The Order of Australia is an order of chivalry established on 14 February 1975 by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, to recognise Australian citizens and other persons for achievement or meritorious service. Before the establishment of the order, Australian citizens received British honours.
The Queen of Australia is sovereign head of the order, while the Governor-General of Australia is the principal companion/dame/knight (as relevant at the time) and chancellor of the order. The governor-general's official secretary, currently Paul Singer, is secretary of the order.
|Order of Australia|
Insignia of a Knight/Dame of the Order of Australia
|Awarded by Monarch of Australia|
|Eligibility||All living Australian citizens|
|Awarded for||Achievement and merit in service to Australia or humanity|
|Sovereign||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Former grades||Knight/Dame (AK/AD)[note 1]|
|First induction||14 April 1975|
|Last induction||10 June 2019|
Ribbons: general division; military division
The order is divided into a general and a military division. The five levels of appointment to the order in descending order of seniority have been:
Honorary awards at all levels may be made to deserving non-citizens – these awards are made additional to the quotas.
The badge of the Order of Australia is a convex disc (gold for AKs, ADs and ACs, gilt for AOs, AMs and OAMs) representing the Golden Wattle flower. At the centre is a ring, representing the sea, with the word 'Australia' below two branches of golden wattle. The whole disc is topped by the Crown of St Edward. The AC badge is decorated with citrines, blue enamelled ring, and enamelled crown. The AO badge is similar, without the citrines. For the AM badge, only the crown is enamelled, and the OAM badge is plain. The AK/AD badge is similar to that of the AC badge, but with the difference that it contains at the centre an enamelled disc bearing an image of the coat of arms of Australia.[note 1]
The star for knights and dames is a convex golden disc decorated with citrines, with a blue royally crowned inner disc bearing an image of the coat of arms of Australia.[note 1]
The ribbon of the order is blue with a central stripe of golden wattle flower designs; that of the military division has additional golden edge stripes. AKs,[note 1] male ACs and AOs wear their badges on a necklet; male AMs and OAMs wear them on a ribbon on the left chest. Women usually wear their badges on a bow on the left shoulder, although they may wear the same insignia as males if so desired.
A gold lapel pin for daily wear is issued with each badge of the order at the time of investiture; AK/AD[note 1] and AC lapel pins feature a citrine central jewel, AO and AM lapel pins have a blue enamelled centre and OAM lapel pins are plain.
The order's insignia was designed by Stuart Devlin.
The order currently consists of four levels (one discontinued) and the medal, in both general and military divisions. Since 2015, the knight/dame level has been discontinued on the advice of then prime minister Malcolm Turnbull. Awards of knight and dame of the order have been made in the general division only.[note 4]
While state governors can present the officer and member level and the Medal of the Order of Australia to their respective state's residents, only the Queen of Australia or the governor-general can present the companion level (and previously also the knight/dame level).
The different levels of the order are awarded according to the recipients' levels of achievement:
There was a quota of four per year, excluding honorary appointments. The Knight- and Damehoods were conferred from 1976 to 1983, and from 2014 to 2015, and thus are not currently awarded.
There are no quota limits on awards of the Medal of the Order.
Since 1976 any person may nominate any Australian citizen for an award. The nominations are reviewed by the Council for the Order of Australia, and then approved by the governor-general. The order is awarded on Australia Day and on the Queen's Birthday public holiday in June, when public announcements are made about new awards, on the occasion of a special announcement by the governor-general (usually honorary awards), and on the appointment of a new Governor-General.
People who are not Australian citizens may be awarded honorary membership of the order at all levels.
Appointments to the order are not made posthumously; however, if a nominee dies after accepting an appointment but before the relevant announcement date, the appointment stands and it is announced as having effect from no later than the date of the nominee's death.
Awardees may subsequently resign from the order, and also may have their award cancelled by the governor-general.[note 5]
A nomination for an Order of Australia award starts with an Australian citizen filling in a confidential form and submitting it to the honours secretariat at Government House in Canberra. This form is not covered by the Freedom of Information Act.
The nomination forms are given to the Council for the Order of Australia. Who attends meetings of the council and reasoning as to why a nomination either did or did not result in an appointment is confidential. The council makes recommendations to the governor-general, who presents the order's insignia to new appointees, The council may also advise the governor-general to remove an individual from the order.
