The Order of Muhammad, also referred to as Order of Sovereignty (Arabic: Wissam al-Mohammadi, French: Ordre de la Souverainete or Ordre de Mohammed), is the highest state decoration of the Kingdom of Morocco. The Order was instituted on 16 November 1956 by King Mohammed V of Morocco, who reigned between 1955 and 1961.
|Order of Muhammad|
|Awarded by The King of Morocco|
|Established||16 November 1956|
|Sovereign||King Mohammed VI|
|Grades||Special Class, 1st Class, 2nd Class|
|Next (higher)||None (highest)|
|Next (lower)||Order of Ouissam Alaouite|
The Order of the Mohammedi is issued in three classes, one special and two ordinary:
The ordinary classes:
There is no ribbon attached to the order.
The Order is only eligible for monarchs and foreign heads of state, members of the Royal Family and foreign princes and princesses. But with great exception also ordinary Moroccans can be taken up in this order.
Akihito (明仁, Japanese: [akiçito]; English pronunciation ; born 23 December 1933) is the current Emperor of Japan. He succeeded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) on 7 January 1989. According to Japan's traditional order of succession, he is the 125th member of the world's oldest reigning dynasty. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito would abdicate on 30 April 2019 due to his age and declining health.Albert II of Belgium
Albert II (born 6 June 1934) reigned as the King of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013.
King Albert II is the son of King Leopold III and Queen Astrid, born princess of Sweden. He is the younger brother of Grand Duchess Joséphine-Charlotte of Luxembourg and King Baudouin, whom he succeeded upon Baudouin's death in 1993. He is currently the last living child of Leopold III and Astrid. He married Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria (now Queen Paola), with whom he had three children. Albert's elder son, Philippe, is the current King of the Belgians.
On 3 July 2013, King Albert II attended a midday session of the Belgian cabinet. He then announced that, on 21 July, Belgian National Day, he would abdicate the throne for health reasons. He was succeeded by his son Philippe on 21 July 2013. Albert II was the fourth monarch to abdicate in 2013, following Pope Benedict XVI, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, and Emir Hamad bin Khalifa of Qatar. In so doing, he was also the second Belgian monarch to abdicate, following his father Leopold III who abdicated in 1951, albeit under very different circumstances.Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan
The Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan was the 2nd raid on the Banu Assad bin Qhuzayma tribe, which took place in August, 627AD in 3rd month of, 6AH of the Islamic calendar.At the order of Muhammad, a platoon of 30 Muslim fighters led by Ukasha ibn al-Mihsan was despatched to a place called Al-Ghamir inhabited by Bani Asad in the year six Hijri. The enemy immediately fled leaving behind them 200 camels which were taken to Madinah.The 1st Raid on the Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe took place 3 years earlier.Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab
Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab to Turbah took place in July 628 AD,3rd Month 7AH, of the Islamic Calendar.The expedition was led by Umar, at the order of Muhammad.Faisal II of Iraq
Faisal II (Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Al-Malik Fayṣal Ath-thānī) (2 May 1935 – 14 July 1958) was the last King of Iraq. He reigned from 4 April 1939 until July 1958, when he was executed during the 14 July Revolution together with numerous members of his family. This regicide marked the end of the thirty-seven-year-old Hashemite monarchy in Iraq, which then became a republic.Farah Pahlavi
Farah Pahlavi (Persian: فرح پهلوی, née Farah Diba Persian: فرح دیبا; born 14 October 1938) is the widow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the former shahbanu (empress) of Iran.Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Hamad bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (Arabic: حمد بن عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة Ḥamad bin ʿĪsā bin Salmān ʾĀl Ḫalīfah; born 28 January 1951) has been the monarch of Bahrain since 6 March 1999, initially as emir, and from 14 February 2002, as the first King of Bahrain. He is the son of Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the previous and first emir. The country has been ruled by the Al Khalifa dynasty since 1783.Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa bin Hamad bin Abdullah bin Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani (Arabic: الشيخ حمد بن خليفة آل ثاني; born 1 January 1952) is a member of the ruling Al Thani Qatari royal family. He was the ruling Emir of Qatar from 1995 to 2013. The Qatari government now refers to him as His Highness the Father Emir.Hamad seized power in a bloodless palace coup d'état in 1995. During his 18-year rule, Qatar's natural gas production reached 77 million tonnes, making Qatar the richest country in the world per capita with the average income in the country US$86,440 a year per person. During his reign, several sports and diplomatic events took place in Qatar, including the 2006 Asian Games, 2012 UN Climate Change Conference, Doha Agreement, Fatah–Hamas Doha