Order of Canada

The Order of Canada (French: Ordre du Canada) is a Canadian national order and the second highest honour for merit in the system of orders, decorations, and medals of Canada. It comes second only to membership in the Order of Merit, which is the personal gift of Canada's monarch.

To coincide with the centennial of Canadian Confederation, the three-tiered order was established in 1967 as a fellowship that recognizes the outstanding merit or distinguished service of Canadians who make a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country", a phrase taken from Hebrews 11:16.[2] The three tiers of the order are Companion, Officer, and Member; specific individuals may be given extraordinary membership and deserving non-Canadians may receive honorary appointment into each grade.

The Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is Sovereign of the order and the serving governor general, currently Julie Payette, is its Chancellor and Principal Companion and administers the order on behalf of the Sovereign.[3] Appointees to the order are recommended by an advisory board and formally inducted by the governor general or the sovereign. As of August 2017, 6,898 people have been appointed to the Order of Canada,[1] including scientists, musicians, politicians, artists, athletes, business people, film stars, benefactors, and others. Some have resigned or have been removed from the order, while other appointments have been controversial. Appointees are presented with insignia and receive the right to armorial bearings.

Order of Canada
Replica Order of Canada member medal
Insignia of a Member of the Order of Canada
Awarded by the
Canadian Coat of Arms Shield.svg
Monarch of Canada
TypeNational order
Established17 April 1967
MottoDesiderantes meliorem patriam
EligibilityAll living Canadians, except federal and provincial politicians and judges while holding office.
CriteriaThe highest degree of merit, an outstanding level of talent and service, or an exceptional contribution to Canada and humanity.
StatusCurrently constituted
SovereignElizabeth II
Chancellor and Principal CompanionJulie Payette, Governor General of Canada
GradesCompanion (CC)
Officer (OC)
Member (CM)
Former gradesMedal of Service
Medal of Courage
First induction1 July 1967
Total inductees6,898 (as of August 2017)[1]
Next (higher)Member of the Order of Merit
Next (lower)Commander of the Order of Military Merit


The process of founding the Order of Canada began in early 1966 and came to a conclusion on 17 April 1967,[4] when the organization was instituted by Queen Elizabeth II, on the advice of the Canadian prime minister, Lester B. Pearson, who was assisted with the establishment of the order by John Matheson. The association was officially launched on 1 July 1967, the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, with Governor General Roland Michener being the first inductee to the order, to the level of Companion,[5] and on 7 July of the same year, 90 more people were appointed, including Vincent Massey, Louis St. Laurent, Hugh MacLennan, David Bauer, Gabrielle Roy, Donald Creighton, Thérèse Casgrain, Wilder Penfield, Arthur Lismer, Brock Chisholm, M. J. Coldwell, Edwin Baker, Alex Colville, and Maurice Richard.[6] During a visit to London, United Kingdom, later in 1970, Michener presented the Queen with her Sovereign's badge for the Order of Canada,[7] which she first wore during a banquet in Yellowknife in July 1970.[8]

From the Order of Canada grew a Canadian honours system, thereby reducing the use of British honours (i.e. those administered by the Queen in her British privy council).[9] Among the civilian awards of the Canadian honours system, the Order of Canada comes third, after the Cross of Valour and membership in the Order of Merit,[10] which is within the personal gift of Canada's monarch. By the 1980s, Canada's provinces began to develop their own distinct honours and decorations.[11]


The Canadian monarch, seen as the fount of honour,[12] is at the apex of the Order of Canada as its Sovereign,[13][n 1][15] followed by the governor general, who serves as the fellowship's Chancellor.[16] Thereafter follow three grades, which are, in order of precedence: Companion (French: Compagnon), Officer (French: Officier), and Member (French: Membre), each having accordant post-nominal letters that members are entitled to use.[17] Each incumbent governor general is also installed as the Principal Companion for the duration of his or her time in the viceregal post and continues as an extraordinary Companion thereafter.[18] Additionally, any governor general, viceregal consort, former governor general, former viceregal consort, or member of the Canadian Royal Family may be appointed as an extraordinary Companion, Officer, or Member.[19] Promotions in grade are possible,[20] though this is ordinarily not done within five years of the initial appointment,[n 2][22] and a maximum of five honorary appointments into any of the three grades may be made by the governor general each year.[23] As of March 2016, there have been 21 honorary appointments.[24][25]

Governor General Michaëlle Jean, then Chancellor and Principal Companion of the Order of Canada, poses with a full group of Order of Canada appointees at the 101st investiture ceremony banquet in the Tent Room of Rideau Hall, 11 April 2008