Announcements of all awards, cancellations and resignations appear in the Commonwealth Gazette. People awarded honours have the option of not having the information appear on the "It's an Honour" website.
The Order of Australia was established on 14 February 1975 by letters patent of Queen Elizabeth II of Australia, the Australian monarch, and countersigned by the Prime Minister of Australia, Gough Whitlam. The original order had three levels: Companion (AC), Officer (AO) and Member (AM) as well as two divisions: Civil Division and Military Division. At the time it was also announced that Australian prime ministers would no longer nominate persons for British Imperial honours, but this new practice did not extend to nominations by state premiers.
On 24 May 1976, the level of Knight (AK) and Dame (AD) and the Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM), were created by the Queen on the advice of Whitlam's successor, Malcolm Fraser, and the Civil Division was renamed the General Division. The level of Knight/Dame was awarded only in the General Division.
The original three-level structure of the Order of Australia was modelled closely upon the Order of Canada, though the Order of Australia has been awarded rather more liberally, especially in regard to honorary awards to foreigners. To date, only 24 non-Canadians have been appointed to the Order of Canada, while more than 390 non-Australians have been appointed to the Order of Australia, with 40 to the "Companion" level.
Following the 1983 federal election, Prime Minister Bob Hawke advised the abolition of the knight/dame level. On 3 March 1986, the Queen co-signed letters patent revoking the level, with existing knights and dames not being affected by the change. In the period 1976–1983, twelve knights and two dames were created, all but one of whom—Prince Charles—are now deceased.
On 19 March 2014, Prime Minister Tony Abbott advised the Queen to reinstate the level of knight/dame and the Queen co-signed letters patent to bring this into effect. The change was publicly announced on 25 March, and gazetted on 17 April 2014. Up to four knights and/or dames could be appointed each year, by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the Prime Minister of Australia after consultation with the Chairman of the Order of Australia Council.
Five awards of knight and dame were then made, to the outgoing Governor-General, Quentin Bryce; her successor, Peter Cosgrove; a recent Chief of the Defence Force, Angus Houston; a recent Governor of New South Wales, Marie Bashir; and Prince Philip.
The Australian Labor Party continued to oppose knighthoods and damehoods. Leader of the opposition Bill Shorten stated in March 2014 that the party would again discontinue the level if it were to win the next Australian federal election.
Abbott's tenure as prime minister ended in September 2015. Two months after coming into office, on 2 November 2015, pro-republican Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull announced that the Queen had approved his request to amend the Order's letters patent and cease awards at this level. Existing titles would not be affected. The move was attacked by monarchists and praised by republicans. The amendments to the constitution of the Order were gazetted on 22 December 2015.
Charles, Prince of Wales was appointed a Knight of the Order of Australia (AK) on 14 March 1981. As he is not an Australian citizen, even though he is the heir to the Australian throne, this would have required the award to be honorary. To overcome this issue, his appointment was created by amendment to the constitution of the Order of Australia by special letters patent signed by the Queen, on the recommendation of Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser.
In March 2014 the knight and dame levels, which had been abolished in 1986 by Prime Minister Bob Hawke, were reintroduced to the Order of Australia by Tony Abbott. At the same time, Abbott announced that future appointments at this level would be recommended by the prime minister alone, rather than by the Council of the Order of Australia, as is the case with all lower levels of the order. In accordance with the statutes of 2014, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was created a Knight of the Order by letters patent signed by the Queen on 7 January 2015, on Abbott's advice. Prince Philip's knighthood was announced as part of the Australia Day Honours on 26 January 2015 and his appointment attracted criticism of what Abbott described as his "captain's call". Abbott responded by announcing that future recommendations for appointments as Knights and Dames of the Order would be determined by the Council of the Order of Australia.
Awards of the Order of Australia are sometimes made to people who are not citizens of Australia to honour extraordinary achievements. These achievements, or the people themselves, are not necessarily associated with Australia, although they often are. On 26 January 2019, the Australian Honours website listed appointments for 40 Honorary Companions, 100 Honorary Officers, 127 Honorary Members of the Order of Australia and the award of 124 Honorary Medals of the Order of Australia. Notable honorary awards include:
Since 1975, just under 30 per cent of recipients of an Order of Australia honour have been women. The number of nominations and awards for women is trending up, with the 2019 Queen's Birthday Honours resulting in the highest percentage of awards for women to date (40 per cent). Advocacy groups such as Honour a Woman and the Workplace Gender Equality Agency have called for greater effort to be made to reach equal representation of men and women in the order.
