Operation Pluto (Pipe-Lines Under the Ocean) was a Second World War operation by British engineers, oil companies, and the British Armed Forces; to construct undersea oil pipelines under the English Channel between England and France in support of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. According to the Official History, PLUTO originally stood for 'Pipe-Line Underwater Transportation of Oil'.
The scheme was developed by Arthur Hartley, chief engineer with the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company. Allied forces on the European continent required a tremendous amount of fuel. Pipelines were considered necessary to relieve dependence on oil tankers, which could be slowed by bad weather, were vulnerable to German submarines, and were also needed in the Pacific War. Geoffrey William Lloyd, the Secretary for Petroleum, in 1942 met Admiral Mountbatten, Chief of Combined Operations, whose area this was, and then the Chairman of Anglo-Iranian. Hartley's idea of using adapted submarine telephone cable was adopted.
The battle of Normandy was won without a drop of fuel being delivered via the Pluto cross-channel pipelines. Only eight per cent of the fuel delivered to the Allied forces in North-West Europe between D-Day and VE Day was via those pipelines; the rest being by tanker, either in bulk or in cans, or by airlift.
Two types of pipeline were developed. The first type was the flexible HAIS pipe with a 3 inches (76 mm) diameter lead core, weighing around 55 long tons per nautical mile (30 t/km). This was essentially a development by Siemens Brothers, in conjunction with the National Physical Laboratory, of their existing undersea telegraph cables, and known as HAIS (from Hartley-Anglo-Iranian-Siemens).
The HAIS pipe was a good start, but it was soon apparent that the amount of lead required to produce enough pipe was going to be prohibitively expensive, and would involve stripping the lead off every church roof. As a result, it was decided that an alternative would be needed that made use of cheaper and more readily available materials such as mild steel.
The second type was a less flexible steel pipe of similar diameter, developed by engineers from the Iraq Petroleum Company and the Burmah Oil Company, known as HAMEL from the contraction of the two chief engineers, H. A. Hammick and B. J. Ellis. It was discovered in testing that the HAMEL pipe was best used with final sections of HAIS pipe at each end. Because of the rigidity of the HAMEL pipe, a special apparatus code-named The CONUN drum was developed to lay the pipe.
Henry Hammick explained one day to his son that the Conundrum was short for Cone-ended drum – which described the shape of the drum perfectly. He also explained how he had realised that if you can wrap cotton around a reel, you can do the same with mild-steel pipe around a large diameter drum, and still be able to unwrap it.
The first prototypes were tested in May 1942 across the River Medway, and in June in deep water across the Firth of Clyde using vertical triple ram pumps manufactured by Tangye Pumps, Cornwell Works in Birmingham, with an operating capability of 1,500 pounds per square inch (100 bar) at 3,000 rpm, before going into production with the basic steel pipe for HAMEL supplied by Stewarts & Lloyds of Corby, manufacturing of the final system was carried out by Siemens Brothers at Woolwich, Henley's at North Woolwich, Callender's at Erith, and Standard Telephones and Cables at Greenwich. Because of capacity limitations in the UK, some HAIS pipeline was also manufactured in the United States.
In June 1942, the Post Office cable ship Iris laid lengths of both Siemens' and Henleys' cable in the Clyde. Both pipelines were completely successful, and PLUTO was formally brought into the plans for the invasion of Europe. The project was deemed "strategically important, tactically adventurous, and, from the industrial point of view, strenuous". The Clyde trials showed that it was necessary to maintain an internal pressure of about 7 bars (100 psi) in the pipeline at all times, even during manufacture. Existing cable ships were not large enough, nor were their loading and laying gear sufficiently powerful and robust. Consequently, a number of merchant ships were converted to pipe laying by stripping the interiors, and building in large cylindrical steel tanks, fitting special hauling gear and suitable sheaves and guides. The Petroleum Warfare Department turned to Johnson and Phillips company for special gear to handle and lay the pipe. As the pipe could not be bent to a radius less than five feet, a new haul-off drum of ten foot diameter and fleeting ring, together with roller type bow and stern gear, were produced. The final equipment was fitted to HMS Holdfast.
