Operation Priboi

Operation Priboi (Operation "Coastal Surf") was the code name for the Soviet mass deportation from the Baltic states on 25–28 March 1949. The action is also known as the March deportation by Baltic historians. More than 90,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians, labeled as enemies of the people, were deported to forced settlements in inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union. Over 70% of the deportees were women, and children under the age of 16.

Portrayed as a "dekulakization" campaign, the operation was intended to facilitate collectivisation and to eliminate the support base for the armed resistance of the Forest Brothers against the Soviet occupation.[1] The deportation fulfilled its purposes: by the end of 1949, 93% and 80% of the farms were collectivized in Latvia and Estonia. In Lithuania, the progress was slower and the Soviets organized another large deportation known as Operation Osen in late 1951. The deportations were for "eternity" with no way to return. During the de-Stalinization and Khrushchev Thaw, deportees were gradually released and some of them managed to return,[2] though a large number of their descendants still live in Siberian towns and villages to this day.[3]

The mortality rate for the deportees was estimated at less than 15%.[2] Due to the high death rate of deportees during the first few years of their Siberian exile, caused by the failure of Soviet authorities to provide suitable living conditions at the destination, whether through neglect or premeditation, some sources consider these deportations an act of genocide.[4][5][6] Based on the Martens Clause and the principles of the Nuremberg Charter,[7] the European Court of Human Rights has held that the March deportation constituted a crime against humanity.[8]

Decision

Collectivisation in the Baltic states was introduced in early 1947, but the progress was slow. Despite new heavy taxes on farmers and intense propaganda, only about 3% of farms in Lithuania and Estonia joined kolkhozes by the end of 1948.[9][10] Borrowing from the collectivisation experiences of the early 1930s, kulaks were named as the primary obstacle and became targets of repressions.[10]

It is unclear when the idea of a mass deportation was advanced. On 18 January 1949, leaders of all three Baltic republics were called to report to Joseph Stalin.[11] That day, during a session of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the decision was made to carry out the deportations.[12] On 29 January, the top secret decision No. 390-138 ss[nb 1] was adopted by the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, approving the deportation of kulaks, nationalists, bandits (i.e. Forest Brothers), their supporters and families from Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.[nb 2][13] The decision specified deportee quotas for each republic: 8,500 families or 25,500 people from Lithuania, 13,000 families or 39,000 people from Latvia, and 7,500 families or 22,500 people from Estonia.[11] Lists of kulaks to be deported were to be compiled by each republic and approved by each republic's Council of Ministers. It also listed responsibilities of each Soviet ministry: the Ministry of State Security (MGB) was responsible for gathering the deportees and transporting them to the designated railway stations; the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) was responsible for the transportation to the forced settlements, provision of employment at the destination, and continued surveillance and administration; Ministry of Finance was to allocate sufficient funds (5.60 rubles per person per day of travel); Ministry of Communications was to provide the necessary railway cars; Ministries of Trade and Health were to provide food and health care en route to the destination.[11] Given just two months for preparations, the various agencies began marshaling resources.[11]

Preparations

On 28 February 1949, Viktor Abakumov, the minister of MGB, signed the USSR MGB order No. 0068 for the preparation and execution of the mass deportations.[11] Lieutenant General Pyotr Burmak commanded the MGB troops while Lieutenant General Sergei Ogoltsov, Deputy Minister of MGB, was in charge of the overall MGB role in the deportation. Burmak set up his headquarters in Riga.[11] The success of the operation depended on its suddenness to prevent mass panic, escape attempts, or retaliations by the Forest Brothers. Therefore, secrecy was of paramount importance.[11]

Compilation of deportee lists

Special MGB representatives were dispatched to various local offices of MGB to form operative staff that would select the deportees and compile a file on each family. The information was gathered from many different sources, including republican MGB files on "nationalists", local MGB files on "bandits" (i.e. Forest Brothers), local executive committee files and tax records on "kulaks", border guard and navy files on emigrants.[11] Since there was not enough time to investigate people's attitudes or activities during the German occupation, there were many contradictory cases where Communist activists were deported but Nazi collaborators were not.[12] This led to widespread confusion and uncertainty as to what offenses warranted deportation and what actions could guarantee safety. Deportees often blamed local informants of MGB who, they believed, acted out of petty revenge or greed, but Estonian researchers found that deportee lists were compiled with minimal local input.[12]