In December 2010, The Age reported a study of the educational backgrounds of all people who had received Knight/Dame and Companion level awards at that time. It reported: "An analysis of the 435 people who have received the nation's top Order of Australia honours since they were first awarded in 1975, shows they disproportionately attended a handful of elite Victorian secondary schools. Scotch College alumni received the highest number of awards, with 19 former students receiving Australia's [then] highest honour".[note 6]
|Dames of the Order of Australia||Australian dames|
|Knights of the Order of Australia||Australian knights|
|Companions of the Order of Australia||Honorary Companions||Former Companions|
|Officers of the Order of Australia||Honorary Officers||Former Officers|
|Members of the Order of Australia||Honorary Members||Former Members|
|Recipients of the Medal of the Order of Australia||Honorary Recipients of the Medal|
On 26 January 1980 the order's award recipients formed the Order of Australia Association. This organisation seeks to aid the members of the order in their pursuits related to the development and maintenance of Australia's culture and traditions. The organisation also attempts to increase awareness of those honoured by the order, since many of their number are not household names, despite their contributions. Branches of the association can be found in all the states and territories of Australia.
"Imperial" honours awarded after 5 October 1992 have been classed as "Foreign awards", and hence have lower precedence than all Australian awards.
(Note, however, that the (original/imperial/British) Victoria Cross, and awards of the monarch, have retained their position in the order of precedence, even if awarded after 5 October 1992.)
If awarded after 5 October 1992[note 1]
|Member of the Order of Merit (OM)||Knight/Dame||Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO)|
|Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO)||Companion||Knight/Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO/DCVO)|
|Knight/Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO/DCVO)||Officer||Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (CVO)|
|Distinguished Service Cross (DSC)||Member||Lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order (LVO)|
|Australian Corrections Medal (ACM)||Medal||Order of St John|
If awarded prior to 6 October 1992
|Member of the Order of Merit (OM)||Knight/Dame||Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG)|
|Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE)||Companion||Companion of the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH)|
|Knight Bachelor||Officer||Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB)|
|Distinguished Service Cross (DSC)||Member||Lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order (LVO)|
|Australian Corrections Medal (ACM)||Medal||Order of St John|
The award is parodied in the play Amigos, where the central character is determined to be awarded the AC, and uses persuasion, bribery and blackmail in his (ultimately successful) attempts to get himself nominated for the award.
A Freedom of Information request to Office of the Official Secretary to the Governor-General
For service to the commercial fishing industry
A Freedom of Information request to Office of the Official Secretary to the Governor-General
Alexander Segger George (born 4 April 1939) is a Western Australian botanist. He is the authority on the plant genera Banksia and Dryandra. The "bizarre" Restionaceae genus Alexgeorgea was named in his honour in 1976.Antony Green
Antony John Green (born 2 March 1960) is an Australian psephologist and commentator. He is the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's election analyst.Australian honours system
The Australian honours system consists of a number of orders, decorations, and medals through which the country's sovereign awards its citizens for actions or deeds that benefit the nation. Established in 1975 with the creation of the Order of Australia, the system's scope has grown since then and over time has replaced the Imperial/British honours system that previously applied to Australians. The system includes an array of awards, both civil and military, for gallantry, bravery, distinguished service, meritorious service, and long service. Various campaign and commemorative medals have also been struck. New honours can be awarded at any time, but conventionally most new honours are awarded on Australia Day (26 January) and on the Queen's Birthday (as observed in the eastern states, that is, on the second Monday in June) every year, when lists of new honours are published.Belinda Clark
Belinda Jane Clark (born 10 September 1970) is an Australian former international cricketer, who played international cricket for Australian women's national team from 1991 to 2005. She was the first ever batter to score a double century in a women's One Day International when she scored 229* against Denmark women's team in 1997 World Cup, until recently as the record was broken on 13 June 2018 by Amelia Kerr of New Zealand who scored 232* against Ireland. She was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame in 2011.Clark captained the Australian women's cricket team from 1994 to her retirement in 2005. In 1998 Clark was named Wisden Australia Cricketer of the Year., and has captained the Australian women's Test side since 1994. She was also chief executive of Women's Cricket Australia. Clark played one Women's Twenty20 International and 89 Women's National Cricket League matches.On 16 September 2005, Clark announced her retirement after playing in 118 one-day internationals and 15 Tests. She holds Australia's record for Test and ODI runs and also for ODI appearances.After her retirement, Clark took on a new role as manager of the Australian Cricket Academy in Brisbane.
