Operation Frantic

Operation Frantic was a series of seven shuttle bombing operations during World War II conducted by American aircraft based in Great Britain and southern Italy which then landed at three Soviet airfields in Ukraine. The operation ran between June and September, 1944.

Operation Frantic
Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II)
Patch 15th USAAF
Part of Strategic bombing during World War II
Operation frantic map
DateJune–September 1944
Result Soviet-U.S. strategic failure
 United States
 Soviet Union
 Nazi Germany


Amerikai és orosz katonák 1944-ben a FRANTIC hadművelet idején. A háttérben egy B-17 Flying Fortress bombázógép és egy C-47 Dakota szállítógép látható. Fortepan 15946
American and Soviet military personnel write messages on aerial bombs

American plans to use air bases in the USSR began as United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) staff studies soon after the German invasion on 22 June 1941. After the Japanese attack on the United States on 7 December, the concept was expanded to hit the Japanese Home Islands from Siberia. However, Soviet air cooperation was negligible through 1942, and it was not until the Foreign Ministers' conference (Moscow Conference) in Moscow in October 1943 that the American delegation raised the issue formally with Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov.

At the Tehran Conference in late November 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt personally proposed the use of Soviet bases by American aircraft to Marshal Joseph Stalin. In this he was assisted by a personal appeal from his son, Colonel Elliott Roosevelt, also in attendance, who requested the bases for use of his reconnaissance aircraft then operating from Italy.

The position papers given to Stalin emphasized both reconnaissance and bombardment operations, and Stalin agreed to proceed with the plan "in principle." American heavy bombers stationed in Britain and Italy would fly strike missions deep into the heart of Nazi territory or occupied Eastern Europe. Afterwards, they would land at American air bases in newly recovered Soviet territory, re-arm and re-fuel, and then attack other targets on their return flights.

Operation Frantic, originally known as Operation Baseball, was intended to permanently establish three heavy bomber groups in Soviet territory,[1] but only a small contingent, about 1,300 men, was eventually detached to the American bases in the USSR.

During the four months of major operations, 24 targets in German-held territory, some never before within effective range of the American strategic bomber forces, were attacked.[2][3]

While the shuttle bombing technique complicated German air defenses, in practice most targets were already coming in reach of US bomber streams from Italy and England. Soviet vetoing of some targets prevented more effective use of the bases.[4]

The operations were reduced and finally discontinued due to a number of issues; a catastrophic German air attack on the bases in June; Soviet hostility and non-cooperation that started in August; and the inability of the Americans to receive permission to use the bases for support of the Warsaw Uprising, which soured relations between the two countries.

Operation frantic meeting
VVS and USAAF airmen meet at Poltava, 2 June 1944. Despite the tensions between Soviet and American Leadership over Operation Frantic, the American airmen were made to feel very welcome by the Soviet personnel assigned to support them.

The main operational difficulty encountered by the US forces was inadequate force protection by the Soviets. The Soviets refused US requests to introduce adequate radar-guided artillery and night fighter support, and US aircraft were frequently fired upon by Soviet forces.

External images
Operation Bellicose map

The three bases reached their peak in July and August 1944, with a firmly limited complement of 1300 US officers and men. By October, operations were put on a "skeleton crew" basis, with a winter contingent at Poltava only of about 300. Americans remained there until evacuation after VE-day.

Operation Frantic has greater historical importance for the development of Soviet-American relations than for its effect on Germany's war effort. Starting out with high hopes, it eventually set a discordant note that foreshadowed the Cold War.


The ability to hit distant German targets was not the only, or even the primary, American objective for Operation Frantic. The political and military leadership wanted also to set a precedent and practical basis for later bombing of Japan from Siberia, after the USSR opened the second front in the Pacific; provide a model for developing trust and cooperation between the two powers, deemed essential for winning the approaching peace and establishing amicable post-war relations; and to develop close cooperation and exchanges in ancillary domains, including telecommunications and meteorology, air reconnaissance and air transport networks.

Operation frantic-b-17s-arriving
B-17s arriving at Poltava, 2 June 1944.

After approval was given by Moscow in February 1944, a rapid buildup followed. Staff exchanges were made; the first "echelons" of American personnel began to arrive; and a US delegation flew to Moscow in an operational B-17, which was used to demonstrate American bombing tactics to the Russians. A USAAF Eastern Command (General Alfred Kessler) was established at Poltava, operating in parallel with the new American Military Mission to Moscow (General John R. Deane).

When a high-level US delegation led by United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) deputy chief of staff for operations, General Frederick Anderson (accompanied by Colonel Roosevelt), visited Moscow and the bases in May 1944, conditions were such that the go-ahead for actual operations could be given. At the same time, Anderson let his side know that the ultimate goal was the establishment of a numbered American air force in the USSR and a switch to Siberian operations. For diplomatic reasons, this could not be revealed to the Russians. As it was, the Americans had to make do with a much smaller presence in the Soviet Union than originally contemplated.

Frantic also tied in with other US initiatives. At Teheran, General Henry Arnold (chief of the Air Forces) offered Stalin 300–400 B-24 bombers, but noted that they would require a large Soviet training program in the United States. Stalin did not take this offer; instead, American bombers making safety landings in Siberia were kept and copied by Soviet factories.

Britain did not share some of the US objectives, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill believed the operation was not worthwhile. The Royal Air Force did not participate in Frantic. Although 21 RAF Avro Lancaster bombers did fly from a Soviet airfield in September 1944 in a separate operation - Operation Paravane - to attack the battleship Tirpitz.

Operation frantic-b-17s-Ilyushin Il-2-Shturmovik
USAAF Fifteenth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses and Red Air Force Yakovlev Yak-9 fighters share an airfield as aircrews swap sorties, 1944.

Soviet objectives in agreeing to the operation cannot be determined with certainty. Unlike the Americans, the USSR had no doctrine or "theology" of victory through aerial bombardment, and had only a rudimentary long-range air force. Furthermore, when the survival of the USSR was in doubt, Marshal Stalin refused offers of air support, demanding instead maximum lend-lease deliveries. By the time Stalin finally agreed to activate the plan, in a meeting with US ambassador W. Averell Harriman on 2 February 1944, Soviet victory was assured. Indications are that Stalin wished to obtain all possible information about superior American technology, and assigned officers with the stated objectives of learning as much as they could about US equipment and concepts of operation. For example, the USSR demanded and obtained the secret Norden bombsight, and also obtained wide photographic coverage of Europe from American aircraft. However, this objective cut both ways, for the USAAF also learned of the extreme vulnerability of the USSR to air attack, and of the primitive technical and infrastructure conditions prevailing on the Soviet side.

Measured against its objectives, after brief euphoria Frantic developed into a costly and resounding failure that included one of the worst losses ever suffered by an American air force. Instead of cementing the alliance, it exposed its fundamental weaknesses and ended in great American bitterness. However, worthwhile operations against the Axis were carried out, and both sides learned much about the other.


95.BG - Fortepan 15948
A B-17 crew poses with their plane. The nose art on the bomber reads "Polar Star" (likely referring to the star Polaris) in Russian.

After meeting with Stalin on 2 February 1944, Harriman radioed back that "Stalin approves project limited to 200 bombers and six airfields." In the end only three bases were set up. In haste, the United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe established a headquarters detachment at Poltava Airfield, in Poltava region in the Ukrainian SSR in late April, 1944. Poltava was designated as USAAF Station 559 for security purposes and was thus referred to in all messages and written correspondence. Poltava was one of three Ukrainian installations operated by Headquarters, Eastern Command USAAF. The others were Pyriatyn Airfield (AAF-560) and Myrhorod Airfield (AAF-561). All three bases were situated along the Kharkov-Kiev railway and were already far behind the front. Poltava and Mirgorod were to be used by heavy bombers (B-24 Liberators, B-17 Flying Fortresses), while Piriatyn would be used for long-range escort fighters (P-51 Mustangs, P-38 Lightnings).[5]

The bases were farther away than the USAAF wanted, and despite the best efforts were barely adequate for heavy bombers. Soviet infrastructure was not up to Western standards; the spring season turned everything into a sea of mud; and the retreating Germans had destroyed whatever they could. At Poltava, the Germans left behind a large headquarters building, but it was booby-trapped with a radio-controlled bomb that was, however, discovered in time. Also, the American officers found themselves dealing with an unfriendly and suspicious Soviet bureaucracy. In general, US officers agreed that the Red Air Force was cooperative and eager to assist, but the political structure was obstructionist and a source of interminable delays and problems. After August–September, the Soviet attitude became universally hostile, and by 1945 the small American detachments left in great bitterness. Winston Churchill had not been very enthusiastic about Frantic, believing that it was placing a lot more trust on Stalin than was wise, and events seemed to bear him out.[5]