List of kulaks were to be prepared by local executive committees and officially approved by the Council of Ministers, but due to the tight deadline and top secret nature of the task, local MGB offices compiled their own lists of kulaks. This caused much confusion during the operation.[11] Local MGB offices would prepare summary certificates for each family and send them for approval to the republican MGB office. For example, by 14 March, Estonian MGB approved summary certificates for 9,407 families (3,824 kulaks and 5,583 nationalists and bandits) which created a reserve of 1,907 families above the quota.[11] Overall, due to the lack of time, the files on deportees were often incomplete or incorrect. Therefore, from April to June, retrospective corrections were made – new files were added for people deported but not on deportee lists and files of those who escaped deportations were removed.[11]

Deployment of additional troops

Additional Internal Troops Units[1][14] To Estonia To Latvia
1st Motorised Infantry Division (Moscow) 850 2,000
13th Motorised Infantry Division (Leningrad), one regiment 700
7th Division (Minsk), one regiment 1,000  
4th Division (Lithuania), one regiment   1,000
Officers' Corps Training School (Sortavala, Karelia) 400  
Military Specialised Secondary School (Saratov)   1,000
Security Corps sergeants 1,400 500
Total 4,350 4,500

Due to the immense scale of the Operation Priboi, which spanned three Soviet republics, considerable resources were needed. MGB needed to assemble personnel, transport vehicles, and communication equipment all the while keeping the operation secret. MGB also needed to draw up plans for where the operative groups to be deployed and how the deportees to be transported to the railway stations.[11] Local MGB officials, which numbered 635 in Estonia, were not sufficient and 1,193 MGB operatives from other parts of the Soviet Union were transferred to Estonia alone.[11] In addition to the troops already stationed in Latvia and Estonia, an additional 8,850 soldiers were deployed to Estonia and Latvia from other parts of the Soviet Union to take part in the operation.[14] They arrived to the republics between 10–15 March.[11] They were not told of their actual mission until later and their arrival was explained as a military exercise.[14]

An additional 5,025 submachine guns and 1,900 rifles were brought in to ensure that the operatives were sufficiently armed. Telecommunications was a vital component to ensure smooth running of the operation, thus the MGB commandeered all civilian telephone exchanges for the duration an brought in an extra 2,210 MGB communications personnel.[14] 4,437 freight railway cars were delivered. A total of 8,422 trucks were organised. 5,010 civilian trucks were commandeered and the remaining vehicles were military origin, including 1,202 imported from the Leningrad Military District, 210 from the Byelorussian Military District and 700 from Internal Troops.[14] These additional vehicles were stationed just outside the border of the Baltic Republics in advance so as not to raise suspicion and sent in at the start of the operation.[1]

The preparation on the MVD side was slower. USSR MVD order No. 00225 instructing various branches of MVD to prepare for the deportation and to assist the MGB was issued only on 12 March. Six months later, an internal review commission criticized the delay.[11] Special representatives of MVD arrived to local districts only on 18–22 March.[11]

Execution

Assembly of operative teams

Personnel involved[1][14] Number Proportion (%)
USSR MGB personnel 8,215 10.8
USSR Internal Troops 21,206 27.8
Republican Destruction Battalion troops 18,387 24.1
Communist Party activists 28,404 37.1
Total 76,212 100.0

The original order by the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union scheduled the deportation between 20–25 March, but the start of the operation was delayed to the early morning of 25 March.[11] Operatives were deployed to the countryside starting 21 March. A deportation of a family was carried out by a small nine–ten-man operative team, which included three USSR MGB agents ("troika"), two republican Destruction Battalion soldiers and four or five local Communist Party activists who were armed by the MGB.[14] Since the operatives were assembled from other parts of the Soviet Union, they were not familiar with local geography and that became a frequent reason for the failure to deport the designated family.[11] Care was taken to ensure that the operative team included at least one member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union or Komsomol to act as an ideological supervisors of the team.[12]

Recruitment of the local Communist Party activists by partorgs was the last step. Since they needed to assemble a large force in a very short time, they used various excuses (such as discussion of spring sowing or cinema viewing) to call meetings of the Party or Komsomol.[11] The activists were taken to the deportations directly from these meetings; others not selected for the operation were detained to preserve secrecy until its completion. The activists stayed in the household taking inventory of the confiscated property while soldiers escorted the deportees to the train stations.[11] The activists were also important in explaining who was deported and why. Since these were locals, they were often familiar to the deportees and these activists, not the unknown soldiers, became the face and name of the deportations creating social tensions.[11]

