The Order of the Lion of Finland (Finnish: Suomen Leijonan ritarikunta; Swedish: Finlands Lejons orden) is one of three official orders in Finland, along with the Order of the Cross of Liberty and the Order of the White Rose of Finland. The President of Finland is the Grand Master of all three orders. The orders are administered by boards consisting of a chancellor, a vice-chancellor and at least four members. The orders of the White Rose of Finland and the Lion of Finland have a joint board.
The Order of the Lion of Finland was founded on September 11, 1942. It was introduced in an effort to preserve the prestige of the Order of the White Rose of Finland, which could have been diminished if granted too frequently, and to facilitate the awarding of honours for various types of merit. The Lion of Finland is awarded for civilian and military merit. The ribbon for all classes of insignia is dark red.
The President of Finland wears the Star of the Order of the Lion of Finland.
|Order of the Lion of Finland|
Suomen Leijonan ritarikunta
Commander Grand Cross breast star of the order (missing three of its original fifteen gold rays)
|Awarded by the President of Finland|
|Eligibility||Civilians and military personnel|
|Awarded for||Civil and military merit|
|Established||September 11, 1942|
|Next (higher)||Order of the White Rose of Finland|
|Next (lower)||Cross of Merit for Finnish Physical Education and Sports|
The classes of the Order of the Lion of Finland are:
Brynjulf Skaugen Sr. (11 June 1918 – 14 August 2002) was a Norwegian business executive.
He was born 11 June 1918, the son of Isak Martinius Skaugen, He took his examen artium, which qualified him for admission to university studies. He became a sailor and then took an examination as an average adjuster.He worked for his father's company, I. M. Skaugen, and then, together with his brothers, Sigurd (who died in 1975) and Morits, he became a partner in 1952, the brothers later controlling the family company. For about twenty years from 1969 they also co-owned Royal Caribbean Cruise Line. In 1990 the I. M. Skaugen firm was taken over by Morits Skaugen Jr., and a new branch named B. Skaugen was taken over by Brynjulf Skaugen Jr. The heirs of Brynjulf Skaugen Sr., were Brynjulf Jr; Severin, Marius, and Anette Skaugen, who inherited 746.5 million kroner.In 1983 Skaugen was decorated as a commander of the Order of the Lion of Finland. He died in August 2002 and was buried in Ris.David Oistrakh
David Fyodorovich Oistrakh (30 September [O.S. 17 September] 1908 – 24 October 1974), PAU, was a renowned Soviet classical violinist and violist.
Oistrakh collaborated with major orchestras and musicians from many parts of the world, including the Soviet Union, Europe, and the United States, and was the dedicatee of numerous violin works, including both of Dmitri Shostakovich's violin concerti, and the violin concerto by Aram Khachaturian. He is considered one of the preeminent violinists of the 20th century.Eri Klas
Eri Klas (7 June 1939 – 26 February 2016) was an Estonian conductor. He was born in Tallinn.Klas mainly worked in the Nordic scene since, but might be best known for his work leading the defunct Netherlands Radio Symphony Orchestra.
He premiered Alfred Schnittke's 1st Cello Concerto (Munich Philharmonic, 1986) and Peer Gynt ballet (Hamburg State Opera, 1989), and worked on the diffusion of the Estonian symphonic repertory.
Klas was also active as a pedagogue, holding professorships at the Sibelius Academy (1993–97) and the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre (1997 until his death), where he received an honorary doctorate.
Klas was decorated with the Order of the Lion of Finland (1992, on the occasion of Finland's 75th Independence Day) and the Estonian Order of the White Star. He was a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. In 1986, he was named the People's Artist of the USSR. An Estonian lightweight junior boxing champion, he was also a member of the Estonian Olympic Committee.Finn Jor
Finn Bartol Horgen Jor (born 20 January 1929) is a Norwegian journalist and writer.
He was born in Kristiania as a son of Sverre A. Jor (1902–1962) and Ambjørg M. Horgen (1902–1970). He graduated from the University of Oslo in 1954 with a mag.art. degree in the history of ideas, with a thesis on Søren Kierkegaard, and was hired as a journalist in Morgenposten in 1955. He left in 1961 after a rather unsuccessful editorial attempt to emphasize cultural topics in the newspaper. After two years as a research fellow in NAVF he worked at a university college in Århus. He was hired in Aftenposten in 1964, and eventually became debate editor and cultural editor. He retired in 1992. He has continued releasing books with topics ranging from the history of ideas, culture policy and cultural history to poems, essay collections and novels. Jor has been a jury member of Nordic Council's Literature Prize, has chaired Norwegian Non-Fiction Writers Association and was a co-founder of Kopinor.He was married to Louise Vislie from 1954 to 1969, and later to Finnish citizen Eeva-Liisa Sallinen. He chaired the Norwegian-Finnish Association from 1991 to 1992, and in 1995 he was decorated as a Knight, First Class of the Order of the Lion of Finland. He lives at Bekkestua.Finnish order of precedence
The Finnish order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the government of Finland. It has no legal standing, it does not reflect the Finnish presidential line of succession or the co-equal status of the branches of government under the constitution, and is only used to indicate ceremonial protocol.