Heavy equipment and bulky supplies went by sea to the ports of Murmansk and Archangelsk in the Arctic, and then by train to the airfields in the Ukraine. Additional supplies and key personnel flew in on Air Transport Command planes from the ATC base at Mehrabad Airport, Iran. As there was no trans-Caucasian railway, additional shipping went across the Caspian to Baku. The logistical demands were enormous since almost everything had to be brought from the United States, even the high-octane aviation fuel and the steel-plank runways. Delicate negotiations finally fixed a total of 42 round-trip ATC missions to make the bases operational for the AAF, and allowed an additional rate of two weekly support missions to sustain the US contingent. The issue of flight communications eventually ended with a compromise, allowing US crews to carry out navigation and radio duties with a Soviet observer resident at all related communications centers. In support of Operation Frantic, ATC delivered some 450 personnel and thirty-six thousand pounds of cargo by June 1944.[6]

Known units

352 FG Frantic.jpeg
P-51 Mustangs of the 486th Fighter Squadron at RAF Debden 20 June 1944
45th Combat Wing (at Poltava Airfield, ca 75 bombers)[7]
96th Bombardment Group, RAF Snetterton Heath, B-17 Flying Fortress
388th Bombardment Group, RAF Knettishall, B-17 Flying Fortress
452d Bombardment Group, RAF Deopham Green, B-17 Flying Fortress
13th Combat Wing (at Myrhorod Airfield, ca 75 bombers)[8]
95th Bombardment Group, RAF Horham, B-17 Flying Fortress
100th Bombardment Group, RAF Thorpe Abbotts, B-17 Flying Fortress
390th Bombardment Group, RAF Framlingham, B-17 Flying Fortress
Escort Fighter (at Pyriatyn Airfield)
4th Fighter Group, RAF Debden, P-51 Mustang
352nd Fighter Group, RAF Bodney, P-51 Mustang
355th Fighter Group, RAF Steeple Morden, P-51 Mustang
357th Fighter Group, RAF Leiston, P-51 Mustang
20th Fighter Group, USAF Kings Cliffe P-51 Mustang
2d Bombardment Group, Amendola Airfield, B-17 Flying Fortress
97th Bombardment Group, Amendola Airfield, B-17 Flying Fortress
99th Bombardment Group, Tortorella Airfield, B-17 Flying Fortress
483rd Bombardment Group, Sterparone Airfield, B-17 Flying Fortress
14th Fighter Group, Triolo Airfield, P-38 Lightning
31st Fighter Group, San Severo Airfield, P-51 Mustang
82nd Fighter Group, Vincenzo Airfield, P-38 Lightning
325th Fighter Group, Mondolfo Airfield, P-51 Mustang
Attached from: Twelfth Air Force


A photographic reconnaissance detachment with a handful of F-5 Lightnings was sent to operate local flights from Poltava in late May, and a "triangular trade" in reconnaissance operations using Italy, Ukraine, and England preceded the bombing runs and also ran concurrently with them over the summer. These flights were conducted by units of the 325th Reconnaissance Wing, commanded by Colonel Elliott Roosevelt.

After much preparation at the three Ukrainian airfields by advance elements of Headquarters, Eastern Command USAAF and Air Transport Command, the first shuttle mission ("Frantic-Joe") was conducted by Fifteenth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses and their P-51 Mustang fighter escorts taking off from airfields around Foggia, Italy, raiding the railroad marshalling yards at Debrecen, Hungary, and then flying on to the Ukraine.[9][10][11]

2 June 1944
130 B-17s, escorted by 70 P-51s, bomb the marshaling yard at Debrecen, Hungary (47°31′10″N 021°37′41″E / 47.51944°N 21.62806°E) and land at bases in the USSR; the B-17s at Poltava and Mirgorod and the P-51s at Piriatyn. One B-17F (42-30319, 301st BG, 419th BS) is lost over the target; 27 other B-17s, forced off course en route to the Oradea, Romania marshaling yard, also hit Debrecen.
6 June 1944
104 B-17s and 42 P-51s attack the airfield at Galați, Romania and return to their shuttle bases in the USSR. Eight enemy fighters are shot down and two P-51Bs (42-103369, 42-103432, 325th FG, 318th FS) are lost.
11 June 1944
126 B-17s and 60 P-51s depart their Russian shuttle bases for Italy, completing FRANTIC-1. On the way, 121 of the B-17s bomb the Focşani, Romania airfield (45°46′29″N 027°11′31″E / 45.77472°N 27.19194°E) One B-17F (42-3383, 97th BG) is lost.

After the first shuttle mission, the consensus was that operations had been highly successful, and a joint atmosphere of celebration and high spirits reigned at Poltava. The second shuttle raid assigned Eighth Air Force B-17s to attack synthetic oil facilities near Berlin on the way to the Ukraine.[9]

21 June 1944[12][12]
145 of 163 B-17s open shuttle bombing between the United Kingdom and the USSR. 72 P-38s, 38 P-47 Thunderbolts and 57 P-51s escort the B-17s to the target, a synthetic oil plant at Ruhland, Germany (51°29′00″N 013°53′36″E / 51.48333°N 13.89333°E) 123 B-17s bomb the primary target, 21 bomb the marshaling yard at Elsterwerda (51°27′32″N 013°30′57″E / 51.45889°N 13.51583°E) and a lone B-17 bombs the marshaling yard at Riesa (51°18′34″N 013°16′46″E / 51.30944°N 13.27944°E) owing to a bomb rack malfunction. 65 4th Fighter Group P-51s relieve the first escort force and accompany the B-17s to the USSR. 20 to 30 Luftwaffe fighters attack the force; in the resulting battle a P-51B (43-6784, 4th FG, 335th FS) and six German fighters are destroyed; a B-17F (42-3490) of the 385th Bombardment Group, 549th Bomb Squadron piloted by Matthew Totter is damaged by flak and loses three engines. It flies to Sweden, is interned, and later converted to SE-BAN, a Swedish airliner. 144 B-17s land in the USSR; 73 at Poltava, and the rest at Mirgorod. The 64 remaining P-51s land at Piriatyn.

What was unknown at the time is that after the raid on Ruhland, the attacking B-17s were being shadowed from a distance by a Luftwaffe Heinkel He 111 bomber, which identified the Ukrainian airfields where they landed.[9] Other sources indicate that the Germans were already aware of the locations and had assembled a strike force at Minsk in anticipation.

On the night of 21 June, the Combat Wing of B-17s which earlier landed at Poltava sustained severe losses in a German air attack. Hungarian planes also participated in the attack. Personnel were alerted at approximately 2330 hours when it was announced that German bombers had crossed the front lines in the general direction of Poltava. At 0030 hours, Pathfinder aircraft released flares directly above the airfield and ten minutes later the first bombs were dropped. For almost two hours, an estimated 75 Luftwaffe bombers attacked the base, exhibiting a very high degree of accuracy. Nearly all bombs were dropped in the dispersal area of the landing ground where only B-17s were parked, indicating without question that the B-17s constituted the specific objective of the raiders.

Of the 73 B-17s which had landed at Poltava, 47 were destroyed and most of the remainder severely damaged. One American B-17 copilot, Joseph Lukacek, was killed. His captain, Raymond Estele, was severely wounded and died later; several other men suffered minor injuries. The stores of fuel and ammunition brought so laboriously from the United States were also destroyed. Three days after the attack, only nine of the 73 aircraft at Poltava were operational. The truck-mounted 50-caliber machine guns that the Soviet high command insisted would be adequate had no effect on the Luftwaffe, as no aircraft were shot down or disabled. Also, Russian and American fighter aircraft were not allowed to take off (by Soviet high-command) to engage the Luftwaffe during this attack; the reason for this is unclear.

American personnel losses were light due to adequate warning and the network of slit trenches distant from the aircraft parking area. Russian losses were much higher since work crews were ordered to fight fires and disable anti-personnel bombs while the raid was ongoing. Butterfly bombs continued to explode on the field for many weeks thereafter. Red Air Force losses included 15 Yak-9s, 6 Yak-7s, three trainers, a Hawker Hurricane, and a VIP DC-3. Soviet anti-aircraft fire was intense but random, and perversely served to outline the field for the German aircraft. There are conflicting reports about whether Soviet aircraft engaged the enemy, but since there was no radar intercept capability, even American fighters would have been ineffective.

The well-planned German attack was led by Oberstleutnant Wilhelm Antrup of KG 55 and carried out by He 111Hs and Ju 88s of KG 4, KG 53, KG 55, and KG 27 operating from bases at Minsk. The operation was nicknamed Zaunkoenig. After the He 111s left, the Ju 88s strafed the field at low altitude. He 177s from Night Reconnaissance Squadrons performed target reconnaissance, pathfinder duties and bomb damage assessment. There were no German losses.