Round up of families

On average, each operative team was assigned three to four specific families they needed to deport.[12] After locating the assigned farm, the team was to search the premises, identify all residents, and complete their files. The families were allowed to pack some of their personal belongings (clothes, dishes, agricultural tools, domestic utensils) and food.[11] Official instructions allotted up to 1,500 kilograms (3,300 lb) per family, but many did not pack sufficient supplies as they were given little time, were disoriented by the situation, or did not have their items with them.[11] Property left behind was transferred to kolkhozes or sold to cover state expenses. Where available, the ownership of real estate and land was restored to the deportees and their heirs after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Unlike the June deportation in 1941, the families deported in 1949 were not separated.[15] People were transported to the train stations by various means – horse carts, trucks, or cargo ships (from Estonian islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa).[16]

As the people had already experienced mass deportations, they knew the signs (such as arrival of fresh troops and vehicles) and attempted to hide.[17] Therefore, the Soviets set up ambushes, tracked down and interrogated relatives, carried out mass passport checks, etc. Against regulations, MGB operatives would deliver children without parents to the train stations hoping that the parents would voluntarily show up.[12] Not all fugitives were caught by such measures and later, in Lithuania, smaller actions and deportations were organized to locate those that escaped the first Operation Priboi in March.[17]

Railway transportation

Lithuania. Vilnius. Naujoji Vilnia 005
Freight train cars used to transport deportees (on display in Naujoji Vilnia)

Once loaded onto the trains, the deportees became the responsibility of the MVD.[11] The loading stations needed special supervision and security to prevent escapes therefore they were, if possible, away from towns to prevent the gathering of deportee family members, friends, or onlookers. MVD also recruited informants from among the deportees and placed people categorized as flight risk under heavier guard.[11] The train cars were mostly standard 20-ton freight cars (Russian: Нормальный товарный вагон) with no amenities. The cars, on average, fit 35 people and their baggage which means about 0.5 square metres (5.4 sq ft) of space per person.[18] The last train left Lithuania in the evening of 30 March.[19]

Not only the stations, but also the railways were patrolled. In Estonia, the patrols were attacked in three separate incidents. One of these incidents near Püssi resulted in the derailment of three railway cars on March 27.[20] The patrols, among other things, picked up letters thrown out the train window by the deportees. The letters would usually inform about the deportation, send farewells to relatives and homeland, complain about conditions on the train, and express anti-Soviet feelings.[11] On average, the train ride lasted about two weeks, but could take almost a month. For example, a train left Võru on March 29 and arrived to Makaryevo station in Svirsk on April 22.[21] According to an MVD report from 30 May, from Estonian deportees, 45 people died en route and 62 were removed from the trains due to medical conditions.[11]

Results

Deportees
Estonian deportees in Siberia – 28% of deportees were children under the age of 16

Some 72% of deportees were women and children under the age of 16.[1] Kruglov, the USSR Interior Minister, reported to Stalin on May 18 that 2,850 were "decrepit solitary old people", 1,785 children without parents to support them, and 146 disabled.[11] About 15% of the deportees were over the age of 60.[11] There were people of very old age; for example, a 95-year-old woman was deported from Švenčionys District, Lithuania.[22]

Deportees by age, sex and nationality[11]
Republic Trains Families People Men Women Children (under 16)
Estonia 19 7,471 20,480 4,566 or 22.3% 9,866 or 48.2% 6,048 or 29.5%
Latvia 33 14,173 41,708 11,135 or 26.7% 19,535 or 46.8% 11,038 or 26.5%
Lithuania 24 8,985 28,656 8,929 or 31.2% 11,287 or 39.4% 8,440 or 29.5%
Total 76 30,629 90,844 24,630 or 27.1% 40,688 or 44.8% 25,526 or 28.1%
Heinrihs Strods provides higher totals: 20,713 people from Estonia, 42,149 people from Latvia, 31,917 people from Lithuania for a total of 94,779[14]

