Order of the Indian Empire

The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878. The Order includes members of three classes:

  1. Knight Grand Commander (GCIE)
  2. Knight Commander (KCIE)
  3. Companion (CIE)

No appointments have been made since 1947, the year that India and Pakistan became independent from the British Raj. With the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the order became dormant in 2010.

The motto of the Order is Imperatricis auspiciis, (Latin for "Under the auspices of the Empress"), a reference to Queen Victoria, the first Empress of India. The Order is the junior British order of chivalry associated with the British Indian Empire; the senior one is The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India.

Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire
Badge of the Order of the Indian Empire
The insignia of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire
Awarded by the British monarch
TypeOrder of chivalry
Established1878
MottoImperatricis auspiciis
Awarded forAt the monarch's pleasure
StatusNot awarded since 1947
Dormant order since 2010
FounderQueen Victoria
SovereignQueen Elizabeth II
GradesKnight Grand Commander (GCIE)
Knight Commander (KCIE)
Companion (CIE)
Precedence
Next (higher)Order of St Michael and St George
Next (lower)Royal Victorian Order
Order of the Indian Empire Ribbon

Ribbon bar of the Order of the Indian Empire

History

The British founded the Order in 1878 to reward British and native officials who served in India. The Order originally had only one class (Companion), but expanded to comprise two classes in 1887.[1] The British authorities intended the Order of the Indian Empire as a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India (founded in 1861);[2] consequently, many more appointments were made to the former than to the latter.

On 15 February 1887, the Order of the Indian Empire formally became "The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire" and was divided into two classes: Knights Commander and Companions, with the following first Knights Commander:[3]

However, on 21 June 1887, a further proclamation regarding the Order was made; the Order was expanded from two classes to three – Knight Grand Commander, Knight Commander and Companion. Seven Knights Grand Commander were created, namely:[5]

Appointments to both Orders ceased after 14 August 1947. The Orders have never been formally abolished, and as of 2012 Queen Elizabeth II remains the Sovereign of the Orders. There are no living members of the order.

The fictional characters Purun Dass (invented by Rudyard Kipling) and Harry Paget Flashman (invented by George MacDonald Fraser) each held a KCIE; Kipling's engineer Findlayson in The Day's Work (1908) aspires to the CIE.

Composition

The British Sovereign serves as the Sovereign of the Order. The Grand Master held the next-most senior rank; the position was held, ex officio, by the Viceroy of India. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commanders" rather than "Knights Grand Cross" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order.

At the time of foundation in 1878 the order had only one class, that of Companion, with no quota imposed. In 1886, the Order was divided into the two classes of Knights Commander (50 at any given time) and Companions (no quota). The following year the class of Knight Grand Commander (25 at any given time) was added;[8] the composition of the other two classes remained the same. The statute also provided that it was "competent for Her Majesty, Her heirs and successors, at Her or their pleasure, to appoint any Princes of the Blood Royal, being descendants of His late Majesty King George the First, as Extra Knights Grand Commanders".

By Letters Patent of 2 Aug 1886, the number of Knights Commander was increased to 82, while Commanders were limited to 20 nominations per year (40 for 1903 only). Membership was expanded by Letters Patent of 10 June 1897, which permitted up to 32 Knights Grand Commander.[9] A special statute of 21 October 1902 permitted up to 92 Knights Commander, but continued to limit the number of nominations of Commanders to 20 in any successive year. On 21 December 1911, in connection with the Delhi Durbar, the limits were increased to 40 Knights Grand Commander, 120 Knights Commander, and 40 nominations of companions in any successive year.[10]

British officials and soldiers were eligible for appointment, as were rulers of Indian Princely States. Generally, the rulers of the more important states were appointed Knights Grand Commanders of the Order of the Star of India, rather than of the Order of the Indian Empire. Women, save the princely rulers, were ineligible for appointment to the Order. Female princely rulers were admitted as "Knights" rather than as "Dames" or "Ladies". Other Asian and Middle Eastern rulers were also appointed as well.

Vestments and accoutrements

H.H. Maharaja Thakore Shri Sir Bhagwant Singhji Sagramji Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Gondal, GCSI, GCIE, 1911
Maharaja Thakore Shri Sir Bhagwatsinhji Sagramji Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Gondal GCSI, GCIE, in a 1911 photograph, during his visit to London for the coronation of King George V. He is wearing the mantle, collar and star of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire.
Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma
Maharaja Sri Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma III, Maharaja of the Kingdom of Travancore, GCSI, GCIE, wearing the sash, star and badge of a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire (GCIE)

Members of the Order wore elaborate costumes on important ceremonial occasions:

  • The mantle, worn only by Knights Grand Commander, comprised dark blue satin lined with white silk. On the left side was a representation of the star (see photo at right).
  • The collar, also worn only by Knights Grand Commander, was made of gold. It was composed of alternating golden elephants, Indian roses and peacocks.

