Operation Resolute is the Australian Defence Force's contribution to patrolling Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone. Operation Resolute began on 17 July 2006 and consolidated a number of previous ADF operations, including Operation Relex.
Operation Resolute is commanded by the joint civilian-military Border Protection Command and the ADF contributes Royal Australian Navy ships, Royal Australian Air Force aircraft and patrols from the Australian Army's Regional Force Surveillance Units as required.
Defence personnel and civilians deployed may be eligible for the Operational Service Medal for Border Protection.
|Objective||Patrols of Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone|
|Date||17 July 2006|
|Executed by||Border Protection Command|
|Outcome||Replaced with Operation Sovereign Borders|
109 Signals Squadron, Royal Australian Corps of Signals is an independent military communications sub-unit of the Australian Army.
Signals have been represented in Western Australia since 1906 when a company of Signallers was formed and located in Perth and Fremantle. The Corps units in Western Australia have undergone many name changes since 1906. After becoming the Royal Australian Corps of Signals in 1925 and serving during the Second World War only two main units were left operating in Western Australia; Headquarters Western Command Signal Squadron and Western Command Intercom Troop.
405th Signal Squadron was raised from these two units and a Battle Group Signal Troop was raised to cater for other Western Command units. 405 Signal Troop was primarily responsible for all strategic communications between Western Command and other States/Formations.
A further change in 1965 saw the raising of 123 Signal Squadron from 405 Signal Squadron. On 12 November 1966, 109 Signal Squadron was raised from the Battle Group Signal Troop to assist in the training of National Servicemen and women. Both units were in Leederville, Western Australia. In 1973, all Army Reserve members were transferred from 123 Signal Squadron to 109 Signal Squadron. 109 Signal Squadron was responsible for providing communications to 2 Task Force.
109 Signal Squadron moved to Lord Street in East Perth in 1974 and remained there until 1987. Early in 1988, the unit moved to Leeuwin Barracks, East Fremantle, and came under the command of Headquarters 13 Brigade.A Significant change occurred to 109 Signal Squadron’s establishment during 1989 as a result of becoming a Brigade Signal Squadron. Although an independent Signal Squadron, it now had a formation chain of command, Headquarters 13 Brigade. Its establishment was changed to be along the lines of an Australian Regular Army Brigade Signal Squadron. In the five years following the unit undertook seven major exercises in the Pilbara region.
109 Signal Squadron moved to Karrakatta in 1992 where most of the 13 Brigade units are located. In 2006 under Project Focus, all supporting non-Royal Australian Corps of Signals elements, excluding limited logistic staff were reallocated to dedicated corps units as part of a project designed to enhance and streamline C2 and administrative arrangements.
Since 2006, 109 Signal Squadron has consisted of two troops, one Combat Net Radio focused and the other Battlefield Telecommunications Network/Information Systems focused. In 2008 these troops were renamed 405 Signal Troop and 123 Signal Troop to honour the Western Australian signals history.
109 Signal Squadron has committed reservists to undertake rotations to the Solomon Islands for Operation Anode, providing support to border patrolling in Northwest Western Australia for Operation Resolute and providing individual round outs to Operation Slipper in Afghanistan and Operation Astute in East Timor.14th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 14th Infantry Regiment ("Golden Dragons" ) is a United States Army light infantry regiment. It has served in the American Civil War, Boxer Rebellion, World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, Operation Restore Hope, Operation Uphold Democracy, Operation Joint Guard, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Gothic Serpent, Operation New Dawn, Operation Resolute Support, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. The 14th Infantry Regiment did not take part in combat during World War I. It has also conducted peacekeeping and humanitarian missions in the Sinai Peninsula, Guantánamo Bay in Cuba, Bosnia, and Kosovo.