She was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia in the Australia Day honours list in January 2000, "for service to cricket, particularly through the Australian Women's Cricket Team, and to the promotion and development of the game for women and girls." In 2018 Clark was made an Officer of the Order of Australia for "distinguished service to cricket as a player, captain and administrator, through support for national and international professional councils, and as a role model for young sportswomen".Clark was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 2011.Clark became the first female player inducted into the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame during the 2014 Allan Border Medal ceremony.
Clark was manager of the National Cricket Centre in Brisbane. There she oversaw not only the development of the Southern Stars but an increasing level of interaction, communication and shared training among male and female cricketers at the top level. As of 2018, Clark is now the Executive General Manager of Game and Market Development at Cricket Australia.
In 2018, Clark was named an Officer of the Order of Australia for distinguished service to cricket as a player, captain and administrator, through support for national and international professional councils, and as a role model for young sportswomen.Brian Lara
Brian Charles Lara, (born 2 May 1969) is a Trinidadian former international cricketer, widely acknowledged as one of the greatest batsmen of all time. He topped the Test batting rankings on several occasions and holds several cricketing records, including the record for the highest individual score in first-class cricket, with 501 not out for Warwickshire against Durham at Edgbaston in 1994, which is the only quintuple hundred in first-class cricket history.
Lara also holds the record for the highest individual score in a Test innings after scoring 400 not out against England at Antigua in 2004. Lara also shares the test record of scoring the highest number of runs in a single over in a Test match, when he scored 28 runs off an over by Robin Peterson of South Africa in 2003 (matched in 2013 by Australia's George Bailey).Lara's match-winning performance of 153 not out against Australia in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1999 has been rated by Wisden as the second best batting performance in the history of Test cricket, next only to the 270 runs scored by Sir Donald Bradman in The Ashes Test match of 1937. Muttiah Muralitharan, rated as the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, and the highest wicket-taker in both Test cricket and in One Day Internationals (ODIs), has hailed Lara as his toughest opponent among all batsmen in the world. Lara was awarded the Wisden Leading Cricketer in the World awards in 1994 and 1995 and is also one of only three cricketers to receive the prestigious BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year, the other two being Sir Garfield Sobers and Shane Warne.Brian Lara was appointed honorary member of the Order of Australia on 27 November 2009. On 14 September 2012 he was inducted to the ICC's Hall of Fame at the awards ceremony held in Colombo, Sri Lanka as a 2012–13 season inductee along with Australians Glenn McGrath and former England women all-rounder Enid Bakewell. In 2013, Lara received Honorary Life Membership of the MCC becoming the 31st West Indian to receive the honor.Brian Lara is popularly nicknamed as "The Prince of Port of Spain" or simply "The Prince". He has the dubious distinction of playing in the second highest number of test matches (63) in which his team was on the losing side, just behind Shivnarine Chanderpaul (68).Bryan Brown
Bryan Neathway Brown, AM (born 23 June 1947) is an Australian actor. He has performed in over eighty film and television projects since the late 1970s, both in his native Australia and abroad. Notable films include Breaker Morant (1980), Give My Regards to Broad Street (1984), F/X (1986), Cocktail (1988), Gorillas in the Mist (1988), F/X2 (1991), Along Came Polly (2004), Australia (2008), Kill Me Three Times (2014) and Gods of Egypt (2016). He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award and an Emmy Award for his performance in the television miniseries The Thorn Birds (1983).Cameron Smith
Cameron Wayne Smith (born 18 June 1983) is an Australian professional rugby league footballer who has played his entire career to date for the Melbourne Storm in the NRL. A goal-kicking hooker, Smith has captained the Storm since 2006, winning the 2012 and 2017 NRL Premierships. He previously represented Queensland in State of Origin and the Australian Kangaroos internationally, captaining both teams from 2012 until his retirement from representative matches in 2018.