At less important occasions, simpler insignia were used:

  • The star, worn only by Knights Grand Commander and Knights Commander, had ten points, including rays of gold and silver for Knights Grand Commander, and of plain silver for Knights Commander. In the centre was an image of Victoria surrounded by a dark blue ring with the motto and surmounted by a crown.[11]
  • The badge was worn by Knights Grand Commander on a dark blue riband, or sash, passing from the right shoulder to the left hip, and by Knights Commander and Companions from a dark blue ribbon around the neck. It included a five-petalled crown-surmounted red flower, with the image of Victoria surrounded by a dark blue ring with the motto at the centre.

The insignia of most other British chivalric orders incorporates a cross: the Order of the Indian Empire does not in deference to India's non-Christian tradition.

Precedence and privileges

Members of all classes of the Order were assigned positions in the order of precedence. Wives of members of all classes also featured on the order of precedence, as did sons, daughters and daughters-in-law of Knights Grand Commanders and Knights Commanders. (See order of precedence in England and Wales for the exact positions.)

Knights Grand Commanders used the post-nominal "GCIE", Knights Commanders "KCIE" and Companions "CIE." Knights Grand Commanders and Knights Commanders prefixed "Sir" to their forenames. Wives of Knights Grand Commanders and Knights Commanders could prefix "Lady" to their surnames. Such forms were not used by peers and Indian princes, except when the names of the former were written out in their fullest forms.

Knights Grand Commanders were also entitled to receive heraldic supporters. They could, furthermore, encircle their arms with a depiction of the circlet (a circle bearing the motto) and the collar; the former is shown either outside or on top of the latter. Knights Commanders and Companions were permitted to display the circlet, but not the collar, surrounding their arms. The badge is depicted suspended from the collar or circlet.

Notable appointees

The first two kings of Bhutan were presented with the KCIE:

  • Ugyen Wangchuck, the first King, received the KCIE in 1905 from John Claude White, the first Political Officer in Gangtok, Sikkim. He was promoted to a GCIE in 1921.
  • Jigme Wangchuck, the second King, received the KCIE in 1931 from Lieutenant-Colonel J.L.R. Weir, also the Political Officer in Gangtok at the time.

Other appointees include:

Player's cigarettes 27 Order of the Indian Empire
Mantle worn by GCIE

See also

References

  1. ^ Buckland, C. E. (1901). Bengal Under the Lieutenant-Governors: Being a Narrative of the Principal Events and Public Measures During Their Periods of Office, from 1854 to 1898, p. 699. Calcutta: S. K. Lahiri & Co.
  2. ^ Orders Associated with the Indian Empire, Debretts.com; accessed 1 July 2017.
  3. ^ "No. 25673". The London Gazette. 15 February 1887. p. 787.
  4. ^ Baba Khem Singh Bedi, Sikhiwiki.org. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  5. ^ "No. 25773". The London Gazette. 5 January 1888. p. 219.
  6. ^ Obituary of The Maharaja of Dhrangadhra-Halvad, Telegraph.co.uk, 2 September 2010
  7. ^ Obituary for Sir Ian Dixon Scott, Telegraph.co.uk, 11 March 2002.
  8. ^ "The London Gazette". London-gazette.co.uk. 21 June 1887. p. 3364. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  9. ^ "The London Gazette". London-gazette.co.uk. 1 January 1903. p. 2. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Edinburgh Gazette". London-gazette.co.uk. 15 December 1911. p. 1317. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  11. ^ Boutell, Charles (1908). English Heraldry, p. 290. London: Reeves & Turner.
  12. ^ "No. 31712". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 1919. p. 5.
  13. ^ Obituary (1897), "Surgeon-General Cornish C.I.E.", The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 18: 656–61, doi:10.1177/146642409701800412
  14. ^ The Dublin University Calendar - Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland). Books.google.com. 28 February 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  15. ^ Various (15 March 2007). Alwar State List of Leading Officials, Nobles and Personages. Potter Press. p. 4. ISBN 1-4067-3137-4.
  16. ^ Journal & Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Books.google.com. 6 September 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2017.

External links

1885 Birthday Honours

The Queen's Birthday Honours 1885 are the birthday honours announced in 1885 in celebration of the birthday of Queen Victoria.

1890 Birthday Honours

The 1890 Birthday Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The Queen, and were published in the London Gazette on 20 May 1890 and in The Times on 21 May 1890.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1890 New Year Honours

The New Year Honours 1890 were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

They were announced in The Times on 1 January 1890, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 1 January 1890 and on 7 January 1890.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander etc.) then division (Military, Civil).

1892 New Year Honours

The New Year Honours 1892 were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

They were announced in The Times on 1 January 1892, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 1 January 1892.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander etc.) then division (Military, Civil).

1898 Birthday Honours

The Queen's Birthday Honours 1898 were announced on 21 May 1898 in celebration of the birthday of Queen Victoria. The list included appointments to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

The list was published in The Times on 21 May 1898 and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 21 June 1898, and on 3 June 1898.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander, etc.) then divisions (Military, Civil).

1899 New Year Honours

The New Year Honours 1899 were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

They were published in The Times on 2 January 1899, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 2 January 1899, 10 January 1899, and on 13 January 1899.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander, etc.) then divisions (Military, Civil).