22 June 1944
The flyable B-17s at Mirgorod and the P-51s at Piriatyn were flown to Soviet air bases farther east in anticipation of further attacks; they were to be returned and dispatched to bases in Italy as soon as the weather permitted. This saved many aircraft, as German bombers struck both Piriatyn and Mirgorod during the nights of 22 and 23 June. Piriatyn had very short runways and had no fuel or munitions for the aircraft. The Germans missed Piriatyn while fuel and ammunition stores at Mirgorod were hit. Air Transport Command ferried the now-excess aircrews back to the UK via Mehrabad Airport, Tehran, Iran.
26 June 1944
Losses and damage sustained from the Luftwaffe bomber attack on Poltava and damage suffered en route to Russia had reduced the number of operational B-17s to a total of 73. All available aircraft were formed into one composite combat wing of three groups for the execution of the return mission to Italy. The aircraft at the dispersal airfields were flown back to Myrhorod and Poltava for servicing, rearming and refueling. This delayed the take-off times to mid-afternoon, which meant that the aircraft would not arrive in Italy until the early evening twilight. The B-17s rendezvous with 55 P-51s from Piriatyn, bomb the oil refinery and marshaling yard at Drohobycz, Poland (49°20′18″N 023°29′07″E / 49.33833°N 23.48528°E) and then proceed on to Fifteenth Air Force bases in southern Italy. One B-17 returns to the USSR because of mechanical trouble. Fifteenth Air Force P-51s meet the formation one hour after the attack and escort the B-17s to Foggia. It was planned for the Eighth Air Force aircraft to return to bases in England on 27 June or as soon thereafter as weather conditions permitted, but unfavorable forecasts persisted. During this period the B-17s participated in one Fifteenth Air Force mission and the P-51s in two missions.
2 July 1944
The Eighth Air Force P-51s joined with other Fifteenth Air Force fighters in escorting 509 heavy bombers on a mission to three objectives in the Budapest, Hungary area; a marshaling yard (47°27′56″N 019°05′37″E / 47.46556°N 19.09361°E) (253 aircraft); Vecses Airfield (47°26′02″N 019°15′33″E / 47.43389°N 19.25917°E) (142 aircraft) and the Shell Oil Refinery (47°26′23″N 019°03′43″E / 47.43972°N 19.06194°E) (114 aircraft). The P-51s preceded the bombers and conducted a free-lance sweep in the target area. Aggressive enemy opposition was encountered and 4 P-51s were lost in combat and one other P-51 failed to return. USAAF bombers and fighters claim 50+ enemy fighters shot down.
3 July 1944
57 Eighth Air Force B-17s are dispatched, escorted by 38 of the P-51s, in conjunction with 44 Fifteenth Air Force heavy bombers attacking a marshaling yard and railway shops at Arad, Romania (46°11′39″N 021°19′21″E / 46.19417°N 21.32250°E)
5 July 1944
72 Eighth Air Force B-17s complete FRANTIC-2 by attacking a marshaling yard at Béziers, France (43°19′49″N 003°14′15″E / 43.33028°N 3.23750°E) along with Fifteenth Air Force B-24s while on the last leg of the mission from Italy to the UK; 42 P-51s return to the UK with the B-17s. Of the 11 P-51s remaining in Italy, ten return to the UK the following day and the last one several days later.

After the Poltava disaster, the USAAF wanted to move the P-61 Black Widow-equipped 427th Night Fighter Squadron to Poltava to provide radar-enabled night air defense over the fields. However, the Soviets vetoed this plan, insisting that air defense was their responsibility. The P-61s were diverted to Italy. The shuttle bombing missions were not abandoned for the moment, but they were suspended until the mess on the ground could be cleaned up and the defenses of the air bases improved. Realizing that the Soviets could not adequately protect the heavy bombers from night raids, the Americans abandoned plans to permanently station three heavy bomber groups on Soviet airfields.[9]

Because of the loss of fuel and the inability to protect the force, the next Frantic missions were composed of long-range fighters.

To keep the project alive, Fifteenth Air Force next shuttled P-38 and P-51 fighters to the Soviet Union in late July.[9]

22 July 1944
76 P-38s and 58 P-51s begin the second Fifteenth Air Force shuttle mission by attacking airfields at Zilistea (Jiliste) (45°34′23″N 027°09′43″E / 45.57306°N 27.16194°E) and Buzău, (45°12′59″N 026°58′42″E / 45.21639°N 26.97833°E) Romania, and landing at bases in the USSR.
25 July 1944
Operating from their USSR bases, 34 P-51s and 33 P-38s attack the airfield at Mielec, Poland (50°19′20″N 021°27′24″E / 50.32222°N 21.45667°E) and return to the USSR. Mielec was the site of the PZL aircraft factory.
26 July 1944
The fighters leave their USSR bases, strafe enemy aircraft in the BucharestPloiești, Romania area, and return to their bases in Italy, completing FRANTIC-3.
4 August 1944
In an attempt to comply with the first direct Soviet request for USAAF air strikes, 70+ P-38s and P-51s of the Fifteenth Air Force leave Italy, attack the airfield and town of Focşani, Romania (45°41′59″N 027°07′56″E / 45.69972°N 27.13222°E) and land at bases in the USSR.
6 August 1944
60 fighters of the Fifteenth Air Force take off from their bases in the USSR, attack the Craiova marshaling yard (44°20′22″N 023°47′25″E / 44.33944°N 23.79028°E) along with other railroad targets in the BucharestPloiești, Romania area, and land at their bases in southern Italy, completing FRANTIC-4.

After balancing losses and battle damage against the value of the targets, US military leaders at the Soviet bases discontinue the fighter-bomber operations.[9]

6 August 1944
75 B-17s hit the Kannenberg aircraft factories at Gotenhafen (Gdynia), (54°34′50″N 018°31′53″E / 54.58056°N 18.53139°E) and proceed on to bases in the USSR. Escort is provided by 154 P-51s.
7 August 1944
A shuttle mission is flown in accordance with a Soviet request; 55 B-17s and 29 P-51s attack an oil refinery at Trzebina, Poland without loss and return to bases in the USSR.
12 August 1944
All aircraft fly to Fifteenth Air Force bases in southern Italy.
13 August 1944
72 B-17s take off from Fifteenth Air Force bases in southern Italy; three have various problems, the others bomb Francazal Airfield, just south of Toulouse, France, (43°32′39″N 001°22′04″E / 43.54417°N 1.36778°E) and then proceed on to the UK. 62 P-51 Mustangs, (part of the shuttle-mission force) along with 43 from the UK, provide escort. No aircraft are lost; 70 B-17s and 58 P-51s land in the UK. Five B-17s and six P-51s, either left in Italy or in the process of returning there during this mission also fly to the UK, completing FRANTIC-5.

During this period, the United States at the highest level urgently requested the use of the Soviet bases for air support and supply of the ongoing Polish Home Army uprising in Warsaw. However, until the Poles had already been substantially crushed, Stalin refused all assistance and vetoed these missions. This caused a crisis in Soviet-American relations and changed US perceptions of Soviet war aims among both military officers and diplomats.

11 September 1944
75 Eighth Air Force B-17s, with an escort of 64 P-51s, bomb oil refineries at Chemnitz, Germany, (50°21′22″N 012°55′24″E / 50.35611°N 12.92333°E) and land at bases in the USSR.
13 September 1944
73 B-17s, escorted by 63 P-51s, take off from their USSR bases, bomb steel and armament works at Diósgyőr, Hungary (48°05′31″N 020°43′03″E / 48.09194°N 20.71750°E) and proceed on to Fifteenth Air Force bases in southern Italy.
15 September 1944
The Eighth Air Force in England dispatches 110 B-17s to drop supplies to the Polish Home Army taking part in the Warsaw Uprising and then proceed on to bases in the USSR. However, a weather front is encountered over the North Sea and the bombers are recalled to England. Escort is provided by 149 P-51 Mustangs; two P-51s (42-106783, 43-24842, 363d FS) collide in a cloud and are lost.
17 September 1944
FRANTIC-6 is completed as 72 US Eighth Air Force B-17s and 59 P-51s fly without bombs from Italy to the UK.
18 September 1944
After turning back due to bad weather on 15 September, the last Eighth Air Force UK-USSR-Italy-UK mission sends 107 B-17s to supply the Polish Home Army in Warsaw with 1,248 parachute-dropped containers. Fewer than 250 are on target for pick-up by the remaining Polish pockets. One B-17 is lost (43-38175 390th BG 568th BS). Escort is provided by 137 P-51s; 64 P-51s continue on to bases in the USSR. Two P-51s are lost (42-26386, 44-19735, 355th FG 386th/368th FS).
19 September 1944
100 B-17s and 61 P-51s take off from their bases in the USSR, bomb the marshaling yard at Szolnok, Hungary, (47°10′55″N 020°10′25″E / 47.18194°N 20.17361°E) and continue on to Fifteenth Air Force bases in southern Italy. The aircraft remain in Italy due to bad weather until 23 September, when they return to the UK, completing FRANTIC-7.


The attack on the Szolnok rail yards was the end of major Frantic operations, as the original targets had been taken by the rapidly advancing Soviet offensive. After the issues over Polish resupply, Foreign Commissar Molotov put the Americans on notice that they were no longer needed, and a very hostile climate, including orchestrated episodes of violence and theft, ensued at the bases. The USAAF, citing logistical problems and becoming weary of growing Soviet intransigence, announced a suspension of Frantic shuttle missions. Also, by this time air bases in the Mariana Islands became available to the Americans, and there was no longer a perceived need for bases in the Russian Far East. The US and Soviet advances by the spring of 1945 ended the need for shuttle missions and the ATC flew out the last US contingent of personnel from its headquarters at Poltava in June 1945.[9]

Major problems were associated with the failure of air defense, but also with the eagerness with which Soviet fighters and artillery targeted American aircraft. Several American aircraft were downed, but the crews survived. From the Soviet perspective this was caused by the inability of US pilots to stick to the strictly limited corridors, altitudes, and time windows. On several occasions US aircraft became dispersed all over the region, which severely complicated Soviet efforts to control and track all foreigners. Soviet officers who had been too helpful to the Americans fell in disfavor, and one, Chief Air Marshal Alexander Novikov, who had received the US Legion of Merit, was tortured and jailed after the war. The problem of Soviet attacks on all aircraft in sight was deemed so serious that when President Roosevelt flew to Yalta in February 1945, the Americans insisted on placing observers at all nearby anti-aircraft sites.