Aftermath

The deportation was a shock to Estonian and Latvian societies. The rate of collectivisation jumped from 8% to 64% from 20 March to 20 April in Estonia and from 11% to more than 50% from 12 March to 9 April in Latvia.[23] By the end of the year, 80% Estonian and 93% Latvian farms joined kolkhozes.[23] In Lithuania, which had the stronger Forest Brother movement and already experienced a mass deportation in May 1948 (Operation Vesna), the impact was not as great and the collectivisation rate was 62% by the end of 1949.[23] Therefore, the Soviets organized another large deportation from Lithuania in April 1949 specifically targeting those who had escaped the Operation Priboi (approx. 3,000 people) and another mass deportation known as Operation Osen in late 1951 (more than 20,000 people).[17] Search and individual arrests of people who evaded deportation continued in Estonia until at least late 1949.[11]

Location of "special settlements" for deported Balts[1]
Region of the
Soviet Union
Families People Average
family size
% of total
deportees
Amur Oblast 2,028 5,451 2.7 5.8
Irkutsk Oblast 8,475 25,834 3.0 27.3
Krasnoyarsk Krai 3,671 13,823 3.8 14.6
Novosibirsk Oblast 3,152 10,064 3.2 10.6
Omsk Oblast 7,944 22,542 2.8 23.8
Tomsk Oblast 5,360 16,065 3.0 16.9
Total 30,630 93,779 3.1 99.0

The additional troops brought for the operation left Latvia and Estonia on 3–8 April.[14] By a decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet, orders and medals for the successful completion of Operation Priboi were to be granted. 75 people were awarded the Order of the Red Banner, their names published in Pravda on 25 August 1949.[14] On 26 August, Pravda published the names of 17 people awarded the Order of the Great Patriotic War, First Class for courage and heroism displayed during the operation.[24]