Full-scale production of the two-inch pipe was started on 14 August 1942, using steel from the now near-defunct Corby steel works, and six weeks later, on 30 October, a 30 miles (50 km) length was loaded on board HMS Holdfast under the command of Commander Treby-Heale OBE, RNR, which was to be used as a full-scale rehearsal of Operation PLUTO. This trial occurred between 26 December and 30 December 1942, the 30 mile length being laid across the Bristol Channel, in rough weather, and the shore ends being connected at Swansea and Ilfracombe. Those aboard monitoring the test were Mr. Hartley (Anglo-Iranian Oil), Mr. Tombs (Anglo-Iranian Oil), Mr. Colby (Iraq Petroleum), Mr. Betson (Post Office), Commander Hardy (Admiralty), and Mr. Whitehead OBE (Johnson and Phillips), who had designed the pipe handling equipment.
The rehearsal was a success: so much so that a three-inch (76 mm) diameter pipe (rather than two) was considered. This reduced the number of pipelines needed to pump the planned volume of petrol across the channel. This decision necessitated further alterations and additions to the pipeline handling gear. Two further ships were equipped with handling gear, these being HMS Sancroft and HMS Latimer (later renamed Empire Baffin and Empire Ridley, respectively), both of which could handle 100 miles (160 km) of three-inch (76 mm) pipe weighing approximately 6,000 tons.
The pumps and pipeline across the Bristol Channel were used to supply parts of Devon and Cornwall for the next year, during which time Royal Army Service Corps and Royal Engineers army personnel were trained to use petrol pumping equipment in readiness for the invasion of Europe.
Johnson and Phillips were asked to provide storage sites in the East India and Surrey Commercial Docks. These sites were obtained and equipped with tubular steel bridges with overhead hauling gear, erected in such a position that the pipe could be taken from a ship's tanks.
After full-scale testing of an 83 kilometres (45 nautical miles) HAIS pipe across the Bristol Channel between Swansea in Wales and Watermouth in North Devon, the first line to France was laid on 12 August 1944, over the 130 kilometres (70 nmi) from Shanklin Chine on the Isle of Wight across the English Channel to Cherbourg. This, however, failed when an escorting destroyer caught the line with its anchor.
A further HAIS pipe and two HAMELs followed, but one of these again failed before coming into operation. As Sir Donald Banks wrote, 'The technique of cable laying had been mastered but we were not yet sufficiently versed in the practice of connecting the shore ends, nor in effecting repairs to the undersea leaks which were caused fairly close inshore through these faulty concluding operations.' It was not until 18 September that a HAIS cable was finally commissioned; it came into operation on the 22nd September, approximately three months late.
On 29 September a HAMEL pipe also became operational. However, on 3 October when the pressure was increased to augment the amount of fuel pumped, both failed and Operation BAMBI (pipeline route to Cherbourg) was abandoned. As the fighting moved closer to Germany, 17 other lines (11 HAIS and 6 HAMEL) were laid from Dungeness to Ambleteuse in the Pas-de-Calais. The success of these lines was, however, limited with only 8% of the fuel delivered between D-Day and VE Day being via them.
The PLUTO pipelines were linked to pump stations on the English coast, housed in various inconspicuous buildings; including cottages and garages. Though uninhabited, these were intended to cloak the real purpose of the buildings. Pluto Cottage at Dungeness, a pumping station built to look like a small house, is now a Bed and Breakfast. In England, the PLUTO pipelines were supplied by a 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) network of pipelines to transport fuel from ports including Liverpool and Bristol. In Europe, the pipelines were extended as the troops moved forward, and eventually reached as far as the Rhine.
The initial performance of the PLUTO pipeline was disappointing. During the period from June to October 1944, it carried on average only 150 imperial barrels per day (25,000 litres per day), just 0.16% of the Allies total consumption during the same period.