Frantic was peripheral to the air war against Germany because most targets could have been reached from Italy. The Ukrainian bases were not used for two purposes for which they could have been decisive: air supply of the Polish Home Army and interruption of extermination camp operations at Auschwitz and other locations. Because US-Soviet collaboration was perceived by the Americans to be entirely a one-way street, it caused bitterness and suspicion, thus influencing a generation of USAF officers.

In addition, the Soviets learned of their own vulnerability to air attack and the enormous US technological advantage. The USAAF obtained insight into Soviet operations, and despite strict limitations obtained some additional photographic coverage which would become much in demand later.

Operation Frantic demonstrated the flexibility and reach of American logistics operating under trying conditions. It also demonstrated the political role of airlift logistics in terms of operational support that would have been impossible by conventional ground-based means. However, Frantic had not been a good use of Allied resources. The Germans judged it to be a propaganda exercise to impress the Soviets, but all it really accomplished was to make the strains in the Allied alliance more obvious.[6][9]


 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

  1. ^ Russell, Edward T. (1999). "Leaping the Atlantic Wall: Army Air Forces Campaigns in Western Europe, 1942–1945". United States Air Force History and Museums Program. USAAF.net. pp. 27, 28. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. External link in |work= (help)
  2. ^ Charles T. O'Reilly (2001). Forgotten Battles: Italy's War of Liberation, 1943–1945 Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0195-1. p. 343
  3. ^ William Howard (1995). From China Marine to Jap POW: My 1,364 Day Journey Through Hell, Turner Publishing Company ISBN 1-56311-238-8. p. 230-246
  4. ^ Staff. Shuttle bombing Archived 18 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine McGraw-Hill's Access Science Encyclopedia of Science & Technology Online Archived 27 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b Anderson, Barry, (1985), United States Air Forces Stations, Air Force Historical Research Center, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.
  6. ^ a b Bilstein, Roger E., (1998), Airlift and Airborne Operations In World War II, Air Force Historical Research Center, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama.
  7. ^ "45th Combat Wing". Esthervilledailynews.com. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  8. ^ 13th Combat Wing
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Conversino, Mark J. (1997), Fighting With The Soviets: The Failure of Operation Frantic, 1944–1945. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0808-7
  10. ^ "The Second World War — A Day by Day Account, 2 June-19 September 1944". Homepage.ntlworld.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  11. ^ ArmyAirForces.com MACR Database Archived 24 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ a b "Don Allen:His shuttle bombing mission story or, What a nose artist does in his spare time". Fourthfightergroup.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
  • Images on this page are screen snaps from the film: Operation Titanic, United States War Department Film, Produced by the Army Pictorial Service (Signal Corps), in conjunction with the Army Air Forces, 1945


The USAAF prepared a secret, detailed report on Eastern Command operation in December 1944 and made it available to the State Department. It is preserved at the Air Force Historical Research Agency (AFHRA) at Maxwell AFB, Alabama.

Four published books provide detailed analyses of the Soviet operations:

  • Conversino, Mark: Fighting with The Soviets: The Failure of Operation Frantic. University of Kansas Press, 1997. ISBN 0700608087 OCLC 35151263
  • Deane, John: The Strange Alliance. Indiana University Press, 1946, 1973. OCLC 229419046
  • Hansen, Chris: Enfant Terrible: The Times and Schemes of General Elliott Roosevelt. Able Baker, Tucson, 2012. ISBN 9780615668925 OCLC 830124072
  • Infield, Glenn: The Poltava Affair. McMillan, New York, 1973. OCLC 628028

External links

341st Bombardment Squadron

The 341st Bombardment Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the 4038th Strategic Wing. It was last stationed at Dow Air Force Base, Maine, and was inactivated on 1 February 1963.

During World War II, the 341st Bombardment Squadron was a B-17 Flying Fortress squadron, assigned to the 97th Bombardment Group, Fifteenth Air Force. It earned Two Distinguished Unit Citations.

342d Bombardment Squadron

The 342d Bombardment Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the 4137th Strategic Wing. It was last stationed at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia and was inactivated on 1 February 1963.

During World War II, the 342d Bombardment Squadron was a B-17 Flying Fortress squadron, assigned to the 97th Bombardment Group, Fifteenth Air Force. It earned two Distinguished Unit Citations.

427th Special Operations Squadron

The 427th Special Operations Squadron (427th SOS) is a specialized, covert unit of the United States Air Force. After reporter Andreas Parsch filed a Freedom of Information Act request, the Air Force told him the unit "support[s] training requirements … for infiltration and exfiltration." That is, it prepares troops for secretly slipping into and out of dangerous territory. The squadron is not listed by the Air Force Historical Research Agency. It is reported by the press to be stationed at Pope Field, North Carolina.The squadron was originally formed during World War II as the 427th Night Fighter Squadron. Its planned mission to defend United States Army Air Forces bases in the Soviet Union was cancelled when the Soviets did not allow the unit to be based in Ukraine SSR during the Operation Frantic shuttle bombing missions that took place in 1944. It later served in Italy, India, Southern China and Burma as a P-61 Black Widow night fighter interceptor squadron.

The squadron was re-activated during the Vietnam War to train Republic of Vietnam Air Force pilots in using the Cessna A-37 Dragonfly in counter-insurgency operations. Its most recent activation may involve counter-insurgency and counter-terrorist operations as part of Air Force Special Operations Command.

97th Operations Group

The 97th Operations Group (97 OG) is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the 97th Air Mobility Wing of Air Education and Training Command . It is stationed at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma.

Col. Cornelius W. Cousland commanded the first 97th Bombardment Group activated from Polebrook, England, leading their first mission on 17 August, 1942 during World War II as the 97th Bombardment Group. It was the first Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombardment group to fly a mission from the United Kingdom against a European target, the marshalling yards at Sotteville-lès-Rouen in France. In late 1942 the group moved to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, where it earned two Distinguished Unit Citations for missions against Steyr, Austria and Ploiești, Romania. The group was inactivated in Italy on 29 October 1945.

In the postwar era, the 97th was assigned to Strategic Air Command (SAC) in August 1946, assuming the personnel and Boeing B-29 Superfortresses of the 485th Bombardment Group at Smoky Hill Army Air Field, Kansas. Following a four-month deployment to Alaska, the group moved to Biggs Air Force Base, Texas, where it converted to the improved Boeing B-50 Superfortress. The group became non-operational in February 1951 and was inactivated in June 1952 when its squadrons were assigned directly to its parent, the 97th Bombardment Wing, as SAC reorganized from the wing base organization to the dual deputy wing organization.

The group was redesignated the 97th Operations Group and activated at Eaker Air Force Base, Arkansas on 1 September 1991 when the 97th Wing adopted the USAF Objective Wing organization plan. Under SAC, the group operated Boeing B-52 Stratofortress bombers until January 1992 and Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers until inactivating in April 1992.

The group was activated in October 1992, absorbing the personnel and aircraft of the 443d Operations Group at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma. The unit was assigned to the 97th Air Mobility Wing. At Altus, the group became the airlift and air refueling training group for Air Mobility Command. In 1993, it transferred to the Air Education and Training Command, continuing the same mission.

99th Air Base Wing

The 99th Air Base Wing (99 ABW) is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Air Combat Command (ACC) and its ACC subordinate organization, the United States Air Force Warfare Center. It is based at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada and also serves as the host wing at Nellis.

A non-flying wing, the organization oversees the daily base operations and mission support functions of Nellis AFB such as personnel, finance, civil engineering, security and supply.

The 99 ABW is the successor organization to the World War II 99th Bombardment Group. The group moved to Algeria in May 1943, where the group and its B-17 Flying Fortress aircraft distinguished themselves while flying bombing missions against targets in Italy, Sardinia and Sicily. Then, in December 1943, aircrews moved to Italy and conducted missions throughout Europe. Active for over 60 years, the 99th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing was part of Strategic Air Command's deterrent force during the Cold War, as a strategic reconnaissance wing.

The 99th Air Base Wing is commanded by Col. Cavan K. Craddock. Its Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sergeant Beadles.

Bombing of Bucharest in World War II

The Bucharest World War II bombings were primarily Allied bombings of railroad targets and those of the Oil Campaign of World War II, but included a bombing by Nazi Germany after the royal coup. Bucharest stored and distributed much of Ploiești's refined oil products.