1900 Birthday Honours

The Queen's Birthday Honours 1900 were announced on 23 May 1900 in celebration of the birthday of Queen Victoria. The list included appointments to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

The list was published in The Times on 23 May 1900 and on 24 May 1900 (Irish honours), and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 23 May 1900, on 1 June 1900 and on 8 June 1900.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander etc.) then division (Military, Civil).

1900 New Year Honours

The New Year Honours 1900 were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

The list was published in The Times on 1 January 1900, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 2 January 1900 and 16 January 1900.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander, etc.) then divisions (Military, Civil).

1901 Birthday Honours

The King's Birthday Honours 1901 were announced 9 November 1901, the birthday of the new monarch Edward VII. The list included appointments to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

The list was published in The Times 9 November 1901, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette 9 November 1901, 12 November 1901, and 15 November 1901.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander etc.) then division (Military, Civil).

1901 New Year Honours

The New Year Honours 1901 were appointments to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

The list was published in The Times on 1 January 1901, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 28 December 1900 and 8 January 1901.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander etc.) then division (Military, Civil).

1902 Coronation Honours

The 1902 Coronation Honours were announced on 26 June 1902, the date originally set for the coronation of King Edward VII. The coronation was postponed because the King had been taken ill two days before, but he ordered that the honours list should be published on that day anyway.

The list included appointments to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India, and the creation of two new decorations:

the Order of Merit

the Imperial Service OrderThere were also some promotions and appointments in the British Army announced in the list.

The honours were covered in the press at the time, including in The Times on the day, but formal announcements in the London Gazette were spread out over the following months, in gazettes dated 26 June 1902, 11 July 1902, 18 July 1902, 22 July 1902, 25 July 1902, and 2 September 1902.A South African list, honouring people for their service during the Second Boer War, was published on the same day.

1903 New Year Honours

The New Year Honours 1903, announced at the time as the Durbar Honours, were appointments to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India. The list was announced on the day of the 1903 Delhi Durbar held to celebrate the succession of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra as Emperor and Empress of India. The membership of the two Indian Orders were expanded to allow for all the new appointments.

The list was published in The Times on 1 January 1903, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 1 January 1903.A list of appointments to the Royal Victorian Order was announced in the London Gazette on 30 December 1902. These were not included in the Durbar Honours list, as the individuals had already received their decorations in late 1902. They have been added to the end of this page to show the most complete picture of orders awarded.

The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1904 New Year Honours

The New Year Honours 1904, announced at the time as the Indian Honours, were appointments to various orders and honours of British India. The list was published in The Times on 1 January 1904, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on the same day.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

A list of appointments to the Royal Victorian Order was announced in the London Gazette on 29 December 1903. These were not included in the New Year Honours list, as the individuals had already received their decorations in late 1903. They have been added to the end of this page to show the most complete picture of orders awarded.

The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1906 Birthday Honours

The 1906 Birthday Honours for the British Empire were announced on 29 June, to celebrate the birthday of Edward VII on 9 November.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1907 Birthday Honours

The 1907 Birthday Honours for the British Empire were announced on 28 June, to celebrate the birthday of Edward VII.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1910 Birthday Honours

The 1910 Birthday Honours for the British Empire were announced on 24 June, to mark the occasion of the day set apart to celebrate the birthday of the late King Edward VII, who had died on 6 May. In the circumstances, the list was notably shorter than in preceding years.

The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

Anandacharlu

Sir Panapakkam Anandacharlu CIE (1843–1908) was an Indian advocate, freedom fighter and one of the early doyens of the Indian National Congress. He was the President of the Nagpur session of the Indian National Congress held in 1891.

Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar

Rao Bahadur Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar was an Indian politician who served as the President of the Indian National Congress for one term, succeeding Pandit Bishan Narayan Dar. He presided over 27th session of Indian National Congress at Bankipore (Patna) in 1912.Raghunath Mudholkar was born in Dhulia, Khandesh, in a respectable middle-class family on 16 May 1857. He had his education partly at Dhulia and partly in Vidarbha. Then he went to Bombay and graduated from Elphinstone College where he was granted a Fellowship.

He was leading Lawyer practising at Amravati along with G. S. Khaparde and Moropant V Joshi. He was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire in January 1914, in recognition of his public services.He was a devout Hindu, advocated social reforms like female education, widow remarriage and removal of Untouchability. As a follower of Gokhale, he believed that developing nationalism required British cooperation and therefore the national movement should be constitutional and nonviolent. He was in the Congress from 1888 to 1917, and thereafter joined the Liberals. He was in the Congress delegation of 1890 sent to England to voice the grievances of the Indians. He was President of the Indian National Congress held at Bankipur in 1912.

He admired Parliamentary democracy but opposed British bureaucracy. He criticised the economic policy of the Government, helped to establish a number of industries in Vidarbha and advocated technical education. He founded several social organisations and worked for the uplift of the poor. He died on 13 January 1921.His son Janardhan became Judge at Supreme Court of India during 1960-1966.

Rash Behari Ghosh

Sir Rashbehari Ghosh (23 December 1845 – 28 February 1921) was an Indian politician, lawyer, social worker and philanthropist.

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