The deportees were exiled "for eternity" and no right of return to their home,[2] with the penalty of twenty years of hard labour for attempted escapes. 138 new commandantures were set up to monitor the deportees, censor their mail, and prevent escapes.[11] Deportees were not permitted to leave their designated area and were required to report to the local MVD commandant once a month, failure of which was a punishable offense. The deportees were generally given jobs in kolkhozes and sovkhozes, with a small handful employed in forestry and manufacturing.[14] Living conditions varied greatly by destination, but there was housing shortage almost everywhere. Deportees lived in barracks, farm sheds, mud huts, or became tenants of locals.[11] The conditions were also very dependent on how many working age people there were in a family as bread was allotted based on workdays, not headcount. Some relatives from home were able to send food packages that alleviated the worst hunger.[11] By 31 December 1950, 4,123 or 4.5% of the deportees died, including 2,080 children. During this same period, 903 children were born into exile.[14]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Initials ss stand for top secret (совершенно секретно).
  2. ^ Transcript of the order in original Russian was published in Werth, Nicolas; Mironenko, Sergei V., eds. (2004). История сталинского Гулага. Конец 1920–х- первая половина 1950–х годов. Собрание документов в 7 томах [The History of Stalin's Gulag. From the Late 1920s to the First Half of the 1950s. Collection of Documents in Seven Volumes] (PDF) (in Russian). 1. Moscow: Russian Political Encyclopedia (ROSSPEN). pp. 517–519. ISBN 5-8243-0605-2. English translation of the order was published in Rahi-Tamm, Aigi; Kahar, Andres (2009). "The Deportation Operation "Priboi" in 1949" (PDF). In Hiio, Toomas; Maripuu, Meelis; Paavle, Indrek (eds.). Estonia Since 1944: Report of the Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. Tallinn: Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. pp. 385–86. ISBN 978-9949183005.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Strods, Heinrihs; Kott, Matthew (2002). "The File on Operation 'Priboi': A Re-Assessment of the Mass Deportations of 1949". Journal of Baltic Studies. 33 (1): 1–36. doi:10.1080/01629770100000191. ISSN 0162-9778. JSTOR 43212456. "Erratum". Journal of Baltic Studies. 33 (2): 241. 2002. doi:10.1080/01629770200000071.
  2. ^ a b c Mertelsmann, Olaf; Rahi-Tamm, Aigi (June–September 2009). "Soviet mass violence in Estonia revisited". Journal of Genocide Research. 11 (2–3): 316. doi:10.1080/14623520903119001.
  3. ^ Korb, Anu (2014). "The origin, life, and culture of the villages". Songs of Siberian Estonians (2nd ed.). Estonian Literary Museum. ISBN 978-9949-544-33-2.
  4. ^ Rummel, Rudolph J. (1999). Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917. Transaction Publishers. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-4128-2750-8.
  5. ^ Pohl, J. Otto (June 2000). "Stalin's genocide against the "Repressed Peoples"". Journal of Genocide Research. 2 (2): 267–93. doi:10.1080/713677598. ISSN 1469-9494.
  6. ^ Mälksoo, Lauri (2001). "Soviet Genocide? Communist Mass Deportations in the Baltic States and International Law". Leiden Journal of International Law. 14 (4): 757–87. doi:10.1017/S0922156501000371. ISSN 1478-9698.
  7. ^ Arpo, Martin (31 March 2009). "Kommunismiaja kuritegude tee Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtuni". Postimees.
  8. ^ "Kolk and Kislyiy v. Estonia". European Court of Human Rights. 17 January 2006. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  9. ^ Zundė, Pranas (1963). "The Collectivization of Lithuanian Agriculture (1940–1952)". Lituanus. 3 (9). ISSN 0024-5089.
  10. ^ a b Raun, Toivo U. (2002). Estonia and the Estonians (2nd ed.). Hoover Press. p. 178. ISBN 0-8179-2852-9.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Rahi-Tamm, Aigi; Kahar, Andres (2009). "The Deportation Operation "Priboi" in 1949" (PDF). In Hiio, Toomas; Maripuu, Meelis; Paavle, Indrek (eds.). Estonia Since 1944: Report of the Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. Tallinn: Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity. pp. 361–84. ISBN 978-9949183005.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Rahi-Tamm, Aigi (2008). "Preparing for the 1949 Deportations, Operation Priboi in the Estonian S.S.R." (PDF). In Flikaitis, Artūras; Miliauskas, Vytas; Baranauskienė, Albina (eds.). Communism – to the International Tribunal. Biznio mašinų kompanija. pp. 290–305. OCLC 750518462.
  13. ^ Bougai, Nikloai (1996). The Deportation of Peoples in the Soviet Union. Nova Publishers. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-56072-371-4.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Strods, Heinrihs (1997). "Visiškai slapta SSRS MGB Baltijos šalių gyventojų trėmimo operacija (1949 m. vasario 25 d.–rugpjūčio 23 d.)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lithuanian). 2. ISSN 1392-3463. English translation available: "The USSR MGB's Top Secret Operation "Priboi" ('Surf') for the Deportation of Population from the Baltic Countries, 25 February; 23 August 1949". Translated by Occupation Museum Foundation. 1998. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  15. ^ Bleiere, Daina (2006). History of Latvia: The 20th Century. Rīga: Jumava. pp. 354–55. ISBN 9984-38-038-6.
  16. ^ Õispuu, Leo, ed. (2003). "A Military Voyage from Jaagurahu to Pudalski". Deportation from Estonia to Russia. Deportation in March 1949 (PDF). R4. Tallinn: Estonian Repressed Persons Records Bureau. p. 59. ISBN 9985-9096-3-1.
  17. ^ a b c Anušauskas, Arvydas (1996). Lietuvių tautos sovietinis naikinimas 1940–1958 metais (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Mintis. pp. 324–25. ISBN 5-417-00713-7.
  18. ^ Õispuu, Leo, ed. (2003). "Deportation Trains". Deportation from Estonia to Russia. Deportation in March 1949 (PDF). R4. Tallinn: Estonian Repressed Persons Records Bureau. p. 66. ISBN 9985-9096-3-1.
  19. ^ Lukšas, Aras (2011-03-25). ""Bangų mūšos" nublokšti". Lietuvos žinios. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  20. ^ Õispuu, Leo, ed. (2003). ""Battles" Near the Railway". Deportation from Estonia to Russia. Deportation in March 1949 (PDF). R4. Tallinn: Estonian Repressed Persons Records Bureau. p. 63. ISBN 9985-9096-3-1.
  21. ^ Josia, Udo (2003). "Train Deport Again...". In Õispuu, Leo (ed.). Deportation from Estonia to Russia. Deportation in March 1949 (PDF). R4. Tallinn: Estonian Repressed Persons Records Bureau. pp. 75–76. ISBN 9985-9096-3-1.
  22. ^ Stravinskienė, Vitalija (2012). "Lietuvos lenkų trėmimai: 1941–1952 m". Istorija. Mokslo darbai (in Lithuanian). 87. ISSN 2029-7181.
  23. ^ a b c Misiunas, Romuald; Taagepera, Rein (1993). The Baltic States: Years of Dependence 1940–1990 (revised ed.). University of California Press. p. 102. ISBN 0-520-08228-1.
  24. ^ A facsimile of the lists published in Pravda on 25–26 August 1949 is reproduced in: Strods, Heinrihs, ed. (2000). Latvijas Okupācijas muzeja Gadagrāmata 1999: Genocīda politika un prakse [Yearbook of the Occupation Museum of Latvia] (in Latvian). Museum of the Occupation of Latvia. ISSN 1407-6330.
1949 in the Soviet Union