Frantic may refer to:

Frantic (film), a 1988 film directed by Roman Polanski and starring Harrison Ford

Frantic (video game), a Commodore VIC-20 space shoot-em-up video game

Frantic Films, a Canadian Visual Effects company

"Frantic" (song), a song by Metallica

"Frantic" (album), an album by British singer Bryan Ferry

Frantic, an album by Scottish band Gun

Operation Frantic, World War II shuttle bombing missions

Frantic Factory, the third level in Donkey Kong 64

Frantic Magazine, a monthly humour and parody magazine, published in the UK by Marvel UK from 1979 to 1980

Index of World War II articles (O)


OA vz.27

Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Oak Ridge City Center

Oak Ridge High School (Oak Ridge, Tennessee)

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Oakley Hall

Oath of the Horatii

Oaxaca (ship)

OB West

OBD Memorial



Oberkampf (Paris Métro)

Oberkommando der Luftwaffe

Oberkommando der Marine

Oberkommando der Wehrmacht

Oberkommando des Heeres









Obice da 149/12 modello 14

Obice da 210/22

Obice da 75/18 modello 34

Objective, Burma!

Oboe (navigation)

Occult Reich

Occupation of Baltic republics by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Belarus by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Denmark

Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Japan

Occupation of Kharkov

Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany

Occupation of Poland (1939–1945)

Occupation of the Baltic republics by Nazi Germany

Occupation of the Baltic states

Occupation of Vojvodina, 1941-1944

Ochota massacre


Odd Bull

Odd Martinsen

Odd Nansen

Oder-Neisse line


Odette (1950 film)

Odette Sansom

Odile Crick

Odilo Globocnik

Oerlikon 20 mm cannon

Office for Emergency Management

Office of Censorship

Office of Civilian Defense

Office of Military Government, United States

Office of Price Administration

Office of Racial Policy

Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Office of Scientific Research and Development

Office of Strategic Services

Office of War Mobilization

Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War

Official National Front

Offshore Patrol

Oflag 64

Oflag 79

Oflag II-C

Oflag II-D

Oflag II-E

Oflag IV-A

Oflag IV-B Koenigstein

Oflag IV-C

Oflag IV-D

Oflag IX-C

Oflag V-B

Oflag VI-B

Oflag VII-A Murnau

Oflag VII-B

Oflag VII-C

Oflag VII-D

Oflag VIII-E Johannisbrunn

Oflag VIII-F

Oflag X-B

Oflag X-C

Oflag XII-A

Oflag XII-B

Oflag XIII-A


Oflag XVII-A

Oflag XXI-B

Oflag XXI-C


Ogasawara Naganari

Ognevoy-class destroyer

Ognjen Prica



Ohrdruf forced labor camp

Oil Campaign of World War II

Oil Campaign chronology of World War II

Oil Campaign targets of World War II

Oil Plan

Oise-Aisne American Cemetery and Memorial

Oiva Tuominen

Okinawa Bulletins

Okikatsu Arao

Oklahoma World War II Army Airfields

Oku Yasukata

Ola Wærhaug

Olaf Frydenlund

Olaf Hansen

Olav Jordet

Olav V of Norway

Old 666

Ole Øisang

Ole Østmo

Ole Ellefsæter

Ole Lilloe-Olsen

Ole Reistad

Ole Sæther

Oleg Cassini

Oleg Koshevoy

Oleg Protopopov

Oleksander Ohloblyn

Olga Bancic

Olga Benário Prestes

Olga Horak

Olga Lengyel

Olga Pall

Olier Mordrel

Olin J. Eggen

Oliver Goodall

Oliver Hill

Oliver Kessing

Oliver Leese

Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos

Oliver MacDonald

Oliver Makor

Oliver Mitchell

Oliver P. Smith

Oliver Philpot

Olivia Sanchez

Olivier Assayas

Olivier Brouzet

Olivier Gruner

Olivier Lecerf

Olivier Martinez

Olivier Monterrubio

Olle Petrusson

Olli Puhakka

Olof Thörnell

Oluf Wesmann-Kjær

Olympia (painting)

Olympiades (Paris Métro)

Olympic Stadium (Berlin)

Omaha Beach

Omar Bradley

Omelyan Kovch

Omer Nishani

Omnipotent Government

On-to-Ottawa Trek

ON convoys

On the Double (film)

On the Nameless Height

Ona Šimaitė

Once (novel)

Once Before I Die

Once There Was a War

Ondřej Pukl

Ondrej Nepela

One Big Union (Canada)

One of Our Aircraft Is Missing

One Survivor Remembers

One Thousand Children

Only the Brave

Onna Tachiguishi-Retsuden


Opana Radar Site


Opel Blitz

Open Gaz de France

Opera Gallery

Operation Abercrombie

Operation Abstention

Operation Adler

Operation Agreement

Operation Aida

Operation Alpenveilchen

Operation Alpha

Operation Alphabet

Operation Alsos

Operation Ambassador

Operation Amherst

Operation Amsterdam

Operation Anklet

Operation Anthropoid

Operation Aphrodite

Operation Archery

Operation Archway

Operation Arctic Fox

Operation Ariel

Operation Arsenal

Operation Atlantic

Operation Attila (WW II)

Operation August Storm

Operation Autonomous

Operation Backfire (WWII)

Operation Bagration

Operation Bajadere

Operation Baobab

Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barclay

Operation Basalt

Operation Battleaxe order of battle

Operation Battleaxe

Operation Baytown

Operation Bellicose

Operation Belt

Operation Beowulf

Operation Berlin (Atlantic), 1941

Operation Berlin (Arnhem rescue), 1944

Operation Bernhard

Operation Big

Operation Bikini

Operation Biting

Operation Black Tulip

Operation Blackcock

Operation Blackstone

Operation Blockbuster

Operation Bluecoat

Operation Büffel

Operation Boardman

Operation Bodyguard

Operation Bolero

Operation Brevity order of battle

Operation Brevity

Operation Brushwood

Operation Candytuft

Operation Canuck

Operation Capital

Operation Capri

Operation Carpetbagger

Operation Carthage

Operation Cartwheel

Operation Cascade

Operation Catechism

Operation Cerberus

Operation Chahar order of battle

Operation Chahar

Operation Charnwood

Operation Chastise

Operation Chestnut

Operation Chettyford

Operation Christ Rose

Operation Chronicle

Operation Clawhammer

Operation Claymore

Operation Cleanslate

Operation Clipper

Operation Cobra

Operation Cockpit

Operation Cold Comfort

Operation Collar (commando raid)

Operation Collar (convoy)

Operation Colossus

Operation Compass

Operation Constellation

Operation Cooney

Operation Copperhead

Operation Corkscrew

Operation Cornflakes

Operation Corona

Operation Cottage

Operation Crossbow (film)

Operation Crossbow

Operation Crossword

Operation Crusader

Operation Culverin

Operation Cycle

Operation Darkness

Operation Daybreak

Operation Deadlight

Operation Defoe

Operation Delphin

Operation Desecrate One

Operation Diadem order of battle

Operation Diadem

Operation Dingson

Operation Diver

Operation Donnerschlag

Operation Doppelkopf

Operation Dove (Ireland)

Operation Dove

Operation Downfall

Operation Dracula

Operation Dragoon

Operation Driftwood

Operation Dunhill

Operation Eagle Attack

Operation Edelweiss

Operation Eisbär

Operation Eisenhammer

Operation Epsilon

Operation Epsom

Operation Europe: Path to Victory

Operation Excess

Operation Fall Rot

Operation Felix

Operation Ferdinand

Operation Flax

Operation Flintlock (World War II)

Operation Forager

Operation Fortitude

Operation Foxley

Operation Frankton

Operation Frantic Joe

Operation Frantic

Operation Frühlingserwachen

Operation Fustian

Operation Gaff

Operation Gambit

Operation Gauntlet

Operation Goldeneye

Operation Goodwood

Operation Goodwood (naval)

Operation Green (Ireland)

Operation Greif (game)

Operation Greif

Operation Grenade

Operation Gymnast

Operation Haifisch

Operation Hailstone

Operation Halberd

Operation Halyard

Operation Hambone

Operation Hannibal

Operation Harborage

Operation Hardtack (commando raid)

Operation Harpoon (1942)

Operation Harpune

Operation Haudegen

Operation Herbstreise

Operation Herkules

Operation Herring

Operation Himmler

Operation Huckaback

Operation Hurricane (1944)

Operation Husky order of battle

Operation Husky

Operation Ichi-Go

Operation Ikarus

Operation Infatuate

Operation Innkeeper

Operation Ironside

Operation Isabella

Operation Iskra

Operation Jael

Operation Jaywick

Operation Jedburgh

Operation Jehol order of battle

Operation Jericho

Operation Jubilee order of battle

Operation Juneau

Operation Juno

Operation K

Operation Ke

Operation Keelhaul

Operation Keystone

Operation Kiebitz

Operation Konrad

Operation Kremlin

Operation Krohcol

Operation Kutuzov

Operation Ladbroke

Operation Lüttich

Operation Lobster I

Operation Lobster

Operation Lost

Operation Loyton

Operation Lumberjack

Operation Lustre

Operation Lusty

Operation Magic Carpet

Operation Mainau

Operation Majestic

Operation Manna

Operation Maple

Operation Margarethe

Operation Market Garden order of battle

Operation Market Garden

Operation Mars

Operation Matador (disambiguation)

Operation Matterhorn

Operation Mincemeat

Operation Mo

Operation Musketoon

Operation Narcissus

Operation Nelson

Operation Newton

Operation Noah (World War II)

