Operation Union was a search and destroy mission in the Que Son Valley carried out by the 1st Marine Regiment from 21 April to 16 May 1967. The object of the operation was to engage the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) 2nd Division.
The Quế Sơn Valley is located along the border of Quảng Nam and Quảng Tín Provinces. During the Vietnam War it lay in the southern part of South Vietnam's I Corps. Populous and rice-rich, the valley was viewed as one of the keys to controlling South Vietnam's five northern provinces by the communists and by early 1967 at least two regiments of the PAVN 2nd Division had been infiltrated into the area.
The 5th Marine Regiment minus its 2nd Battalion, an experienced force that had fought in Vietnam since their arrival in mid-1966, was assigned to the valley in 1967 to support the outnumbered Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces in the area, the 6th ARVN Regiment and the 1st Ranger Group.
Since mid-January 1967 Company F, a reinforced company of the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marines, had manned an outpost atop Nui Loc Son (Loc Son Mountain), which dominated the southern Que Son Valley. Although the PAVN and Vietcong (VC) forces operating in the valley did not initially take much notice of the Marines, on April 15, 1967 the Company F commander advised Colonel Emil Radics, the commander of the 1st Marine Regiment, that PAVN/VC units appeared to be preparing for an all-out assault on the outpost.:64–5
Radics developed a plan for a multi-battalion assault and sweep aimed at clearing PAVN units from the vicinity of the mountain. The plan was approved as Operation Union by Major General Herman Nickerson Jr., the commanding general of the 1st Marine Division on April 20 and was put into action the following morning.:65
Acting as bait, Company F was ordered to leave its outpost to sweep toward Binh Son, the nearest enemy-held village complex. Contact with PAVN elements began around 07:00, shortly developing into a full battle. PFC Gary W. Martini would be posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the battle. The Marine company was soon pinned down in a tree line near Binh Son, thereby fixing the PAVN forces who were soon subjected to a withering air and artillery bombardment. This allowed Company F to attack into Binh Son as the 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines, arrived to support them via a helicopter assault.:65
The main body of the 3/1 Marines fought into the village to join Company F in engaging the enemy while other elements of the battalion landed from helicopters east of the battlefield to block the PAVN’s most likely escape route. During the afternoon, United States Army 175 mm self-propelled artillery and Marine 105 mm howitzers established separate firebases near the battlefield, and that evening the 1st Battalion, 1st Marines landed atop Nui Loc Son.:65
On the morning of 22 April the PAVN had been driven out of Binh Son and withdrew to the north. On 25 April the 5th Marine Regiment relieved the 1st Marine Regiment in the valley.:65–6
On 27 April a Marine triggered a land mine in a landing zone which set off a series of secondary explosions resulting in 1 Marine killed and 43 wounded.:66
On 10 May, Company C 1/5 Marines became pinned down by PAVN fire on Hill 110, two more Companies from 1/3 Marines were sent to support them which also came under fire and were unable to advance. Company A 1/5 Marines was sent in support, but as it began its assault a forward air controller misplaced an airstrike on their position resulting in 5 Marines killed and 24 wounded stopping their assault. Company D 1/5 Marines then moved to outflank the PAVN position while Company M 3/5 Marines also joined the battle. By evening the Marines had overrun the PAVN positions killing 116 PAVN for the loss of 33 Marines killed and 135 wounded.:67
On 13 May the 1/5 Marines engaged a PAVN Battalion killing 122 PAVN. On 15 May Companies A and M found a PAVN bunker complex and called in air and artillery struck, 22 PAVN bodies were found in the wreckage.:67
Operation Union concluded with US forces claiming that the PAVN suffered 865 casualties for the loss of 110 Marine dead, 2 missing and 473 wounded.:68
1st Battalion, 5th Marines (1/5) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California consisting of approximately 800 Marines and sailors. Nicknamed Geronimo, it falls under the command of the 5th Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division. The battalion was formed in 1914 and has served in every major conflict that the United States has been involved in since then.1st Marine Division
The 1st Marine Division (1st MARDIV) is a Marine infantry division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. It is the ground combat element of the I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF).