There were originally, in effect, only two ranks to the Order of Canada: Companion and the Medal of Service. There was, however, also a third award, the Medal of Courage, meant to recognize acts of gallantry. This latter decoration fell in rank between the other two levels, but was anomalous within the Order of Canada, being a separate award of a different nature rather than a middle grade of the order. Without ever having been awarded, the Medal of Courage was on 1 July 1972 replaced by the autonomous Cross of Valour and, at the same time, the levels of Officer and Member were introduced, with all existing holders of the Medal of Service created as Officers. Lester Pearson's vision of a three-tiered structure to the order was thus fulfilled.[26][27]

Companions of the Order of Canada (post-nominals: CC, in French: Compagnon de l'ordre du Canada) have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on either the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed annually,[28] with an imposed limit of 165 living Companions at any given time, not including those appointed as extraordinary Companions or in an honorary capacity.[29] As of August 2017, there are 146 living Companions.[30] Since 1994,[31] substantive members are the only regular citizens who are empowered to administer the Canadian Oath of Citizenship.[32]

Officers of the Order of Canada (post-nominals: OC, in French: Officier de l'ordre du Canada) have demonstrated an outstanding level of talent and service to Canadians, and up to 64 may be appointed each year, not including those inducted as extraordinary Officers or in an honorary capacity, with no limit to how many may be living at one time.[33] As of August 2017, there were 1,049 living Officers.[34]

Members of the Order of Canada (post-nominals: CM, in French: Membre de l'ordre du Canada) have made an exceptional contribution to Canada or Canadians at a local or regional level, group, field or activity. As many as 136 Members may be appointed annually, not including extraordinary Members and those inducted on an honorary basis, and there is no limit on how many Members may be living at one time.[35] As of August 2017, there were 2,281 living Members.[36]


3 Order of Canada grades
Ribbon bar
Companion Officer Member
CAN Order of Canada Companion ribbon
CAN Order of Canada Officer ribbon
CAN Order of Canada Member ribbon
Lorne Michaels David Shankbone 2010 Order of Canada
Lorne Michaels wearing a Member's lapel pin during a formal event

Upon admission into the Order of Canada, members are given various insignia of the organization, all designed by Bruce W. Beatty, who "broke new ground in the design of insignia of Orders within The Queen's realms" and was himself made a member of the order in 1990;[37][38] Beatty attended every investiture ceremony between 1967 and early 2010.[39] The badge belonging to the Sovereign consists of a jewelled, 18-carat gold crown of rubies, emeralds, and sapphires,[37] from which is suspended a white, enamelled, hexagonal snowflake design, with six equal leaves and diamonds between each. At the centre is a disc bearing a maple leaf in pavé-laid rubies on a white enamel background, surrounded at its edge by a red enamel ring (annulus) bearing the motto of the order.[7][40] The Chancellor wears the badge of a Companion and is, upon installation as governor general, granted a livery collar for wear at Order of Canada investiture ceremonies.[41]

The badges for inductees are of a similar design to the sovereign's badge, though without precious stones, and slight differences for each grade. For Companions, the emblem is gilt with a red enamel maple leaf in the central disk; for Officers, it is gilt with a gold maple leaf; and for Members, both the badge itself and the maple leaf are silver. All are topped by a St. Edward's Crown, symbolizing that the order is headed by the sovereign, and the reverse is plain except for the word CANADA.[42][43]

The ribbon is white and bordered in red stripes, similar to the Canadian national flag; the chest ribbon is the same for each grade, save for a metallic maple leaf in the centre, the colour of which matches that on the badge of the grade that the wearer was appointed to. For civilian wear, a lapel pin is worn on the jacket, which is designed as a miniature of the medallion.

Wear of the insignia is according to guidelines issued by the Chancellery of Honours, which stipulate that the badges be worn before most other national orders, that is, at the end of an individual's medal bar closest to the centre of the chest or at the wearer's neck, with only the Victoria Cross, the Cross of Valour, and the badge of the Order of Merit permitted to be worn before the badges of the Order of Canada.[10][44] Those in the grades of Companion or Officer may wear their badges on a neck ribbon, while those in the Member group display their insignia suspended by a ribbon from a medal bar on the left chest. Protocol originally followed the British tradition, wherein female appointees wore their Order of Canada emblem on a ribbon bow positioned on the left shoulder. These regulations were altered in 1997, and women may wear their insignia in either the traditional manner or in the same fashion as the men.[45]

Personal Coat of Arms of Governor General of Canada David Lloyd Johnston
The coat of arms of David Johnston, former Governor General of Canada and Chancellor and Principal Companion of the Order of Canada, displaying the order's motto and insignia