President of the Republic Sauli Niinistö
Retired Presidents of the Republic in order of term:
President Martti Ahtisaari
President Tarja Halonen
Speaker of the Parliament Paula Risikko
Prime Minister Juha Sipilä
President of the Supreme Court Timo Esko
President of the Supreme Administrative Court Pekka Vihervuori
Chief of Defence Jarmo Lindberg
Chancellor of Justice Jaakko Jonkka
Archbishop of Turku Tapio Luoma
Chancellor of the Order of the Cross of Liberty Gustav Hägglund
Chancellor of the Order of the White Rose of Finland and the Order of the Lion of Finland Aino Sallinen
Chancellor of the University of Helsinki Thomas WilhelmssonHarri Koskinen
Harri Koskinen is a Finnish designer, born 1970 in Karstula, Finland. He has studied at the Institute of Art and Design in Helsinki.James DePreist
James Anderson DePreist (November 21, 1936 – February 8, 2013) was an American conductor. DePreist was one of the first African-American conductors on the world stage. He was the director emeritus of conducting and orchestral studies at The Juilliard School and laureate music director of the Oregon Symphony at the time of his death.Janric Craig, 3rd Viscount Craigavon
The Rt Hon. Janric Fraser Craig, 3rd Viscount Craigavon (born 9 June 1944), is a British peer and chartered accountant. He is one of the 92 hereditary peers elected to remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act 1999; he sits as a crossbencher.
The son of the 2nd Viscount Craigavon, he was born into a famous Ulster family and was educated at Eton College, Berkshire, and at the University of London, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Science. In 1974, he succeeded to his father's titles. Lord Craigavon is a member of the Executive Committee of the Anglo-Austrian Society. He was made a Commander of the Order of the Lion of Finland in 1998, a Commander of the Swedish Royal Order of the Polar Star in the following year and a Knight of the Danish Order of the Dannebrog in 2006.
He is a former trustee of the Progress Educational Trust, and is now an advisor for the Trust. He is an atheist.Jarl Wahlström
Jarl Holger Wahlström (9 July 1918 – 3 December 1999) was the 12th General of The Salvation Army (1981–86).Jorma Ollila
Jorma Jaakko Ollila (born 15 August 1950) is a Finnish businessman who was chairman of Royal Dutch Shell from 1 June 2006 to May 2015, and at Nokia Corporation chairman from 1999 to 2012 and CEO from 1992 to 2006. He has been a director of Otava Books and Magazines Group Ltd. since 1996 and UPM-Kymmene since 1997, and an advisory partner at Perella Weinberg Partners, a New York-based boutique investment bank founded by Joseph R. Perella and Peter Weinberg in 2006.For Nokia, he was credited with turning the company into the then world's largest mobile phone maker.Juha Leiviskä
Juha Ilmari Leiviskä (born 17 March 1936 in Helsinki) is a prominent Finnish architect and designer. He is especially known for his churches and other sacral buildings.Kiki Sørum
Anne Christine "Kiki" Sørum (16 January 1939 – 30 August 2009) was a Norwegian fashion journalist, editor, and author. She worked as a fashion editor for the weekly magazine Hjemmet from 1973 to 1977 and general editor of the magazine Nicole from 1979 to 1981. She also worked as a freelancer for several publications, among these Verdens Gang, Se og Hør and Dagbladet.
The books she authored included Hollywood i moten (Hollywood in Fashion, 1986) and Kle deg magisk (Dress Magically, 1999). Sørum was also recognised internationally for her fashion writing, and received the French Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2003 and became Commander of the Order of the Lion of Finland in 2005.Klaus Naumann
Klaus Naumann (born 25 May 1939 in Munich) is a retired German General, who served as Chief of Staff of the Bundeswehr, the German armed forces, from 1991 to 1996, and as Chairman of the NATO Military Committee from 1996 to 1999, succeeding the British general Richard Frederick Vincent, Baron Vincent of Coleshill. He testified against Slobodan Milošević in the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. He attended as a course member the Royal College of Defence Studies in London.Okko Kamu
Okko Tapani Kamu (born 7 March 1946, Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish orchestral conductor and violinist.
Kamu was born into a family of musicians. His father played double bass in the Helsinki Philharmonic. He began violin studies at age two and entered the Sibelius Academy at age six. He formed his own string quartet, the Suhonen, in 1964 where he played first violin. At age 20, he was appointed first solo violinist at the Finnish National Opera, and held this post until 1968. He then began to conduct, initially with the Finnish National Opera orchestra. Primarily self-taught, he became principal guest conductor of the Royal Swedish Opera in 1969, the same year as he won the first Herbert von Karajan Conducting Competition in Berlin. From 1971 to 1977, Kamu was principal conductor of the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra.