The following lists events that happened during 1949 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Anti-Soviet partisans

Anti-Soviet partisans may refer to various resistance movements that opposed Soviet Union and its satellite states at various periods during the 20th century.

Baltic Legations (1940–1991)

The Baltic Legations were the missions of the exiled Baltic diplomatic services from 1940 to 1991. After the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states in 1940, the Baltic states instructed their diplomats to maintain their countries' legations in several Western capitals. Members of the Estonian diplomatic service, the Latvian diplomatic service and the Lithuanian diplomatic service continued to be recognised as the diplomatic representatives of the independent pre-World War II states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, whose annexation by the Soviet Union was not recognised by the United States, the United Kingdom, or France. The legations provided consular services to exiled citizens of the Baltic states from 1940 to 1991.

Baltic states under Soviet rule (1944–91)

This Baltic states were under Soviet rule from the end of World War II in 1945, from Sovietization onwards until independence was regained in 1991. The Baltic states were occupied and annexed, becoming the Soviet socialist republics of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. After their annexation by Nazi Germany, the USSR reoccupied the Baltic territories in 1944 and maintained control there until the Baltic states regained their independence nearly 50 years later in the aftermath of the Soviet coup of 1991.

Batumi Stalin Museum

Batumi Stalin Museum was a museum in Batumi, Georgia. It commemorated Joseph Stalin, who was active in socialist agitation among Batumi's refinery workers during 1901–1902. It closed in 2013, after suffering low visitation.

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

The Guerrilla war in the Baltic states or the Forest Brothers resistance movement was the armed struggle against Soviet rule that spanned from 1940 to the mid-1950s. After the occupation of the Baltic territories by the Soviets in 1944, an insurgency started. According to some estimates, 10,000 partisans in Estonia, 10,000 partisans in Latvia and 30,000 partisans in Lithuania and many more supporters were involved. This war continued as an organised struggle until 1956 when the superiority of the Soviet military caused the native population to adopt other forms of resistance. While estimates related to the extent of partisan movement vary, but there seems to be a consensus among researchers that by international standards, the Baltic guerrilla movements were extensive. Proportionally, the partisan movement in the post-war Baltic states was of a similar size as the Viet Cong movement in South Vietnam.

Jaan Rekkor

Jaan Rekkor (born 3 April 1958) is an Estonian stage, film and television actor.

June deportation

The June deportation (Estonian: Juuniküüditamine, Latvian: Jūnija deportācijas, Lithuanian: Birželio trėmimai) was a mass deportation by the Soviet Union of tens of thousands of people from the territories occupied in 1940–1941: Baltic states, occupied Poland (mostly present-day West Belarus and western Ukraine), and Moldavia.

Latvian Diplomatic Service

The Latvian Diplomatic Service maintained representation of independent Latvia during the Soviet occupation of their homeland (1940–1991).

Nazi–Soviet population transfers

The Nazi–Soviet population transfers were population transfers between 1939 and 1941 of ethnic Germans (actual) and ethnic East Slavs (planned) in an agreement according to the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.

Nikolajs Štelbaums

Nikolajs Štelbaums or Nikolay Shtelbaums (Russian: Николай Штельбаумс) (13 October 1933 Užava parish, Latvia - 3 April 2008 Omsk, Russia) was a Soviet speedskater. As a child he was forced to move to Siberia along with his family in 1949, in connection with the Soviet mass deportation project Operation Priboi of more than 90,000 Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians. During his skating career he lived in Omsk, skating for Burevestnik.