With the patriation in 1988 of oversight of heraldry from the UK to Canada through the Canadian Heraldic Authority,[46] the constitution of the Order of Canada was amended to include the entitlement of all inductees to petition the Chief Herald of Canada for personal armorial bearings (coats of arms),[47] should they not already possess any. Companions may receive supporters, and all members may have the escutcheon (shield) of their arms encircled with a red ribbon bearing the order's motto in gold, and from which is suspended a rendition of the holder's Order of Canada badge.[48] The Queen, Sovereign of the Order of Canada, approved the augmentation of her royal arms for Canada with the order's ribbon in 1987.[49]

Possession and sale

The constitution of the Order of Canada states that the insignia remain property of the Crown,[50] and requires any member of the order to return to the chancellery their original emblem should they be upgraded within the order to a higher rank.[51] Thus, while badges may be passed down as family heirlooms, or loaned or donated for display in museums, they cannot be sold by any individual other than the monarch with the proper advice and consent of her ministers. Over the decades, however, a number of Order of Canada insignia have been put up for sale. The first was the Companion's badge of Major Coldwell, who was appointed in 1967; his badge was sold at auction in 1981, an act that received criticism from government officials.[52]

In 2007, it was revealed that one of the first ever issued insignia of the Order of Canada, a Medal of Service awarded originally to Quebec historian Gustave Lanctot, was put up for sale via e-mail. Originally, the anonymous auctioneer, who had purchased the decoration for $45 at an estate sale in Montreal, attempted to sell the insignia on eBay; however, after the bidding reached $15,000, eBay removed the item, citing its policy against the sale of government property, including "any die, seal or stamp provided by, belonging to, or used by a government department, diplomatic or military authority appointed by or acting under the authority of Her Majesty." Rideau Hall stated that selling medals was "highly discouraged"; however, the owner continued efforts to sell the insignia via the internet.[53] Five years later, a miniature insignia presented to Tommy Douglas was put on auction in Ontario as part of a larger collection of Douglas artifacts.[54] Douglas's daughter, Shirley Douglas, purchased the set for $20,000.[55]

Eligibility and appointment

Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada and Sovereign of the Order of Canada, invests Jules Léger as a Companion of the order at Rideau Hall, August 1973

Any of the three levels of the Order of Canada are open to all living Canadian citizens,[56] except all federal and provincial politicians and judges while they hold office. The order recognizes the achievement of outstanding merit or distinguished service by Canadians who made a major difference to Canada through lifelong contributions in every field of endeavour, as well as the efforts made by non-Canadians who have made the world better by their actions. Membership is thus accorded to those who exemplify the order's Latin motto, taken from Hebrews 11:16 of the Bible, desiderantes meliorem patriam, meaning "they desire a better country."[2] Each of the six to eight hundred nominations submitted each year,[57] by any person or organization, is received by the order's Advisory Council, which, along with the governor general, makes the final choice of new inductees, typically by consensus rather than a vote;[57] a process that, when conceived, was the first of its kind in the world.[57] Appointees are then accepted into the organization at an investiture ceremony typically conducted by the governor general at Rideau Hall, although the Queen or a provincial viceroy may perform the task, and the ceremony may take place in other locations. Since the 1991 investiture of Ted Rogers, Order of Canada instalment ceremonies have been broadcast on various television channels and the Internet; recipients are given a complimentary video recording of their investiture ceremony from Rogers Cable.[58]

At certain periods, holders of the order were presented with other awards, usually commemorative medals. Thus far, two commemoratives have been given automatically to every living member of the Order of Canada: the Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal in 1977[59] and the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in 2012.[60]

Advisory council

The task of the order's advisory council is to evaluate the nominations of potential inductees, decide if the candidates are worthy enough to be accepted into the order, and make recommendations to the governor general, who appoints the new members. The council is chaired by the Chief Justice of Canada, and includes the Clerk of the Queen's Privy Council, the Deputy Minister of Canadian Heritage, the Chair of the Canada Council for the Arts, the President of the Royal Society of Canada, the Chair of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, and five members of the order who sit on the council for a three-year period. If a nomination involves a non-Canadian citizen, the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs is invited by the Advisory Council to offer evaluation.[61] Decisions of the council and new appointments to and dismissals from the Order of Canada are announced through the Canada Gazette.[62]

As of December 2017, the members of the advisory council are:[61]