Agreement, and it was decided that the 2022 FIFA World Cup was to be held in the country. He established the Qatar Investment Authority; by 2013, it had invested over $100 billion around the world, most prominently in The Shard, Barclays Bank, Heathrow Airport, Harrods, Paris Saint-Germain F.C., Volkswagen, Siemens and Royal Dutch Shell.During Hamad's rule, Qatar hosted two US military bases. It also maintained close relations with Iran. He supported and funded rebel movements, particularly in Libya and Syria during the Arab Spring, while maintaining political stability at home. The Sheikh founded news media group Al Jazeera, through which he maintained his influence over the Arab world. He also played a part in negotiations between the US and the Taliban. In June 2013, Hamad, in a brief televised address, announced that he would hand power to his fourth son, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.Hassanal Bolkiah
Hassanal Bolkiah, GCB GCMG (full name: Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam; born 15 July 1946) is the 29th and current Sultan and Yang di-Pertuan of Brunei. He is also the first and incumbent Prime Minister of Brunei. The eldest son of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Raja Isteri (Queen) Pengiran Anak Damit, he succeeded to the throne as the Sultan of Brunei, following the abdication of his father on 5 October 1967. Sultan Hassanal was also known as the Chairman of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2001 and 2013 due to the hosting of the ASEAN summits to those due dates.
The Sultan has been ranked among the wealthiest individuals in the world; Forbes estimated the Sultan's total peak net worth at US$20 billion in 2008. After Queen Elizabeth II, the Sultan is the world's second longest-reigning current monarch. On 5 October 2017, the Sultan celebrated his Golden Jubilee to mark the 50th year of his reign on the throne. In April 2019, it was announced that he had sponsored legislation to punish adultery and gay sex by stoning to death.Hussein of Jordan
Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death. According to Hussein, he was a 40th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad as he belonged to the Hashemite family which has ruled Jordan since 1921.
Hussein was born in Amman as the eldest child of Talal bin Abdullah and Zein Al-Sharaf. Hussein began his schooling in Amman, continuing his education abroad. After Talal became King of Jordan in 1951, Hussein was named heir apparent. The Parliament forced Talal to abdicate a year later due to his illness, and a regency council was appointed until Hussein came of age. He was enthroned at the age of 17 on 2 May 1953. Hussein was married four separate times and fathered eleven children: Princess Alia from Dina bint Abdul-Hamid; Abdullah II, Prince Faisal, Princess Aisha, and Princess Zein from Antoinette Gardiner; Princess Haya and Prince Ali from Alia Touqan; Prince Hamzah, Prince Hashim, Princess Iman, and Princess Raiyah from Lisa Halaby.
Hussein, a constitutional monarch, started his rule with what was termed a "liberal experiment", allowing, in 1956, the formation of the only democratically elected government in Jordan's history. A few months into the experiment, he forced that government to resign, declaring martial law and banning political parties. Jordan fought three wars with Israel under Hussein, including the 1967 Six-Day War, which ended in Jordan's loss of the West Bank. In 1970 Hussein expelled Palestinian fighters (fedayeen) from Jordan after they had threatened the country's security in what became known as Black September. The King renounced Jordan's ties to the West Bank in 1988 after the Palestine Liberation Organization was recognized internationally as the sole representative of the Palestinians. He lifted martial law and reintroduced elections in 1989 when riots over price hikes spread in southern Jordan. In 1994 he became the second Arab head of state to sign a peace treaty with Israel.
At the time of Hussein's accession, Jordan was a young nation and controlled the West Bank. The country had few natural resources, and a large Palestinian refugee population as a result of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Hussein led his country through four turbulent decades of the Arab–Israeli conflict and the Cold War, successfully balancing pressures from Arab nationalists, the Soviet Union, Western countries, and Israel, transforming Jordan by the end of his 46-year reign to a stable modern state. After 1967 he increasingly engaged in efforts to solve the Palestinian problem. He acted as a conciliatory intermediate between various Middle Eastern rivals, and came to be seen as the region's peacemaker. He was revered for pardoning political dissidents and opponents, and giving them senior posts in the government. Hussein, who survived dozens of assassination attempts and plots to overthrow him, was the region's longest-reigning leader. The King died at the age of 63 from cancer on 7 February 1999. His funeral was the largest gathering of world leaders since 1995. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Abdullah II.Idris of Libya
Idris (Arabic: إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983) was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969. He was the chief of the Senussi Muslim order.