It is the oldest and largest active duty division in the United States Marine Corps, representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. It is one of three active duty divisions in the Marine Corps today and is a multi-role, expeditionary ground combat force. It is nicknamed "The Old Breed".2nd Battalion, 1st Marines
2nd Battalion, 1st Marines (2/1) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of beautiful Camp Horno on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. Nicknamed "The Professionals," the battalion consists of approximately 1,200 Marines and sailors. Normally they fall under the command of 1st Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division.2nd Battalion, 5th Marines
2nd Battalion 5th Marines (2/5) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps consisting of approximately 800 Marines and Sailors. They are based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California and fall under the command of the 5th Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division. The battalion has seen combat in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Gulf War and has deployed many times in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and the current War on Terror.
2/5 is the most highly decorated battalion in the Marine Corps and their motto, "Retreat, Hell!", comes from the French trenches of World War I, when a Marine officer named Lloyd W. Williams was advised by a French officer to retreat and replied, "Retreat? Hell, we just got here!"31st Marine Expeditionary Unit
The 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (31st MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units in existence in the United States Marine Corps. The Marine Expeditionary Unit is a Marine Air Ground Task Force with a strength of about 2,200 Marines and sailors. The 31st MEU consists of a company-sized command element, a battalion landing team (BLT), (an infantry battalion reinforced with artillery, amphibious vehicle and other attachments), a medium tiltrotor squadron (reinforced), (which includes detachments of short take-off, vertical landing airplanes and heavy, light, and attack helicopters), and a combat logistics battalion. The 31st MEU is based at Camp Hansen, Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler, Okinawa, Japan. The 31st MEU is the only permanently forward-deployed MEU, and provides a flexible and lethal force ready to perform a wide range of military operations as the premier crisis response force in the Indo-Pacific region.3rd Battalion, 1st Marines
3rd Battalion 1st Marines (3/1) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Horno on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. Nicknamed the "Thundering Third", the battalion consists of approximately 1220 Marines and Sailors and falls under the command of the 1st Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division.3rd Battalion, 5th Marines
3rd Battalion, 5th Marines (3/5, nicknamed Dark Horse) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps. The battalion is based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California and consists of approximately 1,000 Marines and Fleet Marine Force Navy personnel. The 3rd Battalion falls under the command of the 5th Marine Regiment which falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division.Ernest George Jansen
Ernest George Jansen (1881–1959) was the second-last Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, holding office from 1950 to 1959.
Born on 7 August 1881, he graduated with a law degree from the University of the Cape of Good Hope in 1905, and was admitted as an advocate (the South African equivalent of a barrister) in 1913.
An ardent champion of Afrikaner interests, he joined the National Party in 1915 and was a member of Parliament from 1915 to 1920, from 1921 to 1943, and from 1947 to 1950.
In 1919, he was a member of a delegation which tried unsuccessfully to persuade American president Woodrow Wilson to call for independence to be restored to the former Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
In Parliament, Jansen was Speaker of the House of Assembly from 1924 to 1929, Minister of Native Affairs and of Irrigation from 1929 to 1934, and Speaker again from 1934 to 1943. He was highly regarded for his firm and impartial speakership.
He was Minister of Native Affairs again from 1948 to 1950, but was thought to be too soft on the new policy of apartheid, for which his department was primarily responsible. He was subsequently replaced by hardliner Hendrik Verwoerd and formally promoted by Prime Minister Daniel Malan to the politically neutral post of Governor-General once vacant. As an Afrikaner nationalist and stout republican, Jansen declined to wear the ceremonial uniform, or to take the oath of allegiance to the monarch whom he represented. He held office until his death in 1959, when he was succeeded by Minister of Justice Charles Robberts Swart.
Jansen married Martha Mabel Pellissier in 1912. Both were prominent figures in Afrikaner cultural circles. Jansen was a founder member of the South African Academy for Science and Art (Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns - SAAWEK) in 1909, of the Co-operation Union (Saamwerk-Unie) in 1917, of the Federation of Afrikaner Cultural Associations (Federasie van Afrikaanse Kultuurvereniginge - FAK) in 1929, and of the Voortrekkers (the Afrikaner equivalent of the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides) in 1930, and was master of ceremonies at the laying of the foundation stone of the Voortrekker Monument in 1938 and at its dedication in 1949.
Hoërskool Dr. E.G. Jansen (High School), in Boksburg, is named after him.Field artillery
Field artillery is a category of mobile artillery used to support armies in the field. These weapons are specialized for mobility, tactical proficiency, short range, long range, and extremely long range target engagement.