Few have declined entry into the Order of Canada; as of 1997, 1.5% of offered appointments to the order had been refused.[63] The identities of those individuals who have declined induction since the 1970s are kept confidential, so the full list is not publicly known. Some, however, have spoken openly about their decisions, including Robert Weaver, who stated that he was critical of the "three-tier" nature of the order;[64] Claude Ryan and Morley Callaghan, who both declined the honour in 1967; Mordecai Richler, who twice declined; and Marcel Dubé, Roger Lemelin and Glenn Gould, who all declined in 1970.[65] However, all the above individuals, save for Gould and Weaver, later did accept appointment into the order. Others have rejected appointment on the basis of being supporters of the Quebec sovereignty movement, such as Luc-André Godbout,[66] Rina Lasnier and Geneviève Bujold,[65] while Alice Parizeau, another supporter of Quebec sovereignty, was criticized for accepting entry into the order despite her beliefs.[67]

The Duke of Edinburgh as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Canadian Regiment
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, wearing at the neck the insignia of a Companion of the Order of Canada. Philip originally declined an honorary appointment to the Order of Canada, feeling the offer implied he was a foreigner to Canada. In April 2013, he accepted appointment as the first extraordinary Companion.

Victoria Cross recipient Cecil Meritt cited the fact that he already held Canada's highest decoration as a reason not to be admitted to the Order of Canada.[65] Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was in 1982 offered appointment to the order as an honorary Companion; however, he refused on the grounds that, as the consort of the Queen, he was a Canadian and thus entitled to a substantive appointment.[68][69] In 1993, the Advisory Council proposed an amendment to the constitution of the Order of Canada, making the sovereign's spouse automatically a Companion, but Prince Philip again refused, stating that if he was to be appointed, it should be on his merits.[70] Congruent with these arguments, he in 1988 accepted without issue a substantive induction as a Companion of the Order of Australia. In 2013, the constitution of the Order of Canada was amended in a way that permitted the substantive appointment of Royal Family members and Prince Philip accepted induction as the first extraordinary Companion of the Order of Canada on 26 April 2013.[71] Former Premier of Newfoundland Joey Smallwood declined appointment as a Companion because he felt that, as a self-proclaimed Father of Confederation, he deserved a knighthood.[65] Smallwood was never knighted and later accepted induction as a Companion.[72]

Resignation and removal

Resignations from the order can take place only through the prescribed channels, which include the member submitting to the Secretary General of the Order of Canada a letter notifying the chancellery of his or her desire to terminate their membership, and only with the governor general's approval can the resignation take effect.[73] On 1 June 2009, the governor general accepted the resignations of astronomer and inventor René Racine, pianist Jacqueline Richard, and Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte;[74][75] on 11 January 2010, did the same for Renato Giuseppe Bosisio, an engineering professor, and Father Lucien Larré;[76] and on 19 April 2010 for Frank Chauvin.[77] It was also reported that other constituents of the Order of Canada had, in reaction to Henry Morgentaler's induction into their ranks, indicated that they would return or had returned their emblems in protest,[78][79] including organizations such as the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate and Madonna House Apostolate doing so on behalf of deceased former members.[78][80]

Members may be removed from the order if the Advisory Council feels their actions have brought the society into disrepute. In order for this to be done, the council must agree to take action and then send a letter to the person both telling of the group's decision and requesting a response. Anyone removed from the order is required to return their insignia. As of October 2015, six people have been removed from the Order of Canada: Alan Eagleson, who was dismissed after being jailed for fraud in 1998;[81] David Ahenakew, who faced calls for his removal due to anti-Semitic comments he made in 2002;[82] T. Sher Singh, after the Law Society of Upper Canada found him guilty of professional misconduct and revoked his licence to practise law;[83] Steve Fonyo, due to "his multiple criminal convictions, for which there are no outstanding appeals";[84][85] Garth Drabinsky, who was found guilty of fraud and forgery in Ontario and has been a fugitive from American law for related crimes;[86][87] and Lord Black of Crossharbour, who was convicted in the United States in 2007 of fraud and obstruction of justice.[88] In 2013, Norman Barwin resigned from the order as a result of the Advisory Council moving forward with his pending removal due to his being found guilty of professional misconduct.[89][90]

Controversial appointments

The advisory board attempts to remain apolitical and pragmatic in its approach to selecting new members of the Order of Canada, generally operating without input from ministers of the Crown; political interference has occurred only once, when in 1978 Paul Desmarais's investiture was delayed for six months by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.[57] However, some of the committee's selections have caused controversy. For instance, the admission in 2001 of sex educator Sue Johanson, host of the long-running Sunday Night Sex Show, as a Member stirred controversy among some of Canada's Christian organizations, as Johanson had taught teenagers methods of safe sex alongside abstinence.[91] Similarly, the acceptance of birth control advocate Elizabeth Bagshaw and gay rights campaigner Brent Hawkes also incited debate.[57]

Henry Morgentaler (right), with Jack Layton (left); Morgentaler's appointment was one of the most controversial in the history of the Order of Canada