In January 1945, 300 long tons (300 t) of fuel was pumped to France per day, which increased tenfold to 3,000 long tons (3,000 t) per day in March, and eventually to 4,000 long tons (4,100 t) per day, equivalent to almost 1 million imperial gallons (4.5 million litres). In total, over 781,000 cubic metres (172 million imperial gallons) of petrol were pumped to the Allied forces in Europe by VE day, providing a critical supply of fuel until a more permanent arrangement was made, although the pipeline remained in operation for some time after. The official history states of the cross channel pipelines that 'PLUTO contributed nothing to Allied supplies at a time that would have been most valuable' and 'DUMBO was more valuable, but at a time when success was of less importance.'
Dumbo was the codename given to the pipeline that ran across Romney Marsh to Dungeness and then across the English Channel to France. The route of the pipeline can be traced in various places on Romney Marsh. Where the pipeline crossed water drainage ditches it ran above ground in a concrete case. Several of these can still be found.
Along with the Mulberry harbours that were constructed immediately after D-Day, Operation Pluto is considered one of history's greatest feats of military engineering. The pipelines are also the forerunners of all flexible pipes used in the development of offshore oil fields.
After the war, more than 90% of the pipeline was recovered as salvage, and subsequently scrapped. This was accomplished during the period September 1946 to October 1949, using the ships Empire Ridley (ex HMS Latimer), Empire Taw (ex HMS Holdfast), Empire Tigness (a German built steel-hulled 407-ton tanker), Wrangler (an ex Admiralty Mark III tank landing craft), and Redeemer (an ex Admiralty motor fishing vessel).
The value of the scrap lead and steel was well in excess of the costs of recovery.
While the pipeline itself is no longer in use, many of the buildings that were constructed or utilised to disguise it remain in operation today, especially on the Isle of Wight, where the former pumping station at Sandown is currently in use as a mini-golf facility.
In 1994, the Midland Bank (now part of HSBC) sponsored a black-and-white film which contained a remarkable amount of historical archive film showing the entire history and construction of the Pluto Project, the HAIS pipe, and the Conundrum reels. It mentions the codewords 'Bambi', 'Watson', 'Dumbo Near', 'Dumbo Far', and other terminal names. It shows how the HAIS pipe was constructed and increased in diameter from about 2" to the later 3" operational size. When the landing site for the invasion was switched from Calais to Normandy, the pipeline needed to be increased from its original length to around 70 miles (110 km), and the film tells of how the American pipeline industry became involved in producing the extra amount of HAIS pipe.
The film can be seen in a small heritage museum at Shanklin Chine on the Isle of Wight, one of the Pluto terminals, where there are also a lot of other memorabilia, books and photographs. One of the original pumps used on the Isle of Wight has now been restored to its original position in the fort at Sandown, now a part of the Isle of Wight Zoo, and visitors can get a good 'feel' for what it must have been like to work there. Entrance is inside the zoo. Another pump is preserved in the Bembridge Heritage Centre. Brenzett Museum, Romney Marsh, houses a small permanent display related to Pluto at Dungeness.
A film entitled Operation Pluto, produced by the former Ministry of Fuel and Power, is held in the British Film Institute archives. This film was part of a loop of films that was shown at the East Carlton Park steel heritage centre in Northamptonshire for many years.
Events from the year 1944 in France.Air Resupply And Communications Service
The Air Resupply And Communications Service (ARCS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization. It was assigned to Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. Established during the Korean War, the mission of ARCS was providing the Air Force an unconventional warfare capability during the 1950s. It was inactivated in 1954, but elements continued to operate until the reactivation of air commando units by the Kennedy Administration in 1962.Amfreville battery
Amfreville battery (also known as York battery) was a World War II German artillery battery constructed close to the French village of Querqueville (5 km (3.1 mi) west of Cherbourg) in northwestern France. It formed part of Germany's Atlantic Wall coastal fortifications and protected the western entrance to the port of Cherbourg. The battery engaged British and US ships towards the end of June 1944 before the battery fell to advancing US forces on 26 June 1944.Arthur Hartley
Arthur Clifford Hartley, CBE (7 January 1889 – 28 January 1960) was a British civil engineer. Graduating with a bachelor's degree from Imperial College London, Hartley worked for the North Eastern Railway and an asphalt manufacturer before joining the Royal Flying Corps during World War I. He became a qualified pilot, with the rank of major and joined the Air Board where he was involved with the development of interrupter gear. His war work was rewarded with his appointment as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE). He left the corps after the war and spent five years as a consulting engineer before he joined the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (later Anglo-Iranian).