Regarded by many as one of the greatest players of all time, Smith has won the Dally M Medal as the NRL's player of the year in 2006 and 2017, the Golden Boot Award as the international player of the year in 2007 and 2017, and the NRL's Dally M Hooker of the Year on seven occasions. Smith is the only player to kick 1,000 goals in the NRL, and in round 5 of 2019, he became the highest points scorer in the competition's history, overtaking the former record holder Hazem El Masri.Smith was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia (AM) in the 2019 Queen's Birthday Honours for his service to rugby league.Cate Blanchett
Catherine Elise Blanchett (; born 14 May 1969) is an Australian and American actress and theatre director. She is the recipient of various accolades, including two Academy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, and three BAFTA Awards. Time magazine named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2007, and in 2018, she was listed among the highest-paid actresses in the world.
After graduating from the National Institute of Dramatic Art, Blanchett began her acting career on the Australian stage, taking on roles in Electra in 1992 and Hamlet in 1994. She came to international attention for portraying Elizabeth I of England in the drama film Elizabeth (1998), for which she won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress and earned her first nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. Her portrayal of Katharine Hepburn in the biographical drama The Aviator (2004), earned her the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, and she won the Academy Award for Best Actress for playing a neurotic former socialite in the black comedy-drama Blue Jasmine (2013). Her other Oscar-nominated roles were in the dramas Notes on a Scandal (2006), Elizabeth: The Golden Age (2007), I'm Not There (2007), and Carol (2015).
Blanchett's most commercially successful films include The Talented Mr. Ripley (1999), Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001–2003) and The Hobbit trilogy (2012–2014), Babel (2006), The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008), Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008), Cinderella (2015), Thor: Ragnarok (2017), and Ocean's 8 (2018). From 2008 to 2013, Blanchett and her husband Andrew Upton served as the artistic directors of the Sydney Theatre Company. Some of her stage roles during this period were in revivals of A Streetcar Named Desire, Uncle Vanya, and The Maids. She made her Broadway debut in 2017 with The Present, for which she received a Tony Award nomination.
Blanchett has been awarded the Centenary Medal by the Australian government, who made her a companion of the Order of Australia in 2017. She was appointed Chevalier of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French government in 2012. She has been presented with a Doctor of Letters from the University of New South Wales, University of Sydney, and Macquarie University. In 2015, she was honoured by the Museum of Modern Art and received the British Film Institute Fellowship.Clive Lloyd
Clive Hubert Lloyd (born 31 August 1944) is a former West Indies cricketer. In 1971 he was named Wisden Cricketer of the Year. He captained the West Indies between 1974 and 1985 and oversaw their rise to become the dominant Test-playing nation, a position that was only relinquished in the latter half of the 1990s. He is one of the most successful Test captains of all time: during his captaincy the side had a run of 27 matches without defeat, which included 11 wins in succession (Viv Richards acted as captain for one of the 27 matches, against Australia at Port of Spain in 1983–84). He was the first West Indian player to earn 100 international caps. Lloyd captained the West Indies in three World Cups, winning in 1975 (with Lloyd scoring a century) and 1979 while losing the 1983 final to India.
Lloyd was a tall, powerful middle-order batsman and occasional medium-pace bowler. In his youth he was also a strong cover point fielder. He wore his famous glasses as a result of being poked in the eye with a ruler. His Test match debut came in 1966. Lloyd scored 7,515 runs at Test level, at an average of 46.67. He hit 70 sixes in his Test career, which is the 14th highest number of any player. He played for his home nation of Guyana in West Indies domestic cricket, and for Lancashire (he was made captain in 1981) in England. He is a cousin of spin bowler Lance Gibbs. Since retiring as a player, Lloyd has remained heavily involved in cricket, managing the West Indies in the late 1990s, and coaching and commentating. He was an ICC match referee from 2001–2006.