Only the 2nd Battalion of the 14th Infantry Regiment is currently active, assigned to 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain Division at Fort Drum, New York.4th/3rd Battalion, Royal New South Wales Regiment
4th/3rd Battalion, Royal New South Wales Regiment (4/3 RNSWR) is a Reserve light infantry battalion of the Australian Army. 4/3 RNSWR has been deployed on active service on many peacekeeping operations and exercises within Australia and around the world. The Battalion is currently based at Sutherland, New South Wales where it forms part of the 5th Brigade.4th Combat Engineer Regiment (Australia)
4th Combat Engineer Regiment (4 CER) was an Australian Army Reserve engineer regiment based at East Ringwood, Victoria. Raised on 1 July 1995, upon formation, the regiment consisted of the 10th and 35th Field Squadrons and the 38th Support Squadron. It is an Army Reserve unit that provides engineering support to the 4th Brigade, and played a pivotal role in the ADF support to the 2003 Victorian Alpine Fires and the 2009 Black Saturday Fires. Throughout 2009, the regiment also contributed personnel to operations overseas, including deployments to Afghanistan and the Sinai; other personnel took part were detached to Rifle Company Butterworth and Operation Resolute. In 2013, 4 CER merged with the 22nd Construction Regiment, to form the 22nd Engineer Regiment.67th Armored Regiment
The 67th Armored Regiment is an armored regiment in the United States Army first formed in 1929 in the Regular Army as the 67th Infantry Regiment (Medium Tanks). It first became the 67th Armor in 1940. The regiment participated in World War I, World War II, Desert Storm/Desert Shield, Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Spartan Shield, Operation Inherent Resolve, Operation Resolute Support, and Operation Freedom's Sentinel.Armidale-class patrol boat
The Armidale class is a class of patrol boats built for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). Planning for a class of vessels to replace the fifteen Fremantle-class patrol boats began in 1993 as a joint project with the Royal Malaysian Navy, but was cancelled when Malaysia pulled out of the process. The project was reopened in 1999 under the designation SEA 1444, with the RAN as the sole participant. Of the seven proposals tendered, the Austal Ships/Defence Maritime Services (DMS) proposal for twelve vessels based on an enlarged Bay-class patrol boat was selected. Two additional patrol boats were ordered in 2005 to provide a dedicated patrol force for the North West Shelf Venture.
All fourteen vessels were constructed by Austal Ships at Henderson, Western Australia. The first vessel, HMAS Armidale, was commissioned into the RAN in June 2005, and the last, HMAS Glenelg, entered service in February 2008. The Armidale-class ships are operated by the Australian Patrol Boat Group, and based in Cairns and Darwin. They are primarily tasked with border protection, fisheries patrols, and the interception of unauthorised arrivals by sea. The Armidales are longer and heavier than their Fremantle-class predecessors, with improved seakeeping ability and increased range, allowing them to reach Australia's offshore territories. The ships are multi-crewed, with three ship's companies available for every two vessels, allowing the patrol boats to spend more time at sea without cutting into sailors' rest or training time.
During their early service life, there were problems with the fuel systems across the class, and a 20-bunk auxiliary accommodation compartment has been banned from use after toxic fumes were found in the compartment on multiple occasions. The high operational tempo from the Operation Resolute and Operation Sovereign Borders border protection and asylum seeker interception operations, combined with design flaws and poor maintenance, resulted in the ships suffering from hull fracturing around the engineering spaces, mechanical defects, and corrosion issues. DMS's contract to provide in-service support will be terminated in 2017, and the patrol boats are undergoing a major refit in Singapore to reinforce the hull. Two Cape-class patrol boats have been chartered to supplement naval patrol boat availability during the refit cycle, and plans to replace the Armidales with an enlarged class of offshore combatant vessel have been accelerated to bring them into service by the early 2020s.