Pro-choice activist Henry Morgentaler's appointment to the order on 1 July 2008 not only marked the first time the Advisory Council had not been unanimous in its decision, but also proved to be one of the most controversial appointments in the order's history,[57][62] drawing both praise from abortion rights groups and the ire of Members of Parliament, groups opposing abortion, and religious leaders.[n 3][92] The latter organized protests outside of Rideau Hall on 9 July, while compatriots did the same in front of Government House in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, the official residence of that province's lieutenant governor.[93]

One former police detective, Frank Chauvin, along with a Catholic anti-abortion activist, filed suit against the Order of Canada Advisory Council, demanding that the minutes of the meeting relating to Morgentaler be made public.[94] The appointment of Morgentaler prompted former Liberal Member of Parliament Clifford Lincoln to write that the workings of the Advisory Council were "mysterious", citing what he theorized to be inbuilt partiality and conflict of interest as reasons why Margaret Somerville, whom Lincoln had twice nominated to the Advisory Council, was turned down for appointment, yet Morgentaler was accepted.[95] Journalist Henry Aubin in the Montreal Gazette opined that the council's rejection of Somerville, her personal opposition to same-sex marriage, and the acceptance of Brent Hawkes, Jane Rule, and Jean Chrétien, all regarded as supporting same-sex unions, as well as the appointment of a controversial figure such as Morgentaler, were all signs that the Advisory Council operated with partisan bias.[96] Aubin also pointed to the presence on the council of members of the Royal Society of Canada, an organization into which Somerville was received.[96]

Proposed amendments

At a 2006 conference on Commonwealth honours, Christopher McCreery, an expert on Canada's honours, raised the concern that the three grades of the Order of Canada were insufficient to recognize the nation's very best; one suggestion was to add two more levels to the order, equivalent to knighthoods in British orders. The order of precedence also came under scrutiny, particularly the anomaly that all three grades of the Order of Canada supersede the top levels of each of the other orders (except the Order of Merit), contrary to international practice.[97]

In June 2010, McCreery suggested reforms to the Order of Canada that would avert the awkwardness around appointing those in Canada's royal family as full members of the order: He theorized that the Queen, as the order's Sovereign, could simply appoint, on ministerial advice, anyone as an extra member, or the monarch could issue an ordinance allowing for her relations to be made regular members when approved. Similarly, McCreery proposed that a new division of the order could be established specifically for governors general, their spouses, and members of the Royal Family,[69] a version of which was adopted in 2013.[98]

See also


  1. ^ In royal proclamations issued by the Queen or in her name, the order is thus referred to as "Our Order of Canada".[14]
  2. ^ For example, Denys Arcand was created as an Officer of the Order of Canada on 29 December 1986 and was promoted to Companion on 29 October 2004.[21]
  3. ^ The Catholic Archbishop of Toronto, Thomas Collins, said the honour had been "debased" by admitting someone who fought for the legalization of abortion, while, conversely, Joyce Arthur of the Abortion Rights Coalition of Canada supported the appointment of Morgentaler, calling the decision "overdue."


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Further reading

  • Blatherwick, Francis John (2003), Canadian Orders, Decorations and Medals, Unitrade Press, ISBN 978-0-919801-10-3
  • McCreery, Christopher (2007), The Beginner’s Guide to Canadian Honours, Dundurn Press, ISBN 978-1-5500-2748-8
  • McCreery, Christopher (2015), The Canadian Honours System 2nd Edition, Dundurn Press, ISBN 978-1-4597-2415-0
  • McCreery, Christopher (2017), Fifty Years Honouring Canadians: The Order of Canada, 1967-2017, Dundurn Press, ISBN 978-1-45973-657-3
  • McCreery, Christopher (2005), The Order of Canada: Its Origins, History and Development, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-0-8020-3940-8
  • McCreery, Christopher (2017), The Order of Canada: Genesis of an Honours System, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-1-48750-094-8
  • McCreery, Christopher (2008), On Her Majesty's Service; Royal Honours and Recognition in Canada, Dundurn Press, ISBN 978-1-55002-742-6
  • The Register of Canadian Honours, Canadian Almanac and Directory, 1991, ISBN 1-895021-01-4
  • Palmer, Henry (1992), 125 portraits: companions of the Order of Canada, Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography, ISBN 0660573229
  • Scanlan, Lawrence (2017), They Desire a Better Country, Figure 1 Publishing, ISBN 978-1-92795-876-6

External links

Alex Trebek

George Alexander Trebek (born July 22, 1940) is a Canadian-American television personality. He has been the host of the syndicated game show Jeopardy! since it was revived in 1984, and has also hosted a number of other game shows, including The Wizard of Odds, Double Dare, High Rollers, Battlestars, Classic Concentration, and To Tell the Truth. Trebek has made appearances in numerous television series, usually portraying himself. A native of Canada, he became a naturalized United States citizen in 1998. On October 31, 2018, Trebek signed a contract to host Jeopardy! until 2022.