Operation Nordlicht (1942)

Operation Nordlicht (1944–1945)

Operation Nordseetour

Operation Nordwind (1941)

Operation Nordwind

Operation Oboe Six

Operation Obviate

Operation Osprey

Operation Ostfront

Operation Ostra Brama

Operation Outward

Operation Overlord

Operation Pacific

Operation Panzerfaust

Operation Paperclip

Operation Paravane

Operation Pastel

Operation Pastorius

Operation Pedestal

Operation Pegasus

Operation Pelikan

Operation Perch

Operation Persecution

Operation Petticoat

Operation Platinum Fox

Operation Plunder

Operation Pluto

Operation Pointblank

Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev

Operation Polyarnaya Zvezda

Operation Pomegranate (SAS)

Operation Pomegranate

Operation Pugilist

Operation Queen

Operation Quicksilver (WWII)

Operation Rösselsprung (Naval)

Operation Ratweek

Operation Ratweek (1944)

Operation Red Dog

Operation Reinhard

Operation Renntier

Operation Reservist

Operation Resurrection

Operation Retribution

Operation Rimau

Operation Roast

Operation Romeo

Operation Royal Marine

Operation Salaam

Operation Samwest

Operation Saturn

Operation Savannah

Operation Saxifrage

Operation Scavenger

Operation Sea Eagle

Operation Seagull (Ireland)

Operation Seagull I

Operation Seagull II

Operation Seagull

Operation Sealion Order of Battle

Operation Sea Lion

Operation Shamrock

Operation Shingle

Operation Silver Fox

Operation Skagway

Operation Skye

Operation Slapstick

Operation Sledgehammer

Operation Snatch

Operation Solstice

Operation Sonnenblume

Operation Source

Operation Span

Operation Spark (1940)

Operation Speedwell

Operation Sportpalast

Operation Spring

Operation Starvation

Operation Steinbock

Operation Stella Polaris

Operation Stone Age

Operation Stonewall

Operation Strangle

Operation Substance

Operation Surgeon

Operation Tabarin

Operation Tan No. 2

Operation Tanne Ost

Operation Tannenberg

Operation Tempest

Operation Terminal

Operation Tidal Wave

Operation Tiderace

Operation Tombola

Operation Tonga

Operation Torch

Operation Totalize

Operation Tractable

Operation Transom

Operation Tungsten

Operation Typical

Operation Tyr

Operation U-Go

Operation Underworld

Operation Uranus

Operation Varsity

Operation Venezia

Operation Vengeance

Operation Veritable

Operation Vigorous

Operation Vulcan

Operation Walküre

Operation Weserübung

Operation Whale

Operation Wieniec

Operation Wikinger

Operation Wilfred

Operation Willi

Operation Wintergewitter

Operation Wunderland

Operation Währung

Operation Zebra

Operation Zeppelin (Allies)

Operation Zeppelin (Assassination Plot)

Operation Zipper

Operation Zitronella

Operational Zone Adriatic Coast

Operations Reckless and Persecution

Opfer der Vergangenheit

Opposing forces in the Polish September Campaign

Opposition to World War II

Opytny-class destroyer


Opéra (Paris Métro)

Opéra Bastille

Opéra National de Paris


Oradour-sur-Glane massacre

Oranienburg concentration camp

Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire

Orde Wingate

Ordensburg Krössinsee

Ordensburg Sonthofen

Ordensburg Vogelsang

Order 7161

Order No. 227

Order No. 270

Order of Alexander Nevsky

Order of Battle Battle of Pingxingguan

Order of battle Battle of South Shanxi

Order of Battle Battle of Taiyuan

Order of Battle Central Hupei Operation (November 25–30, 1940)

Order of battle Defense of the Great Wall

Order of battle for Amoy Operation

Order of Battle for Battle of Changsha (1939)

Order of Battle for Battle of South Guangxi

Order of battle for Campaign of Northern and Eastern Henan 1938

Order of battle for Campaign of Northern and Eastern Honan 1938

Order of battle for Convoy SC-7

Order of battle for Guangdong Operation

Order of battle for the American airborne landings in Normandy

Order of battle for the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin

Order of battle for the Battle of France

Order of Battle January 28 Incident

Order of battle of Battle of Wuhan

Order of battle of the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin

Order of Battle of the Battle of Lanfeng

Order of battle of the Battle of Shanghai

Order of Battle of the Chindits

Order of battle of the German Ninth Army, October 1941

Order of Battle Peiking – Hankou Railway Operation

Order of battle Peiking – Suiyuan Railway Operation

Order of Battle Suiyuan Campaign (1936)

Order of battle Swatow Operation

Order of Battle Tianjin–Pukou Railway Operation

Order of Battle, Battle of Nanchang

Order of Battle, East African Campaign (World War II)

Order of Battle: Battle of Changde

Order of battle: Battle of Xuzhou

Order of Battle: Battle of Zaoyang-Yichang

Order of Battle: Hundred Regiments Offensive

Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky

Order of Flemish militants

Order of Glory

Order of Kutuzov

Order of Lenin

Order of Nakhimov

Order of Polonia Restituta

Order of Suvorov

Order of the Bath

Order of the British Empire

Order of the Crown of King Zvonimir

Order of the German Eagle

Order of the Golden Kite

Order of the National Hero

Order of the October Revolution

Order of the Patriotic War

Order of the Red Banner

Order of Ushakov

Order of Victory

Orders of battle for Downfall

Orders, decorations, and medals of Nazi Germany

Ordnance ML 3 inch Mortar

Ordnance QF 17 pounder

Ordnance QF 18 pounder

Ordnance QF 2 pounder

Ordnance QF 25 pounder

Ordnance QF 3 pounder Vickers

Ordnance QF 6 pounder

Ordnance QF 75 mm


Ordre de la Libération

Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Organisation Todt

Organization for the Protection of the People's Fighters

Organization of Imperial Japanese Army forces in the Pacific

Organization of Japanese defensive units in Okinawa

Organization of Japanese Expeditionary forces in China

Organization of Japanese forces in Southeast Asia

Organization of Japanese fortifications in New Guinea area

Organization of the China Garrison detachment of the Imperial Japanese Army (to 1937)

Organization of the Imperial Japanese Central China Army

Organization of the Imperial Japanese Navy Alaskan Strike Group

Organization of the Jews in Bulgaria

Organization of the Kwantung Army of Japan

Organization of the Luftwaffe

Organization of the Third Reich

Orglandes German war cemetery

Orgues de Flandre

Original Shaftesbury Theatre

Origins of World War II (game)

Orita M1941

Orlando DiGirolamo

Orlando Executive Airport

Orlando Leopardi

Orlando Ward

Orly - Ouest (Orlyval)

Orly - Sud (Orlyval)

Orly Airport (Paris)


Orme G. Stuart

Ormsby-class attack transport

Oronce Finé

Oroville Municipal Airport

ORP Żbik

ORP Ślązak (L26)

ORP Błyskawica

ORP Burza

ORP Dzik (P52)

ORP General Haller

ORP Grom (1936)

ORP Gryf (1936)

ORP Jaskółka

ORP Jastrząb

ORP Krakowiak (L115)

ORP Kujawiak (L72)

ORP Mazur

ORP Orkan (G90)

ORP Orzeł

ORP Piorun (G65)


ORP Sęp (1938)

ORP Sokół (1940)

ORP Wicher (1928)

ORP Wilk (1929)

Orphism (art)

Orsa-class torpedo boat

Orsay – Ville (Paris RER)

Orson Leon Crandall

Ortrun Enderlein

Orval Faubus

Orval R. Cook

Orvar Trolle

Orville Emil Bloch

Orville Freeman

Oryoku Maru

Orzeł incident

OS2U Kingfisher

Osami Nagano

Oscar C. Badger II

Oscar De Cock

Oscar de Somville

Oscar F. Perdomo

Oscar G. Johnson

Oscar Grégoire

Oscar I of Sweden

Oscar J. Zuniga

Oscar M. Laurel

Oscar Shumsky

Oscar V. Peterson

Oscar van Rappard

Oscar Wilde

Oscarsborg Fortress

Oshima Ken'ichi

Oskar Brüsewitz

Oskar Dinort

Oskar Dirlewanger

Oskar Fried

Oskar Goßler

Oskar Körner

Oskar Kokoschka

Oskar Müller

Oskar Morgenstern

Oskar Rosenfeld

Oskar Schindler

Oskari Friman

Oslo report

Osman Kulenović

Osovets Offensive Operation

OSS Detachment 101



Ost battalion

Oster Conspiracy



Ostmark (Austria)

Ostrogozhsk-Rossosh Operation


Osvaldo Aranha

Osvaldo Ardiles

Oswald Birley

Oswald Boelcke

Oswald Mosley

Oswald Phipps, 4th Marquess of Normanby

Oswald Pohl

Oswald Teichmüller

Oszkár Gerde

Ota Šik

Otakar Batlička

Otakar Jaroš

Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer

Otokar Keršovani

Otomars Oškalns

Ōtori-class torpedo boat

Otozō Yamada


Otter Light Reconnaissance Car

Ottmar Walter

Otto Abetz

Otto Baum

Otto Bertram

Otto Bradfisch

Otto Carius

Otto Ciliax

Otto Dietrich

Otto Špaček

Otto Ernst Remer

Otto Fickeisen

Otto Frank

Otto Freundlich

Otto Georg Thierack

Otto Günsche

Otto Hellmuth

Otto Herschmann

Otto Hitzfeld

Otto Hofmann

Otto Hultberg

Otto John

Otto Königsberger

Otto Kerner, Jr.