Until the early 20th century, field artillery were also known as foot artillery, for while the guns were pulled by beasts of burden (often horses), the gun crews would usually march on foot, thus providing fire support mainly to the infantry. This was in contrast to horse artillery, whose emphasis on speed while supporting cavalry units necessitated lighter guns and crews riding on horseback.
Whereas horse artillery has been superseded by self-propelled artillery, field artillery has survived to this day both in name and mission, albeit with motor vehicles towing the guns, carrying the crews and transporting the ammunition. Modern artillery has also advanced to rapidly deployable wheeled and tracked vehicles and precision delivered munitions capable of striking targets at ranges between 15 and 300 kilometers.Ganei Hadar
Ganei Hadar (Hebrew: גַּנֵּי הָדָר, lit. Hadar Gardens) is a community settlement in central Israel. Located in the Shephelah near Rehovot, it falls under the jurisdiction of Gezer Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 302.James A. Graham
Captain James Albert Graham (August 25, 1940 – June 2, 1967) was a United States Marine who was posthumously awarded the highest U.S. military honor — the Medal of Honor for his heroism and sacrifice of life in June 1967, during the Vietnam War.
James Albert Graham was born on August 25, 1940, in the Pittsburgh suburb of Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. He attended high school in Brandywine, Maryland. In June 1963, He received a B.A. degree in Mathematics upon graduation from Frostburg State Teachers College in Frostburg, Maryland. He is seen in a photo and written about in the book "Not Going Home Alone" by James J. Kirschke.List of airlines by foundation date
This is a list of airlines by foundation date, founded by December 31, 1929.
For airlines founded after 1929 see Category: Airlines by year of establishment.
The date of the first airline service may differ from the foundation date. Bold names indicate that the airline is still in operation.
For airlines founded after 1929 see Category: Airlines by year of establishmentOperation Beaver Cage
Operation Beaver Cage was a U.S. Marine Corps operation in the Que Son Valley that took place from 28 April through to 12 May 1967.Operation Union II
Operation Union II was a search and destroy mission in the Quế Sơn Valley carried out by the 5th Marine Regiment. Launched on May 26, 1967 the operation ended June 5. U.S. reported the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) lost 594 killed and 23 captured, while U.S. casualties were 110 killed and 241 wounded.Quảng Nam Province
Quảng Nam (listen) is a province in the Central region of Vietnam. It is bordered by Thừa Thiên–Huế Province to the north, the nation of Laos to the west, Kon Tum Province to the southwest, Quảng Ngãi Province to the southeast, the South China Sea to the east, and the city of Da Nang to the northeast. It is extremely famous for Quang noodles, Hoi An ancient town and My Son holy land.Quảng Tín Province
Quảng Tín (listen) was a province of South Vietnam. It was created from the part of Quảng Nam Province on the south side of the Quế Sơn District on July 31, 1962. The capital was Tam Kỳ. During the Vietnam War it was the site of heavy fighting, including Operation Union I & II. The province was merged back into Quảng Nam following the unification of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on July 2, 1976.Quế Sơn District
Quế Sơn is a district (huyện) in Quảng Nam Province, Vietnam. During the Vietnam War, it was the site of heavy fighting, including Operation Union I & II. From 1962 to 1967, the southern side of the valley was Quảng Tín Province.
As of 2003, the district had a population of 129,190. The district covers an area of 707 km². The district capital lies at Đông Phú.Western Mass Pioneers
Western Mass Pioneers is an American soccer team based in Ludlow, Massachusetts, United States. Founded in 1998, the team plays in USL League Two, the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid.
The team plays its home games at Lusitano Stadium, where they have played since 1998. The team's colors are red, black and white.XEQ-AM
XEQ-AM (940 kHz) is a commercial class A clear channel AM radio station in Mexico City. The concession is held by Cadena Radiodifusora Mexicana, S.A. de C.V. and is operated by Televisa Radio. XEQ-AM broadcasts from a transmitter located at Los Reyes Acaquilpan, on Boulevard Generalísimo Morelos, east of Mexico City. It carries a tropical variation of Televisa Radio's Ke Buena grupera radio format, also heard on XEQ-FM 92.9.
Easter Offensive (1972)
Post-Paris Peace Accords (1973–1974)