Arthur Fogel

Arthur Fogel is a Canadian music promoter.

David Foster

David Walter Foster, OC, OBC (born November 1, 1949), is a Canadian musician, record producer, composer, songwriter, and arranger. He has been a producer for musicians including Chaka Khan, Alice Cooper, Christina Aguilera, Andrea Bocelli, Toni Braxton, Michael Bublé, Chicago, Natalie Cole, Celine Dion, Kenny G, Josh Groban, Brandy Norwood, Whitney Houston, Jennifer Lopez, Kenny Rogers, Seal, Rod Stewart, Jake Zyrus, Donna Summer, Olivia Newton-John, Madonna, Mary J. Blige, Michael Jackson, Peter Cetera, Cheryl Lynn and Barbra Streisand. Foster has won 16 Grammy Awards from 47 nominations. He was the chairman of Verve Records from 2012 to 2016.

Denis Villeneuve

Denis Villeneuve (French: [dəni vilnœv]; born October 3, 1967) is a French Canadian film director and writer. He is a four-time recipient of the Canadian Screen Award (formerly Genie Award) for Best Direction, for Maelström in 2001, Polytechnique in 2009, Incendies in 2011, and Enemy in 2014. The first three of these films also won the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television Award for Best Motion Picture.

Internationally, he is known for directing several critically acclaimed films, such as the thriller films Prisoners (2013) and Sicario (2015), and the science fiction films Arrival (2016) and Blade Runner 2049 (2017). For his work on Arrival, he received an Academy Award nomination for Best Director.

Diana Krall

Diana Jean Krall, OC, OBC (born November 16, 1964) is a Canadian jazz pianist and singer, known for her contralto vocals. She has sold more than 6 million albums in the US and over 15 million albums worldwide. On December 11, 2009, Billboard magazine named her the second Jazz Artist of the Decade (2000–09), establishing her as one of the best-selling artists of her time.

Krall is the only jazz singer to have had eight albums debuting at the top of the Billboard Jazz Albums. To date, she has won three Grammy Awards and eight Juno Awards. She has also earned nine gold, three platinum, and seven multi-platinum albums.

Donald Sutherland

Donald McNichol Sutherland (born 17 July 1935) is a Canadian actor whose film career spans more than five decades.Sutherland rose to fame after starring in a series of successful films including The Dirty Dozen (1967), M*A*S*H (1970), Kelly's Heroes (1970), Klute (1971), Don't Look Now (1973), Fellini's Casanova (1976), 1900 (1976), Animal House (1978), Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978), Ordinary People (1980) and Eye of the Needle (1981). He subsequently established himself as one of the most respected, prolific and versatile character actors of Canada.He later went on to star in many other successful films where he appeared either in leading or supporting roles such as A Dry White Season (1989), JFK (1991), Outbreak (1995), A Time to Kill (1996), Without Limits (1998), The Italian Job (2003), Cold Mountain (2003), Pride & Prejudice (2005), Aurora Borealis (2006) and The Hunger Games franchise (2012–2015).

Sutherland has been nominated for eight Golden Globe Awards, winning two for his performances in the television films Citizen X (1995) and Path to War (2002); the former also earned him a Primetime Emmy Award. Inductee of Hollywood Walk of Fame and Canadian Walk of Fame, he also received a Canadian Academy Award for the drama film Threshold (1981). Several media outlets and movie critics describe him as one of the best actors who have never been nominated for an Academy Award. In 2017, he received an Academy Honorary Award for his contributions to cinema.He is the father of actors Kiefer Sutherland, Rossif Sutherland and Angus Sutherland.

Eugene Levy

Eugene Levy, (born December 17, 1946) is a Canadian actor, comedian, producer, director, and writer. He is the only actor to have appeared in all eight of the American Pie films, in his role as Noah Levenstein. He often plays nerdy, unconventional figures, with his humour often deriving from his excessive explanations of matters and the way in which he deals with sticky situations. Levy is a regular collaborator of actor-director Christopher Guest, appearing in and co-writing four of his films, commencing with Waiting for Guffman (1996).

Levy received the Governor General's Performing Arts Award, Canada's highest honour in the performing arts, in 2008. He was appointed to the Order of Canada on June 30, 2011.

