943) was a British Army officer who also served as Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, head of London's Metropolitan Police, from 1920 to 1928.

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