After extensive damage from an onboard fire, HMAS Bundaberg was decommissioned at the end of 2014. A fictional Armidale-class boat, HMAS Hammersley, appears in the Australian military drama series Sea Patrol from the second season onwards, with filming occurring aboard multiple ships of the class.European Maritime Force
The European Maritime Force (Euromarfor or EMF) is a non-standing, military force with the current participation of France, Italy, Portugal and Spain. The force may carry out naval, air and amphibious operations, with an activation time of 5 days after an order is received.The force was formed in 1995 to fulfill missions defined in the Petersberg Declaration, such as sea control, humanitarian missions, peacekeeping operations, crisis response operations, and peace enforcement.
The EMF is presently not established at the EU level (referred to as the Common Security and Defence Policy, CSDP); it is for instance not a project of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) of the CSDP. The EMF may however contribute in the implementation of the CSDP, when made available as a multinational force in accordance with article 42.3 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). The force can also be deployed for other international organizations, such as NATO, the United Nations or the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.HMAS Bundaberg (ACPB 91)
HMAS Bundaberg (ACPB 91), named after the city of Bundaberg, Queensland, was an Armidale class patrol boat of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). The ship was built in Henderson, Western Australia, and was commissioned into the RAN in March 2007. Based at HMAS Cairns, Bundaberg spent much of her career deployed as part of border protection and fisheries protection patrols as part of Operation Resolute. In addition, the patrol boat was involved in several national and multinational training exercises, visited Vanuatu in 2011 (the vessel's only overseas deployment), tracked a suspected drug-smuggling vessel that led to a multimillion-dollar seizure, and participated in the International Fleet Review 2013. In August 2014, a large fire broke out on the ship while she was undergoing refit. Extensive damage from the fire led to the ship's decommissioning in December 2014.HMAS Tobruk (L 50)
HMAS Tobruk (L 50) was a Landing Ship Heavy (LSH) of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), based on the design of the Round Table-class of the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary. Planning for the ship began in the 1970s to provide the Australian Army with a permanent sealift capability. She was laid down by Carrington Slipways in 1979, launched in 1980, and commissioned in 1981. She was a multi-purpose, roll-on/roll-off heavy lift ship capable of transporting soldiers, APCs, and tanks, and delivering them to shore via landing craft or directly by beaching.
The ship experienced problems during her early career with her engines (which differed from the British base design) and sewerage system (leading to the death of a cadet in 1981). During the 1980s, the ship delivered supplies to the Multinational Force and Observers on the Sinai Peninsula, assisted in the withdrawal from RAAF Base Butterworth, provided support and accommodation for delegates to the South Pacific Forum, and was part of the Australian response to the 1987 Fijian coups d'état. In the early 1990s, Tobruk was part of ceremonies marking the 75th anniversary of the landing at Anzac Cove, then after a refit, participated in peacekeeping efforts in Somalia.
Plans to replace Tobruk with one of the Kanimbla-class ships began in 1993. She was offered for sale to the Royal New Zealand Navy, who refused because of the ship's manpower requirements. Delays in converting the Kanimbla's for service meant Tobruk continued with normal operations during the 1990s. Attempts to sell the ship to the British and the Portuguese did not succeed, and in 1997 the decision was made to keep Tobruk, as the Kanimbla's could not completely replace the heavy lift capability provided. During this period, Tobruk was deployed to Bougainville on several occasions as peacekeeping operations during the Bougainville Civil War. At the end of the decade, Tobruk operated as part of the INTERFET peacekeeping operation in East Timor.
In 2000 and 2001, Tobruk was sent to the Solomon Islands on several deployments in response to the civil war: first to evacuate Australian citizens, then as a neutral venue for peace talks. From late 2001 to early 2002, the ship was in northern Australian waters on border-protection duties as part of Operation Relex. During 2005 and early 2006, Tobruk sailed to the Middle East on several occasions to deliver vehicles and cargo to Australian forces in the region. Tobruk and the two Kanimbla's were set to East Timor in mid-2006 in response to the 2006 East Timorese crisis, forming the first RAN amphibious readiness group since World War II. The rest of the decade included further border protection deployments under Operation Resolute, a visit to Hawaii for the RIMPAC multinational naval exercise, support for the Army Aboriginal Community Assistance Program, relief operations following the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami, and use as the venue for a Fall Out Boy concert.