Gordon Lightfoot

Gordon Meredith Lightfoot Jr. (born November 17, 1938) is a Canadian singer-songwriter who achieved international success in folk, folk-rock, and country music. He is credited with helping to define the folk-pop sound of the 1960s and 1970s. He is often referred to as Canada's greatest songwriter and is known internationally as a folk-rock legend.Lightfoot's songs, including "For Lovin' Me", "Early Morning Rain", "Steel Rail Blues", "Ribbon of Darkness"—a number one hit on the U.S. country chart with Marty Robbins's cover in 1965—and "Black Day in July" about the 1967 Detroit riot, brought him wide recognition in the 1960s. Canadian chart success with his own recordings began in 1962 with the No. 3 hit "(Remember Me) I'm the One", followed by recognition and charting abroad in the 1970s. He topped the US Hot 100 and/or AC chart with the hits "If You Could Read My Mind" (1970), "Sundown" (1974); "Carefree Highway" (1974), "Rainy Day People" (1975), and "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" (1976), and had many other hits that appeared within the top 40.Several of Lightfoot's albums achieved gold and multi-platinum status internationally. His songs have been recorded by renowned artists such as Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Hank Williams Jr., The Kingston Trio, Marty Robbins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Neil Young, Bob Dylan, Judy Collins, Barbra Streisand, Johnny Mathis, Herb Alpert, Harry Belafonte, Scott Walker, Sarah McLachlan, Eric Clapton, John Mellencamp, Jack Jones, Bobby Vee, Roger Whittaker, Tony Rice, Peter, Paul and Mary, Glen Campbell, The Irish Rovers, Nico, Olivia Newton-John, Paul Weller, Nine Pound Hammer, Ultra Naté, The Tragically Hip, and The Unintended.Robbie Robertson of the Band described Lightfoot as "a national treasure". Bob Dylan, also a Lightfoot fan, called him one of his favorite songwriters and, in an often-quoted tribute, Dylan observed that when he heard a Lightfoot song he wished "it would last forever". Lightfoot was a featured musical performer at the opening ceremonies of the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Alberta. He received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree (arts) in 1979 and the Companion of the Order of Canada in 2003. In November 1997, Lightfoot was bestowed the Governor General's Performing Arts Award, Canada's highest honour in the performing arts. On February 6, 2012, Lightfoot was presented with the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. June of that year saw his induction into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. On June 6, 2015, Lightfoot received an honorary doctorate of music in his hometown of Orillia from Lakehead University.

Hume Cronyn

Hume Blake Cronyn, Jr., OC (July 18, 1911 – June 15, 2003) was a Canadian actor of stage and screen, who enjoyed a long career, often appearing professionally alongside Jessica Tandy, his wife of over fifty years.

Japanese Canadians

Japanese Canadians (日系カナダ人, Nikkei Kanadajin, French: Canadiens japonais) are Canadian citizens of Japanese ancestry. Japanese Canadians are mostly concentrated in Western Canada, especially in the province of British Columbia, which hosts the largest Japanese community in the country with the majority of them living in and around Vancouver. In 2016, there were 121,485 Japanese Canadians throughout Canada .

Lorne Michaels

Lorne Michaels (born Lorne David Lipowitz; November 17, 1944) is a Canadian-American television producer, writer, comedian, and actor, best known for creating and producing Saturday Night Live, and producing the Late Night series (since 1993), The Kids in the Hall (from 1989 to 1995) and The Tonight Show (since 2014).

Michael Ondaatje

Philip Michael Ondaatje, (; born 12 September 1943), is a Sri Lanka-born Canadian poet, fiction writer, essayist, novelist, editor and filmmaker. He is the recipient of multiple literary awards such as the Governor General's Award, the Giller Prize, the Booker Prize, and the Prix Médicis étranger. Ondaatje is also an Officer of the Order of Canada, recognizing him as one of Canada's most renowned living authors.Ondaatje's literary career began with his poetry in 1967, publishing The Dainty Monsters, and then in 1970 the critically acclaimed The Collected Works of Billy the Kid. However, he is more recently recognized for his nationally and internationally successful novel The English Patient (1992), which was adapted into a film in 1996. In 2018, Ondaatje won the Golden Man Booker Prize for The English Patient.In addition to his literary writing, Ondaatje has been an important force in "fostering new Canadian writing" with two decades commitment to Coach House Press (around 1970-90), and his editorial credits on Canadian literary projects like the journal Brick, and the Long Poem Anthology (1979), among others.

René Angélil

René Angélil, (French pronunciation: ​[ʁəˈne ɑ̃ʒeˈlil]; January 16, 1942 – January 14, 2016) was a Canadian musical producer, talent manager and singer. He was the manager (1981–2014) and husband (1994–2016; his death) of singer Céline Dion.