In 1952, Norwegian skater Hjalmar Andersen set a legendary world record on the 10,000-m, with a time of 16:32.6. This record withstood several close attacks over the following seasons. The first skater to better the Andersen time was Štelbaums, who did 16:31.4 in Chelyabinsk on 4 February 1959. His result was not officially recognised by the International Skating Union, however, and therefore does not feature on the official world record lists.

On 31 January 1960 at Medeo, both Štelbaums (16:18.9) and Vladimir Shilykovskij (16:13.1) skated below Andersen's record time, at the traditional "Prize of the Soviet Ministry of the Kazakh Republic" competition; but again these world record times were not officially ratified by the ISU. At the 1960 Winter Olympics four weeks later, first Kjell Bäckman (16:14.2) and then Knut Johannesen (15:46.6) finally lowered the official Andersen world record, while Štelbaums was disqualified in this race.

Štelbaums participated in each of the Soviet-Russian allround championships from 1958 to 1963, with a 6th place from 1959 at Vologda his best result; on that occasion he also won the 10,000-m and bronze on the 5,000-m. He won silver on the 10,000-m twice, in 1958 at Sverdlovsk and in 1961 at Gorky. He was however never selected for international representation at allround championships.

His wife Vera Shtelbaums is a professional and merited Master of Sports coach of rhythmic gymnastics.

Operation North

Operation North (Russian: Операция "Север") was the code name assigned by the USSR Ministry of State Security to massive deportation of Jehovah's Witnesses and their families to Siberia in the Soviet Union on 1–2 April 1951.

Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference (German: Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. (In some older documents, it is also referred to as the Berlin Conference of the Three Heads of Government of the USSR, USA, and UK.) The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, represented respectively by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.

Stalin, Churchill, and Truman gathered to decide how to administer Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier on 8 May (Victory in Europe Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of postwar order, peace treaty issues, and countering the effects of the war.

Soviet deportations from Estonia

Soviet deportations from Estonia were a series of mass deportations by the Soviet Union from Estonia in 1941 and 1945–1951.The two largest waves of deportations occurred in June 1941 and March 1949 simultaneously in all three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). The deportations targeted various categories of anti-Soviet elements and "enemies of the people": nationalists (i.e. political elite, military officers, policemen of independent Estonia), bandits (i.e. Forest Brothers), kulaks, and others. There were deportations based on nationality (Germans in 1945 and Ingrian Finns in 1947–1950) and religion (Jehovah's Witnesses in 1951). Estonians residing in the Leningrad Oblast had already been subjected to deportation since 1935.People were deported to remote areas of the Soviet Union, predominantly to Siberia and northern Kazakhstan, by means of railroad cattle cars. Entire families, including children and the elderly, were deported without trial or prior announcement. Of March 1949 deportees, over 70% of people were women and children under the age of 16.The Estonian Internal Security Service has brought to justice several past organizers of these events. The deportations have been repeatedly declared to constitute a crime against humanity by the Parliament of Estonia and acknowledged as such by the European Court of Human Rights.

Stalin's poetry

Before he became a Bolshevik revolutionary and the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin was a promising poet.

Stalin's residences

Over time Joseph Stalin resided in various places.

Stalin's house, Gori, birthplace

Tiflis Spiritual Seminary

Kureika house,Siberia, where Stalin spent his final exile in 1914-1916.

Stalin's apartment in Moscow Kremlin

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

Virve (given name)

Virve is an Estonian feminine given name and may refer to:

Virve Aben (born 1930), Estonian textile artist

Virve Eliste (1949–1949), youngest deportee during the Operation Priboi

Virve Kiil (born 1973), Estonian glass artist

Virve Kiple (born 1927), Estonian ballerina and actress

Virve Köster (born 1928; bettr known as Kihnu Virve), Estonian folk singer from Kihnu island

Virve Laev (born c. 1940), Estonian film editor

Virve Liivanõmm, Estonian journalist

Virve Osila (born 1946), Estonian poet and playwright

Virve Reid (born 1956), Canadian adult model

Virve Rosti (born 1958; better known as Vicky Rosti), Finnish singer

Virve Sarapik (born 1961), Estonian art scientist and semiotician

Western Bloc

The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".

Diplomatic treaties in 1939
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History
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De-Stalinization
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Stalin's residences

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