After spending several months in 2010 undergoing extended maintenance, Tobruk participated in the United States Navy's Pacific Partnership humanitarian assistance deployment. Because of the need for propeller shaft repairs, Tobruk could not be part of the military response to Cyclone Yasi. Heavy use and lack of maintenance in previous years began to take its toll, with Tobruk unavailable for service on several occasions during the early 2010s. As the two Kanimbla's had been forced out of service by ongoing issues, the Australian government had to charter a succession of civilian ships to provide standby heavy transport capability. In 2013, Tobruk again participated in Pacific Partnership, followed by a visit to the Philippines with disaster relief supplies after Typhoon Haiyan. In early 2015, the ship was part of the response to Cyclone Pam's impact on Vanuatu. Tobruk was decommissioned in July 2015, and was scuttled as a dive wreck in June 2018.Implementation Force
The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour.International military decoration authorized by the US military
An international decoration is a military award which is not bestowed by a particular country, but rather by an international organization such as the United Nations or NATO. Such awards are normally issued as service medals, for participation in various international military operations, and not for specific acts of heroism or bravery. The first medal from an international organization accepted for wear by the United States Military was the United Nations Korea Medal in 1951. Subsequent acceptance of other United Nations Medals did not come until 1964 with Executive Order 11139. Acceptance of the medals of other international multilateral organizations finally came with Executive Order 11446 in 1969. Acceptance of these international decorations must be approved by not only the Secretary of Defense, but also the Secretary of State.
The following is a list of the most commonly recognized international military decorations that has been or is currently awarded to members of the United States military. Such awards are always worn after all United States decorations, but before all Foreign decorations.List of Australian campaign medals
Australian campaign medals are listed in order of precedence as defined in references below. Those campaign medals which have been independently issued by Australia to its armed forces are in bold.List of coalition military operations of the Iraq War
This is a list of coalition (Multi-National Force – Iraq) military operations of the Iraq War. The list covers operations from 2003 until December 2011. For later operations, see American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present).Multi-National Division (South-West) (Bosnia)
The Multi-National Division (South-West) was a military formation which formed part of IFOR, a NATO-led multinational peacekeeping force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996, and then formed part of SFOR, another NATO-led multinational peacekeeping force, from 20 December 1996 until June 2004.Operation Grapple (Yugoslavia)
Operation Grapple was the codeword used to cover UK defence operations in support of the UN peacekeeping missions in the former Yugoslavia (authorised by UNSCR 776 of September 1992); including the deployment of British forces in Bosnia and Croatia from October 1992 until December 1995 as part of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). UNPROFOR would eventually hand over the peacekeeping mission in Bosnia to NATO's Implementation Force (IFOR) in winter 1995. The British participation in the IFOR was called Operation Resolute; the whole NATO mission was called Operation Joint Endeavour. The IFOR mission would last approximately a year, before it transitioned to the follow-on Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR).