Outside of Finland, Kamu was principal conductor of the Oslo Philharmonic from 1975 to 1979. He has also held leadership positions with the Stockholm Sinfonietta. He has been chief guest conductor of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, Copenhagen Philharmonic, the Helsingborg Symphony Orchestra, and the Lausanne Chamber Orchestra. He was principal guest conductor of the Singapore Symphony Orchestra￼￼ until 2017.
Kamu was chief conductor of the Finnish National Opera from 1996 to 2000. He has been a noted conductor of the operas of Aulis Sallinen in the opera house where he conducted the premieres of The Red Line, King Lear and The Palace, and on record. He also conducted the premieres of Sallinen's 2nd and 3rd symphonies, and has recorded others. In April 2009, the Lahti Symphony Orchestra announced the appointment of Kamu as its next chief conductor, as of the autumn of 2011. Kamu's initial contract was through the spring of 2014. In November 2012, the orchestra announced the extension of Kamu's contract through the end of July 2016, at which time he concluded his tenure in Lahti.Kamu has recorded more than 100 discs for various labels, such as Finlandia and Musica Sveciae. For Naxos Records, he has recorded Franz Berwald's four symphonies and his piano concerto; Aulis Sallinen's Complete Music for String Orchestra; flute concertos by Penderecki, Takemitsu and Sallinen. Kamu's two discs of Berwald for Naxos both received the rare Diapason d'Or award.
In 1994, Kamu became a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. He was awarded the Order of the Lion of Finland medal in 1999 by then president of Finland Martti Ahtisaari.Ole Danbolt Mjøs
Ole Danbolt Mjøs (8 March 1939 – 1 October 2013) was a Norwegian physician and politician for the Christian Democratic Party. A professor and former rector at the University of Tromsø, he was known worldwide as the leader of the Norwegian Nobel Committee from 2003 to 2008.Tapio Wirkkala
Tapio Veli Ilmari Wirkkala (2 June 1915, Hanko – 19 May 1985) was a Finnish designer and sculptor, a major figure of post-war design. His work ranges from plastic ketchup bottles and metalware to glass, ceramics and plywood in a range of styles. He designed the Finnish markka banknotes introduced in 1955. His range was immense, designing glassware, stoneware, jewelry, and furniture for mass production, as well as individual sculptures in several media.
Among his most famous works have been the design for the Finlandia vodka bottle (1970-2000) and for Iittala's Ultima Thule set of kitchen glasses. Both glassware items feature a dripping icicle look, and in the case of Iittala's popular glassware it is said to have taken thousands of hours to develop a glassblowing technique that would produce the effect.
Wirkkala did much of his initial design work using a traditional Finnish carving knife, the puukko. Wirkkala designed his own version of the knife. The Tapio Wirkkala Puukko was built by Hackman Cutlery and marketed by Brookstone in the US in the early-1970s.Tommy Koh
Tommy Koh Thong Bee (Chinese: 许通美; born 12 November 1937) BBM, DUNU (First Class), PJG, is a Singaporean international lawyer, professor, and diplomat. He was also Singapore's former Permanent Representative to the United Nations. Tommy Koh was awarded the Padma Shri which is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.Ulf Styren
Ulf Styren (4 April 1890 – 20 December 1974) was a Norwegian businessperson.
He was born in Kristiania as a son of treasurer M. H. Styren (1846–1917) and Inga Othilie Johannessen (1866–1946). In 1916 he married Laila Elisabeth Camilla Gulbranson, a daughter of Hans Peter Francis Gulbranson and Ellen Gulbranson.He graduated as a machine engineer. He manager the glass works Drammens Glasverk from 1915 to 1930 and Oxelösund Glasbruk from 1930 to 1933. In 1933 he became chief executive of Askim Gummivarefabrik, and from 1937 Den Norske Kalosje- og Gummivarefabrik and Vestlandske Gummivarefabrik. In 1947 he became chief executive of Norsk Jernverk, serving as director-general from 1955 to 1958.He chaired the board of Grand Hotel and was a board member of Emaljeverket, Goodwill Produkter, Pallas
Norsk Forsikringsselskap, Radioindustri and Automatindustri. He chaired the supervisory council of Pallas Norsk Forsikringsselskap and was a supervisory council member of Bergens Privatbank. From 1957 to 1966 he was the president of the Norwegian Red Cross. Upon leaving he was proclaimed an honorary member.He was decorated as a Knight, First Class of Order of St. Olav (1958) and the Order of the Yugoslav Flag, Knight of the Order of the Lion of Finland, the Order of Vasa, and also received the Order of Merit of Austria. He died in December 1974 and was buried at Vestre gravlund.Wayland Hand
Wayland Debs Hand (March 19, 1907, Auckland, New Zealand – October 22, 1986, Moon Township, Pennsylvania, United States) was an American folklorist.