Idris was born into the Senussi Order. When his cousin, Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi, abdicated as leader of the Order, Idris took his place. Cyrenaica was facing invasion from the Italians. Idris formed an alliance with the British, through whom he entered into negotiations with the Italians, resulting in two treaties; these resulted in the Italian recognition of Senussi control over most of Cyrenaica. Idris then led his Order in an unsuccessful attempt to conquer the eastern part of the Tripolitanian Republic.
Following the Second World War, the United Nations General Assembly called for Libya to be granted independence. It established the United Kingdom of Libya through the unification of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, and Fezzan, appointing Idris to rule it as king. Wielding significant political influence in the impoverished country, he banned political parties and in 1963 replaced Libya's federal system with a unitary state. He established links to the Western powers, allowing the United Kingdom and United States to open military bases in the country in return for economic aid. After oil was discovered in Libya in 1959, he oversaw the emergence of a growing oil industry that rapidly aided economic growth. Idris' regime was weakened by growing Arab nationalist and Arab socialist sentiment in Libya as well as rising frustration at the country's high levels of corruption and close links with Western nations. While in Turkey for medical treatment, Idris was deposed in a 1969 coup d'etat by army officers led by Muammar Gaddafi.Jefri Bolkiah, Prince of Brunei
Prince Jefri Bolkiah, full name His Royal Highness Pengiran Digadong Sahibul Mal Pengiran Muda Jefri Bolkiah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien Sa'adul Khairi Waddien (born 6 November 1954), is a member of the Brunei Royal Family. His elder brother is Sultan of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah.Prince Jefri was the finance minister of his oil-rich country from 1986 to 1998. He also served as chairman of the Brunei Investment Agency (BIA) which invests much of the country's wealth and was responsible for overseas investments. In the wake of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the sultan had external accountants audit the books of BIA, resulting in charges by the Brunei government that Prince Jefri had embezzled $14.8 billion. He denies the charges but in 2000 agreed to turn over his personal holdings to the government, in return for avoiding criminal prosecution and being allowed to keep a personal residence in Brunei. After numerous legal disputes and appeals, in 2007 Britain's Privy Council ruled that this agreement is enforceable. His various legal issues with the Bruneian state have become the most expensive legal case in British legal history. Prince Jefri is known for his extravagant lifestyle. His personal holdings included a huge art collection, the British jeweller Asprey, the New York Palace Hotel, Hotel Bel-Air in Los Angeles and Plaza Athénée in Paris. He is married to three wives and divorced from two others and has eighteen children.Madrasa Marjania
Madrasa Marjania (Arabic: المدرسة المرجانية) is one of the madrasahs of the medina of Tunis, built between 1293 and 1299 by Abu Mohamed Abdullah Al Morjani.
Like the [Abi Mohamed Al Morjani Mosque]] it took its name from him. It served as a mausoleum before becoming a madrasa by the order of Muhammad I, one of the Hafsid rulers.Moza bint Nasser
Sheikha Moza bint Nasser (Arabic: موزا بنت ناصر المسند, born in Doha, Qatar on January 15, 1959) is the consort of Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, former Emir of the State of Qatar. Since 1995, Sheikha Moza has led education and social reforms in Qatar and has founded national and international development projects.Order of Muhammad Ali
The Order of Muhammad Ali (Nishan al-Muhammad'Ali) was order of chivalry and state honour in the Kingdom of Egypt.Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad
Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad (born 15 October 1966) is a Jordanian prince, professor of philosophy, and a direct descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is the son of Prince Muhammad bin Talal of Jordan and his first wife, Princess Firyal. He is a grandson of King Talal of Jordan and thus a first cousin of King Abdullah II and thirteenth in the line of succession to the Jordanian throne. He is well known for his religious initiatives, about which a book was published in 2013.Prince Muhammad bin Talal
Prince Muhammad bin Talal (born 2 October 1940) is the second son of King Talal of Jordan and is the younger brother of King Hussein of Jordan.Princess Lalla Amina of Morocco
Princess Lalla Amina (8 April 1954 – 16 August 2012) was a member of the Moroccan royal family and former President of the Royal Moroccan Federation of Equestrian Sports.Queen Paola of Belgium
Queen Paola of Belgium (born Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria on 11 September 1937) is the wife of the former King Albert II and was Queen of the Belgians from 1993 until his abdication in 2013 in favour of their son King Philippe.