Otto Kiep

Otto Kittel

Otto Klemperer

Otto Kretschmer

Otto Kumm

Otto L. Nelson, Jr.

Otto Lasch

Otto Meißner

Otto Müller (wrestler)

Otto Ohlendorf

Otto P. Weyland

Otto Passman

Otto Rahn

Otto Rasch

Otto Robert Frisch

Otto Ruge

Otto Schimek

Otto Schmirgal

Otto Schulz (admiral)

Otto Skorzeny

Otto Steinbrinck

Otto Strasser

Otto Telschow

Otto Tief

Otto Ville Kuusinen

Otto von Bülow

Otto von Knobelsdorff

Otto von Lossow

Otto von Porat

Otto von Stülpnagel

Otto Wöhler

Otto Wagener

Otto Wahle

Otto Weddigen

Otto Weidinger

Otto Wächter

Ou Zhen

Oumar Dieng

Oumar Sène

Oumar Tchomogo

Our Enemy- The Japanese

Our Job in Japan

Ourcq (Paris Métro)

Ours-Pierre-Armand Petit-Dufrénoy

Out Distance

Out of the Ashes (2003 film)

Outer London Defence Ring

Outpost Snipe

Ouvrage Ancien Camp

Ouvrage Anzeling

Ouvrage Arrondaz

Ouvrage Aumetz

Ouvrage Baisse de Saint Veran

Ouvrage Bambesch

Ouvrage Barbonnet

Ouvrage Berenbach

Ouvrage Bersillies

Ouvrage Billig

Ouvrage Bois du Four

Ouvrage Bois Karre

Ouvrage Bousse

Ouvrage Boussois

Ouvrage Bovenberg

Ouvrage Brehain

Ouvrage Cap Martin

Ouvrage Castillon

Ouvrage Cave à Canon

Ouvrage Champ de Tir

Ouvrage Chatelard

Ouvrage Col Agnon

Ouvrage Col de Brouis

Ouvrage Col de Buffere

Ouvrage Col de Crous

Ouvrage Col de Restefond

Ouvrage Col des Banquettes

Ouvrage Col des Gardes

Ouvrage Col du Caire Gros

Ouvrage Col du Fort

Ouvrage Col du Granon

Ouvrage Coucou

Ouvrage Coume Annexe Nord

Ouvrage Coume Annexe Sud

Ouvrage Coume

Ouvrage Denting

Ouvrage Einseling

Ouvrage Eth

Ouvrage Ferme Chappy

Ouvrage Fermont

Ouvrage Flaut

Ouvrage Fontvive Nord-ouest

Ouvrage Four a Chaux

Ouvrage Fressinen

Ouvrage Galgenberg

Ouvrage Gondran

Ouvrage Gordolon

Ouvrage Grand Hohekirkel

Ouvrage Granges Communes

Ouvrage Hackenberg

Ouvrage Haut-Poirier

Ouvrage Hobling

Ouvrage Hochwald

Ouvrage Immerhof

Ouvrage Janus

Ouvrage Kerfent

Ouvrage Kobenbusch

Ouvrage L'Agaisen

Ouvrage La Beole

Ouvrage La Dea

Ouvrage La Moutiere

Ouvrage La Serena

Ouvrage Latiremont

Ouvrage Laudrefang

Ouvrage Le Lavoir

Ouvrage Lembach

Ouvrage Les Aittes

Ouvrage Les Rochilles

Ouvrage Mauvais Bois

Ouvrage Metrich

Ouvrage Michelsberg

Ouvrage Molvange

Ouvrage Mont Agel

Ouvrage Mont des Welches

Ouvrage Monte Grosso

Ouvrage Mottemberg

Ouvrage Oberheid

Ouvrage Otterbiel

Ouvrage Pas du Roc

Ouvrage Plan Caval

Ouvrage Plate Lombard

Ouvrage Reservoir

Ouvrage Restefond

Ouvrage Rimplas

Ouvrage Roche Lacroix

Ouvrage Rochonvillers

Ouvrage Rohrbach

Ouvrage Roquebrunne

Ouvrage Saint Antoine

Ouvrage Saint Gobain

Ouvrage Saint Ours Bas

Ouvrage Saint Ours Haut

Ouvrage Saint Ours Nord-est

Ouvrage Saint Roch

Ouvrage Sainte Agnes

Ouvrage Salmagne

Ouvrage Sapey

Ouvrage Sarts

Ouvrage Schiesseck

Ouvrage Schoenenbourg

Ouvrage Sentzich

Ouvrage Simserhof

Ouvrage Soetrich

Ouvrage Teting

Ouvrage Valdeblore

Ouvrage Village Coume

Ouvrage Welschhof

Ouvry Lindfield Roberts

Ova A. Kelley

Over Here (TV serial)

Overloon War Museum

Overlord (1994 video game)

Oveta Culp Hobby

Ovitz family

OVP (firearm)

Owen Chamberlain

Owen J. Baggett

Owen submachine gun

Owen Tudor Boyd

Owen W. Siler

Ox Emerson

Oxmo Puccino

Oy Insinööritoimisto Ratas

List of air operations during the Battle of Europe

This World War II timeline of European Air Operations lists notable military events in the skies of the European Theater of Operations of World War II from the Invasion of Poland to Victory in Europe Day. The list includes combined arms operations, defensive anti-aircraft warfare, and encompasses areas within the territorial waters of belligerent European states.1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945

Miskolc Tiszai railway station

The Tiszai Railway Station, operated by Hungarian State Railways, is the larger of two railway stations of the city of Miskolc, Hungary. Despite its name, the station is not close to the river Tisza; it was named after the company that built it.

Myrhorod Air Base

Myrhorod Airport (Ukrainian: Аеропорт «Миргород») (IATA: MXR) is an airport located approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) southeast of Myrhorod, in the Poltava region of Ukraine. The date the airfield was constructed is not known.


Poltava (UK: , US: ; Ukrainian: Полтава [polˈtɑwɐ]; Russian: Полтава [pɐlˈtavə]) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine. It is the capital city of the Poltava Oblast (province) and of the surrounding Poltava Raion (district) of the oblast. Poltava is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. It has a population of 289,000.

Poltava Air Base

Poltava Air Base (Ukrainian: Авіабаза «Полтава», Russian: Авиабаза «Полтава») is a military airfield located approximately 8 km (5.0 mi) northwest of Poltava, Ukraine. It is one of two airfields near Poltava, the other being Poltava Airport.

Poltava Museum of Long-Range and Strategic Aviation

The Poltava Museum of Long-Range and Strategic Aviation (Ukrainian: Museum of the most important bombardment) – the museum of Long-Range Aviation equipment located in the city of Poltava on the territory of the former air base "Poltava-4".

Until 2004, the 13th Guards Dnepropetrovsk-Budapest Order of Suvorov had a heavy bomber aviation division based at the air base. It consisted of 18 Tu-22M3 and 6 Tu-16.

According to the Ukrainian-American Agreement on the Elimination of Strategic Nuclear Weapons, in February 2006, at the Poltava military airfield, the last Tu-22M3 bomber Ukrainian Air Force was cut. For the museum exhibition 2 bomber was saved, a few were brought from other cities.

In 2007, a museum was created on the territory of the former airbase thanks to the enthusiasm of former military pilots.

As of January 2014 and the exposition of the aviation museum includes 9 aircraft, aircraft cruise missiles (KSR-2, KSR-5, X-22) and aerial bombs weighing from 100 to 9000 kg.

Pyriatyn Airport

Pyriatyn Airport was an airfield located approximately 12 km (7.5 mi) south of Pyriatyn, Ukraine. Satellite imagery appears to show that it has been abandoned.

Shuttle bombing

Shuttle bombing is a tactic where bombers fly from their home base to bomb a first target and continue to a different location where they are refuelled and rearmed. The aircraft may then bomb a second target on the return leg to their home base. Some examples of operations which have used this tactic are:

Operation Bellicose, June 1943: The first shuttle bombing mission of World War II, flown by the Royal Air Force (RAF). On the night of 20/21 June the RAF bombers departed from their bases in the United Kingdom and bombed Friedrichshafen, landing in Algeria, where they refuelled and rearmed. On the return leg they bombed the Italian naval base at La Spezia.

Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission, 17 August 1943: The 4th Bombardment Wing of the Eighth Air Force using B-17s equipped with "Tokyo (fuel) tanks" for longer range, attacked the Messerschmitt Bf 109 plants in Regensburg and then flew on to bases in Bône, Berteaux and Telergma (French Algeria). Most of the aircraft that had been damaged were stranded due to the poor repair facilities in Algeria and some of them were never returned to service. Eight days later, on 24 August, on the way back to their bases in Great Britain, the surviving B-17s bombed targets in Bordeaux.