In 2009, Lloyd was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame.David Black (historian)
David William Black (born 1936) is a Western Australian historian. He has lectured and written extensively on Australian and Western Australian history, especially political history. He was Professor in History and Politics in the School of Social Sciences and Asian Languages at Curtin University of Technology until his retirement in 2002, and is now Professor Emeritus. He is currently Chairperson of the Parliamentary History Advisory Committee, and a Parliamentary Fellow (History).
Black has had numerous publications and considerable media exposure in regard to parliamentary history in Western Australia.
Black was appointed Member of the Order of Australia (AM) in the 2010 Australia Day Honours for "service to education and to the social sciences, particularly through the promotion and preservation of the political and parliamentary history of Western Australia".Dylan Alcott
Dylan Martin Alcott, (born 4 December 1990) is an Australian wheelchair basketballer, wheelchair tennis player, radio host and motivational speaker. Alcott was a member of the Australia men's national wheelchair basketball team, known colloquially as the Australian "Rollers". At the age of 17 he became the youngest Australian "Rollers" wheelchair basketball gold medal winner for wheelchair basketball, and was the youngest to compete in the Wheelchair Basketball competition. In 2014, he returned to wheelchair tennis with the aiming of participating at the 2016 Rio Paralympics. At the 2016 Rio Paralympics, he won gold medals in the Men's Quad Singles and Doubles. He was named the 2016 Australian Paralympian of the Year due to his outstanding achievements at Rio Paralympics. Alongside his sporting career, he hosted the weekend afternoon radio show on Australian radio station Triple J, and the ABC live music show The Set, as well as being a commentator for the 2019 Australian Open. He also was a member of the panel on the AFL Footy Show in 2019.George Miller (director)
George Miller AO (born 3 March 1945) is an Australian filmmaker and former physician. He is best known for his Mad Max franchise, with The Road Warrior and Fury Road being hailed as amongst the greatest action films of all time. Aside from the Mad Max films, Miller has been involved in a wide range of projects. These include the Academy Award-winning Babe and Happy Feet film series.
Miller is a co-founder of the production houses Kennedy Miller Mitchell, formerly known as Kennedy Miller, and Dr. D Studios. His younger brother Bill Miller and Doug Mitchell have been producers on almost all the films in Miller's later career, since the death of his original producing partner Byron Kennedy.
In 2006, Miller won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature for Happy Feet (2006). He has been nominated for five other Academy Awards: Best Original Screenplay in 1992 for Lorenzo's Oil, Best Picture and Best Adapted Screenplay in 1995 for Babe, and Best Picture and Best Director for Fury Road in 2015.Hugh Jackman
Hugh Michael Jackman (born 12 October 1968) is an Australian actor, singer, and producer. He is best known for playing Wolverine in the X-Men film series from 2000 to 2018, a role for which he holds the Guinness World Record for "longest career as a live-action Marvel superhero". Jackman is also recognised for his lead roles in films such as the romantic comedy Kate & Leopold (2001), the action film Van Helsing (2004), the drama The Prestige (2006), the fantasy drama The Fountain (2006), the period romance Australia (2008), the film version of Les Misérables (2012), the thriller Prisoners (2013), and the musical The Greatest Showman (2017), for which he received a Grammy Award for Best Soundtrack Album. For playing Jean Valjean in Les Misérables, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy.
In Broadway theatre, Jackman won the 2004 Tony Award for Best Actor in a Musical for his role in The Boy from Oz. A four-time host of the Tony Awards, he won an Emmy Award for hosting the 2005 ceremony. He also hosted the 81st Academy Awards in 2009. Jackman was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia in the 2019 Queen's Birthday Honours for services to performing arts and to the global community.Kate Ceberano
Catherine Yvette Ceberano ( or , born 17 November 1966) is an Australian singer who performs in the soul, jazz, and pop genres, as well as in film and musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar. Her song "Pash" received a gold sales certification in 1998.
Ceberano was the artistic director of the Adelaide Cabaret Festival in 2012, 2013, and 2014.Mel Gibson
Mel Colmcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American actor and filmmaker. He is best known for his action hero roles, particularly his breakout role as Max Rockatansky in the first three films of the post-apocalyptic action series Mad Max and as Martin Riggs in the buddy cop film series Lethal Weapon.