The United Kingdom originally deployed a compact army headquarters staff (commanded by a brigadier) - based in a former JNA barracks at Divulje near Split. The main manoeuvre forces were an infantry battle group (based in Bosnia); supported by an armoured reconnaissance squadron, a combat engineer squadron and a logistics support unit. A detachment of Fleet Air Arm Sea King troop carrying helicopters was also based in Divulje barracks (found from 845 and 846 Naval Air Squadrons). Some of the British unit locations were very isolated such as the Royal Engineers base at Camp Redoubt on a particularly hilly part of the main supply route to Vitez. The British contribution to UNPROFOR also included the deployment of Royal Navy ships sailing in the Adriatic Sea and RAF aircraft supporting troop movements in Croatia. This force would be increased in size over the course of the UN peacekeeping mandate in the Former Yugoslavia up until August 1995 when the British force was steadily drawn down.The UK agreed to join the UN force to protect humanitarian convoys in Bosnia, as part of UNPROFOR 2. The first British Battalion (BRITBAT) was the Cheshire Regiment which deployed with its armoured vehicles in October 1992 through the Croatian port of Split, eventually headquartering itself in a school on the outskirts of the town of Vitez in the Lašva Valley. The battalion would have operating bases in Gornji Vakuf and Tuzla; and there was also a British logistics base at Tomislavgrad. The British contingent was expanded with the addition of another battalion group in March 1994.The first BRITBAT's time in Bosnia was not without controversy and its commanding officer Lieutenant Colonel Bob Stewart very publicly lost his composure and impartiality after his unit discovered the remains of Muslim civilians who had been massacred by Croats in the village of Ahmići in April 1993.British units took casualties from the outset and Lance Corporal Wayne Edwards a Warrior tracked armoured vehicle driver was shot and killed by a sniper, whilst driving his vehicle in Gornji Vakuf on 13 January 1993. Others would also sadly lose their lives; such as Private Shaun Taylor mortally wounded on 26 June 1994 near Goražde. British armed forces would serve nearly 15 years in Bosnia and would see more than 50 comrades killed and many more wounded. Even more tragically it was Bosnia and Croatia's appalling road and weather conditions that caused many of the deaths and injuries.BRITBAT and its supporting sub-units would win praise by becoming the guardians of the only functioning main supply route into the core of Bosnia and ultimately Sarajevo and Tuzla, the maintenance of Routes Triangle and Diamond would remain a critical combat engineering task.Operation Relex
Operation Relex is the name given to the Australian Defence Force (ADF) border protection operation in the country's northern approaches conducted between 2001 and 2006. The operation was instigated following the Tampa affair in September 2001 and the Australian government's resultant Pacific Solution. The focus of Operation Relex was illegal immigration, with assets from all three services of the ADF deployed to prevent the arrival of Suspected Illegal Entry Vessels (SIEV) in the Australian migration zone.
The primary period of activity of Operation Relex was between October and December 2001 when ten SIEV were intercepted by HMA Ships Warramunga, Arunta, and Leeuwin, assisted by several Fremantle-class patrol boats.
Operation Relex was folded into the broader border protection activity named Operation Resolute which commenced in July 2006. In 2013, the Abbott Government implemented Operation Sovereign Borders.Regional Force Surveillance Group
The Regional Force Surveillance Group (RFSG) was formally established on 4 October 2018 to command the Australian Army Reserve's three Regional Force Surveillance Units and a training unit. The RFSG forms part of the 2nd Division.The RFSG is tasked "to provide a littoral surveillance and reconnaissance capability in Australia’s north and northwest in order to support whole-of-government efforts to maintain national sovereignty and border security". The three Regional Force Surveillance Units conduct operational patrols as part of Operation Resolute.
Upon formation, the Regional Force Surveillance Group comprised:
Group Headquarters located at Larrakeyah Barracks in Darwin
NORFORCE (responsible for the Northern Territory and Kimberley region of Western Australia)
The Pilbara Regiment (responsible for the Pilbara region of Western Australia)
51st Battalion, Far North Queensland Regiment (responsible for North Queensland)
Indigenous Development WingThe Group headquarters provides a single formation headquarters to formalise command and control arrangements and knowledge sharing between the three units.The Indigenous Development Wing is responsible for delivering key training programs to Indigenous Australian soldiers across the Army and running the Regional Force Surveillance Group Education and Development Course. It was also established on 4 October 2018.Resolute Support Mission
Resolute Support Mission or Operation Resolute Support is a NATO-led train, advise and assist mission consisting of over 13,000 troops in Afghanistan, which began on January 1, 2015. It is a follow-on mission to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) which was completed on December 28, 2014. Its current commander is U.S. Army General Austin S. Miller who replaced U.S. Army General John W. Nicholson Jr. on 2 September 2018.