Operation Frantic, from June to September 1944: This was a series of air raids conducted by United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) bombers based in Britain or the Mediterranean which then landed at bases built by the Americans in Ukraine in the Soviet Union. As a military operation it made possible eighteen strong attacks on important strategic targets in Germany which would otherwise have been immune.

The Warsaw Airlift, August to September 1944: During the Warsaw Uprising the Frantic airbases were used for an airdrop to the Poles fighting in the city. On 17 September 1944 70 B-17s and 57 P-51s flew without bombs from Italy and landed safely in the United Kingdom. On 18 September 107 of 110 B-17s dropped 1,248 containers of supplies to Polish forces in Warsaw and flew on to the USSR losing one B-17 with seven more damaged. The next day 100 B-17s and 61 P-51s left the USSR and bombed the marshalling yard at Szolnok in Hungary as they returned to bases in Italy.

Operation Paravane, September 1944: A variation on the concept. On 11 September 1944 No. 9 Squadron RAF and No. 617 Squadron RAF flew from their home bases in Scotland to a temporary base at Yagodnik, near Archangel in the Soviet Union. From there, on 15 September, they bombed the German battleship Tirpitz in a Norwegian fjord and continued on back to Scotland.While shuttle bombing offered several advantages, allowing distant targets to be hit and complicating the Axis defence arrangements, it posed a number of practical difficulties, not least the awkward relations between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. The operations were concluded in September 1944 after a three-month period and not repeated.

United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe

For the current active command, see United States Air Forces in Europe

The United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) was a formation of the United States Army Air Forces. It became the overall command and control authority of the United States Army Air Forces in Europe during World War II.

USSTAF had started as the Eighth Air Force, a complementary command to that of the smaller Ninth Air Force, Twelfth Air Force, and Fifteenth Air Forces. As the oldest command, which had begun the earliest American operations in Europe as VIII Bomber Command, the Eighth had provided British liaison and strategic tasking guidance to each of those younger organizations throughout the war.

With the in-depth Allied contacts and overall responsibility directly affecting the strategic bombing of industrial regions of Germany the Eighth's planning and intelligence staffs were the natural best choice to assert overall coordinated control with the D-Day Operation Overlord needs of the Allies, under General Dwight D. Eisenhower as Supreme Allied Commander. Subsequently, the strategic bombing effort's intelligence, targeting and planning, co-ordination, including mission designation command and control were separated—not without controversy and opposition—from actual operations commands in direct control of air forces on 23 February 1944. The new command was organized on the large nucleus of Eighth Air Force planning staff members, thereby creating the USSTAF—at which time the USSTAF was also given mission planning control over other US Air Forces opposing Germany and Italy, and shrinking the man-power assigned to the Eighth Air Force.

The USSTAF was established with the redesignation of the former VIII Bomber Command as the Eighth Air Force on 22 February 1944. The strategic planning command staff of what had formerly been the Eighth Air Force became a higher echelon command coordinating with the British in the target prioritization of the strategic bombing of the Axis. In this expanded role, USSTAF exercised operational control of the reorganized Eighth Air Force, administrative control of the Ninth Air Force in the European Theater of Operations and, to an extent, the operations of Twelfth and Fifteenth Air Forces in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations—all of which had theretofore carried out their own strategic planning. VIII Fighter Command was brought under the command of the newly redesignated Eighth Air Force, while VIII Bomber Command was inactivated.

Beginning in March 1944, Air Service Command, USSTAF progressively took over all base service functions. IX Air Force Service Command did away with its base air depot area and on 17 May transferred its most important installations (Baverstock and Filton) to ASC, USSTAF, which continued to use them to provide base services for the Ninth.Note:

There is some controversy about the USSTAF insignia/emblem. Most sources state the letters stand for United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe. However, there is evidence indicating -- at least initially -- it was United States Strategic & Tactical Air Forces.

[1] Flight magazine article. UK, April 1944. [2] Armed Forces Insignia/Freedom’s War. Graphic on card, US Army photo. USA, 1944. [3] Il Bombardemento Strategico. E. Bonaiti. Italy, circ.2006. [4] Air Support in the Invasion. Air intelligence summary, w/e 18 June 1944. (Quoted in Trident Scholar report. US Naval Academy, Annapolis, 1994.) [5] Alliance Review. Article, USSTAF veteran quoted. Ohio, July 2012. [6] Rome News-Tribune. Article, USSTAF veteran quoted. Georgia, June 2019. [7] Gordon Ellis, USSTAF veteran, to this contributor. [8] Ralph Scott, USSTAF veteran, to this contributor.

Warsaw Uprising

The Warsaw Uprising (Polish: Powstanie Warszawskie; German: Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Polish: Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation. The uprising was timed to coincide with the retreat of the German forces from Poland ahead of the Soviet advance. While approaching the eastern suburbs of the city, the Red Army temporarily halted combat operations, enabling the Germans to regroup and defeat the Polish resistance and to raze the city in reprisal. The Uprising was fought for 63 days with little outside support. It was the single largest military effort taken by any European resistance movement during World War II.The Uprising began on 1 August 1944 as part of a nationwide Operation Tempest, launched at the time of the Soviet Lublin–Brest Offensive. The main Polish objectives were to drive the Germans out of Warsaw while helping the Allies defeat Germany. An additional, political goal of the Polish Underground State was to liberate Poland's capital and assert Polish sovereignty before the Soviet-backed Polish Committee of National Liberation could assume control. Other immediate causes included a threat of mass German round-ups of able-bodied Poles for "evacuation"; calls by Radio Moscow's Polish Service for uprising; and an emotional Polish desire for justice and revenge against the enemy after five years of German occupation.Initially, the Poles established control over most of central Warsaw, but the Soviets ignored Polish attempts to make radio contact with them and did not advance beyond the city limits. Intense street fighting between the Germans and Poles continued. By 14 September, the eastern bank of the Vistula River opposite the Polish resistance positions was taken over by the Polish troops fighting under the Soviet command; 1,200 men made it across the river, but they were not reinforced by the Red Army. This, and the lack of air support from the Soviet air base five-minutes flying time away, led to allegations that Joseph Stalin tactically halted his forces to let the operation fail and allow the Polish resistance to be crushed. Arthur Koestler called the Soviet attitude "one of the major infamies of this war which will rank for the future historian on the same ethical level with Lidice."Winston Churchill pleaded with Stalin and Franklin D. Roosevelt to help Britain's Polish allies, to no avail. Then, without Soviet air clearance, Churchill sent over 200 low-level supply drops by the Royal Air Force, the South African Air Force, and the Polish Air Force under British High Command, in an operation known as the Warsaw Airlift. Later, after gaining Soviet air clearance, the U.S. Army Air Force sent one high-level mass airdrop as part of Operation Frantic.

Although the exact number of casualties is unknown, it is estimated that about 16,000 members of the Polish resistance were killed and about 6,000 badly wounded. In addition, between 150,000 and 200,000 Polish civilians died, mostly from mass executions. Jews being harboured by Poles were exposed by German house-to-house clearances and mass evictions of entire neighbourhoods. German casualties totalled about 2,000 soldiers killed and missing. During the urban combat, approximately 25% of Warsaw's buildings were destroyed. Following the surrender of Polish forces, German troops systematically levelled another 35% of the city block by block. Together with earlier damage suffered in the 1939 invasion of Poland and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943, over 85% of the city was destroyed by January 1945 when the course of the events in the Eastern Front forced the Germans to abandon the city.

Warsaw airlift

The Warsaw Airlift was a British-led operation to re-supply the besieged Polish resistance Home Army (AK) in the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi Germany during the Second World War, after nearby Soviet forces chose not to come to its aid. It took place between 4 August and 28 September 1944 and was conducted by Polish, British, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand and South African airmen flying from Celone and Brindisi in Italy and denied flyover rights from their Soviet allies, who shot at them when the planes entered Soviet airspace. On 18 September, in the final stages of the Nazis crushing the uprising, one United States airdrop was launched from Great Britain and landed at Poltava in Soviet Ukraine as the distance to the drop-zone precluded the aircraft returning to base. The flights from Italy were night operations with low level cargo drops, conducted without fighter escort while the single United States Army Air Forces mission of 18 September 1944 was a high-altitude (and therefore largely inaccurate), daylight operation consisting of 107 B-17s protected by P-51 fighters. From the night of 13/14 September, Soviet aircraft flew some supply drops, dropping about 130 tons in total until 27/28 September. Initially, this cargo was dropped without parachutes, resulting in much of the payload being damaged or destroyed.

Allied aircraft dropped a total of 370 tons of supplies in the course of the two months of operations, of which at least 50% fell into German hands. The airlift proved to be ineffective and could not provide sufficient supplies to sustain the Polish resistance, who were overrun by Nazi forces on 2 October 1944. The airlift was further hampered by the Soviet Union not allowing Western Allies the use of its airfields for several weeks, forcing flights to operate at extended ranges from Italy and Britain and in so doing, reducing payload and limiting the number of sorties. Churchill refused to airlift in Polish troops who had taken refuge in the UK and wanted to join the uprising. An estimated 360 airmen and 41 British, Polish, South African and American aircraft were lost.


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