Born in Peekskill, New York, Gibson moved with his parents to Sydney, Australia when he was 12 years old. He studied acting at the National Institute of Dramatic Art, where he starred opposite Judy Davis in a production of Romeo and Juliet. During the 1980s, he founded Icon Entertainment, a production company, which independent film director Atom Egoyan has called "an alternative to the studio system". Director Peter Weir cast him as one of the leads in the World War I drama Gallipoli (1981), which earned Gibson a Best Actor Award from the Australian Film Institute, as well as a reputation as a serious, versatile actor.
In 1995, Gibson produced, directed, and starred in Braveheart, a historical epic, for which he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Director, the Academy Award for Best Director, and the Academy Award for Best Picture. He later directed and produced The Passion of the Christ, a biblical drama that was both financially successful and highly controversial. He received further critical notice for his directorial work of the action-adventure film Apocalypto (2006), which is set in Mesoamerica during the early 16th century.
After several legal issues and controversial statements leaked to the public, Gibson's public image plummeted significantly, affecting his careers in acting and directing. His career began seeing resurgence with his performance in Jodie Foster's The Beaver (2011), and his directorial comeback after an absence of 10 years, Hacksaw Ridge (2016), which won two Academy Awards and was nominated for another four, including Best Picture and Best Director for Gibson, his second nomination in the category.Nicole Kidman
Nicole Mary Kidman (born 20 June 1967) is an Australian-American actress and producer. She is the recipient of multiple awards, including an Academy Award, two Primetime Emmy Awards, and five Golden Globe Awards. She was listed among the highest-paid actresses in the world in 2006 and in 2018, Time magazine named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world.Kidman began her acting career in Australia with the 1983 films Bush Christmas and BMX Bandits. Her breakthrough came in 1989 with the thriller film Dead Calm and the miniseries Bangkok Hilton. In 1990, she made her Hollywood debut in the racing film Days of Thunder, opposite Tom Cruise. She went on to achieve wider recognition with lead roles in Far and Away (1992), Batman Forever (1995), To Die For (1995), and Eyes Wide Shut (1999). Kidman won the Academy Award for Best Actress for portraying the writer Virginia Woolf in the drama The Hours (2002). Her other Oscar-nominated roles were as a courtesan in the musical Moulin Rouge! (2001) and emotionally troubled mothers in the dramas Rabbit Hole (2010) and Lion (2016).
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Paul Hogan, (born 8 October 1939) is an Australian comedian, actor and television presenter. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for his performance as outback adventurer Michael "Crocodile" Dundee in Crocodile Dundee (1986), the first in the Crocodile Dundee film series.Peter Cosgrove
General Sir Peter John Cosgrove, (born 28 July 1947) is a retired senior Australian Army officer who served as the 26th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 2014 to 2019.
A graduate of the Royal Military College, Duntroon, Cosgrove fought in the Vietnam War, receiving the Military Cross in 1971. From 1983 to 1984, he was commander of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, and he later served as commander of the 6th Brigade and the 1st Division. Cosgrove rose to prominence in 1999, when he served as commander of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET), which oversaw the peacekeeping mission in East Timor during its transition to independence.
Cosgrove was Australia's Chief of Army from 2000 to 2002, and then Chief of the Defence Force from 2002 to 2005, receiving corresponding promotions to lieutenant general and general. Cosgrove retired from active service following the end of his term as Chief of the Defence Force, and subsequently served as leader of a taskforce helping to rebuild communities in Queensland after Cyclone Larry in 2006. In January 2014, Cosgrove was named to succeed Dame Quentin Bryce as Governor-General of Australia. He was sworn in on 28 March 2014, and made a Knight of the Order of Australia on the same date. Cosgrove retired as governor-general on 1 July 2019, and was succeeded by General David Hurley.
|1||Scotch College, Melbourne||19||19||19|
|2||Geelong Grammar School||17||17||17|
|3||Sydney Boys High School||13||13||13|
|=4||Fort Street High School||10||10||10|
|Perth Modern School||10||10|
|St Peter's College, Adelaide||10||10|
|=7||Melbourne Grammar School||9||9||9|
|North Sydney Boys High School||9||9|
|The King's School, Parramatta||9||9|
|=10||Launceston Grammar School||6||6||6|
|Melbourne High School||6||6|
|Wesley College, Melbourne||6||6|
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