Russ Jackson

Russell Stanley Jackson, OC (born July 28, 1936), is a former professional Canadian football player. Jackson spent his entire 12-year professional football career with the Ottawa Rough Riders of the Canadian Football League. He is a member of the Order of Canada, the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, and Canada's Sports Hall of Fame, and has been described as the best Canadian-born quarterback to play in the CFL. In 2006, Jackson was voted one of the CFL's Top 50 players (#8) of the league's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN, the highest-ranked Canadian-born player on the list.

Stephen Toope

Stephen John Toope, OC (born 1958) is a Canadian legal scholar and academic administrator. He is the current 346th Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. He was named an Officer of the Order of Canada in 2015.A scholar specializing in human rights, public international law and international relations, Toope has been the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge since October 1, 2017.He was previously the Director of the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs. He assumed the position of director in January 2015. Before that, he was the 12th president and vice-chancellor of the University of British Columbia succeeding Martha Piper. While at UBC, he also held an academic position at the university as a tenured professor of law. He assumed the presidential post on July 1, 2006, and held the position for eight years, until June 30, 2014. On April 3, 2013, it was announced that Toope would leave the UBC presidency effective June 2014 to "pursue academic and professional interests in international law and international relations". Prior to this, he was the president of the Pierre Elliott Trudeau Foundation.

Steve Nash

Stephen John Nash, (born 7 February 1974), is a Canadian former professional basketball player who played 18 seasons in the National Basketball Association (NBA). He was an eight-time NBA All-Star and a seven-time All-NBA selection. Twice, Nash was named the NBA Most Valuable Player while playing for the Phoenix Suns. He currently serves as general manager of the Canadian national team and as a player development consultant for the Golden State Warriors.

After a successful high school basketball career in British Columbia, Nash earned a scholarship to Santa Clara University in California. In his four seasons with the Broncos, the team made three NCAA Tournament appearances, and he was twice named the West Coast Conference (WCC) Player of the Year. Nash graduated from Santa Clara as the team's all-time leader in assists and was taken as the 15th pick in the 1996 NBA draft by the Phoenix Suns. He made minimal impact and was traded to the Dallas Mavericks in 1998. By his fourth season with the Mavericks, he was voted to his first NBA All-Star Game and had earned his first All-NBA selection. Together with Dirk Nowitzki and Michael Finley, Nash led the Mavericks to the Western Conference Finals the following season. He became a free agent after the 2003–04 season and returned to the Phoenix Suns.

In the 2004–05 season, Nash led the Suns to the Western Conference Finals and was named the league's MVP. He was named MVP again in the 2005–06 season and was runner-up for a third consecutive MVP to Nowitzki in 2006–07. Named by ESPN in 2006 as the ninth-greatest point guard of all time, Nash led the league in assists and free-throw percentage at various points in his career. He is also ranked as one of the top players in NBA league history in three-point shooting, free-throw shooting, total assists, and assists per game.

Nash has been honoured for his contributions to various philanthropic causes. In 2006, he was named by Time as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. He was appointed to the Order of Canada in 2007 and invested to the order in 2016, and was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Laws by the University of Victoria in 2008. Nash has been a co-owner of the Vancouver Whitecaps FC of Major League Soccer (MLS) since the team entered the league in 2011. In 2012, he was named general manager of the Canadian men's national basketball team, for whom he played from 1991 to 2003, making one Olympic appearance and being twice named FIBA AmeriCup MVP.

Sydney Halter

Gerald Sydney Halter, (April 18, 1905 – October 24, 1990) was a Canadian lawyer and the first commissioner of the Canadian Football League.

Tony Anselmo (Canadian football)

Anthony Garry (Tony) Anselmo, (March 14, 1918 – November 10, 2009) was a community builder for the Calgary Stampeders Football Club of the Canadian Football League and was involved with the team from 1973 until 2009.

In 1978, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada "in recognition of his numerous services to Calgary". He was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame as a builder in 2009.

Tony Golab

Anthony Charles "Tony" Golab, (January 17, 1919 – October 16, 2016) was a Canadian football halfback and flying wing who played in the Ontario Rugby Football Union and Interprovincial Rugby Football Union for 11 years with the Sarnia Imperials, Ottawa Rough Riders, and Ottawa Uplands. He was born in Windsor, Ontario.

Golab played with the Ottawa Rough Riders from 1939 to 1950. He was part of the 1939, 1941, and 1948 Grey Cup finalist teams and was part of the winning 1940 Grey Cup champions. He was an Eastern All-Star at halfback in 1938, 1940, and 1945 and at flying wing in 1947 and 1948.

In 1964, he was elected to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame. In 1975, he was inducted into Canada’s Sports Hall of Fame. In 1985, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada. In 1997, he was inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame. He died at the Perley Veterans Health Centre in Ottawa, Ontario in October 2016 at the age of 97.

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