During the Second World War Hartley was seconded to the government where he was involved in the development of the bombsight which sank the Tirpitz, the Operation Pluto pipeline project and the FIDO fog dispersion system. Following the war he was rewarded with an appointment as Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE), a United States Medal of Freedom and £9000 cash. He retired from Anglo-Iranian in 1951 and was elected president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He was elected president of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1959, but died three months into his tenure.Chine
A chine ( ) is a steep-sided coastal gorge where a river flows to the sea through, typically, soft eroding cliffs of sandstone or clays. The word is still in use in central Southern England—notably in East Devon, Dorset, Hampshire and the Isle of Wight—to describe such topographical features. The term 'bunny' is sometimes used to describe a chine in Hampshire. The term chine is also used in some Vancouver suburbs in Canada to describe similar features.Dumbo (disambiguation)
Dumbo is a 1941 American animated film.
Dumbo may also refer to:
Dumbo (2019 film), a remake of the 1941 film
Dumbo (air-sea rescue), ocean search and rescue missions by long-range aircraft
Dumbo, Angola, more commonly known as Mandume, Angola, a town in Bié Province
Dumbo, Brooklyn, a neighborhood in New York City
Dumbo the Flying Elephant, a carousel-style ride based on the animated Disney film, featured at five Disney parks
SS Dumbo, a coaster trading vessel built in 1944
Dumbo octopus or Grimpoteuthis, a genus of octopus
Dumbo, a body type of fancy rat
Dumbo, a nuclear thermal rocket design developed in the United States
Dumbo, a pipeline used in WW2 Operation PlutoHoulgate battery
The Houlgate battery (also called the Battery de Tournebride) was a World War II German artillery battery constructed close to the French village of Houlgate in the Calvados department in the Lower Normandy region. Built into the top of a 300 ft (91 m) cliff, the bunker complex was created to protect the western bank of the mouth of the River Seine and was 10 mi (16 km) east of the Normandy landing beach Sword which it shelled. The former fire control post has been turned into a orientation table. The battery is 8km east of the Mont Canisy battery.Ince Hall
Ince Hall was a country house near Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, England. It stood in the grounds of the ruined Stanlow Abbey. It was a house in Italianate style that was extended by the Lancaster firm of architects Sharpe and Paley in 1849. The extension cost at least £7,448 (equivalent to £760,000 in 2018). At this time it was occupied by Eliza Jane Waldegrave, daughter of the architect Edmund Sharpe's godfather Edmund Yates. The hall was demolished in the middle of the 20th century, and its site is now occupied by the Stanlow Refinery.During the second world war Ince Hall was used by the Shell Oil company to house operations which had been evacuated from London. This included a team working on Operation Pluto ("pipelines under the ocean"), a project to supply fuel to the Allies after the 1944 Normandy landings.Interserve
Interserve is a multinational group of support services and construction companies based in the UK, with a revenue of £2.7 billion in 2018 and a workforce of 68,000 people worldwide. The group has its headquarters in Reading, Berkshire.
The company was founded in 1884 as the London and Tilbury Lighterage Company Limited, and retained the Tilbury name until 2001. From 1991 it was known as Tilbury Douglas following a merger with RM Douglas, but in 2001 rebranded as Interserve plc. The name change partly reflected a shift in focus during the 1990s towards maintenance and facilities management services sectors, and this continued in the 2000s, buoyed by further acquisitions.
However, financial issues including problem contracts in Interserve's energy-from-waste business led to profit warnings in 2017. The company was forced to restructure and refinance in March 2018. Its financial situation worsened in late 2018, and debt holders started discussing a further financial restructuring of the business. The debt-for-equity plan was rejected at an annual general meeting on 15 March 2019, and the parent company went into administration owing creditors over £100m. In a pre-pack deal, the rest of the group was immediately sold to a newly incorporated company owned by lenders, Interserve Group Ltd.John Forfar
John Oldroyd Forfar, MC, FRSE (16 November 1916 – 14 August 2013) was a Scottish paediatrician and academic. He served in the Royal Army Medical Corps during the Second World War and later became a leading civilian paediatrician. He was Professor of Child Life and Health at the University of Edinburgh from 1964 to 1982. He was President of the British Paediatric Association from 1985 to 1988, and was instrumental in the founding of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health.Liberty ship
Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II. Though British in concept, the design was adapted by the United States for its simple, low-cost construction. Mass-produced on an unprecedented scale, the Liberty ship came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output.
The class was developed to meet British orders for transports to replace ships that had been lost. Eighteen American shipyards built 2,710 Liberty ships between 1941 and 1945, easily the largest number of ships ever produced to a single design.
Their production mirrored (albeit on a much larger scale) the manufacture of "Hog Islander" and similar standardized ship types during World War I. The immensity of the effort, the number of ships built, the role of female workers in their construction, and the survival of some far longer than their original five-year design life combine to make them the subject of much continued interest.
Only four Liberty ships survive; three are preserved, two of them as operational museum ships. Another, now landlocked, remains in use as a fish processing plant in Alaska.Mont Canisy battery
The Mont Canisy battery was a World War II German artillery battery constructed close to the French village of Benerville-sur-Mer in the Calvados department in the Lower Normandy region. Located on the highest ground in Normandy (110 m (360 ft) high), the vantage point overlooks the Côte Fleurie. The bunker complex was constructed between 1941 and 1944 to protect the River Seine estuary and the port of Le Havre. It was the largest artillery bunker complex between Cherbourg and Le Havre. The battery is 8 km (5.0 mi) west of the Houlgate battery.
A French naval coastal battery was on the site from 1935 to 1940. In 1940 the guns were put out of action before the site was captured by advancing German troops in 1940.
Much of the site is now a nature reserve and the bunker complex is open to the public and guided tours take place throughout the summer.Petroleum Warfare Department
The Petroleum Warfare Department (PWD) was an organisation established in Britain in 1940 in response to the invasion crisis during World War II, when it appeared that Germany would invade the country. The department was initially tasked with developing the uses of petroleum as a weapon of war and it oversaw the introduction of a wide range of flame warfare weapons. Later in the war, the department was instrumental in the creation of the Fog Investigation and Dispersal Operation (commonly known as FIDO) that cleared runways of fog allowing the landing of aircraft returning from bombing raids over Germany in poor visibility; and Operation Pluto which installed prefabricated fuel pipelines between England and France soon after the Allied Invasion of Normandy in June 1944.SS Arthur M. Huddell
SS Arthur M. Huddel, IMO: 5025706, is a Liberty ship built by St. Johns River Shipbuilding Company with keel laid 25 October 1943 and the yard workers working overtime to launch on 7 December 1943 and complete outfitting nine days later.She has been transferred to Greece and serves as the museum ship Hellas Liberty.SS Empire Baffin
Empire Baffin was a 6,978 ton cargo ship which was built by Lithgows Ltd, Port Glasgow in 1941 for the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT). She was commissioned in 1943 as HMS Sancroft, being converted into a cable laying ship for Operation Pluto. She was returned to the MoWT in 1946 and subsequently sold and renamed Clintonia. A final change of ownership in 1960 saw her renamed Aspis and she was scrapped in 1963.SS Flaminian (1917)
Flaminian was a 2,699-gross register ton (GRT) cargo ship that was built in 1917 by W Harkness & Sons Ltd, Middlesbrough, County Durham, United Kingdom for Ellerman & Papayanni Lines. She was sold in 1944 to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) in 1944, converted to a cable storage hulk for Operation Pluto and renamed Empire Flaminian. Renamed Flaminian in 1946, she was used as a stevedore training ship from 1947, serving until scrapped in 1950.Shanklin Chine
Shanklin Chine is a geological feature and tourist attraction in the town of Shanklin, on the Isle of Wight, England. A wooded coastal ravine, it contains waterfalls, trees and lush vegetation, with footpaths and walkways allowing paid access for visitors, and a heritage centre explaining its history.
Initial Airborne Assault
Initial ground campaign
Air and Sea Operations