Operation Colorado/Lien Ket 52 was a US Marine Corps and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) operation that took place in the Hiệp Đức District, lasting from 6–22 August 1966 planned by Major General Lewis J. Fields, Commanding General of 1st Marine Division.
On 30 July 1966 the 5th Marine Regiment was instructed to begin planning a search and destroy operation in the Hiệp Đức and Song Ly Ly vallies with the ARVN 2nd Division to locate and engage the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) 2nd Division. The operation plan called for the ARVN 2nd and 4th Battalions supported by the 2nd and 3rd APC Troops of the 4th Armored Cavalry to advance southwest from Thăng Bình towards Quế Sơn where 3 Vietnamese Marine Battalions would form blocking positions. Meanwhile, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines would be landed by helicopters southwest of Hiệp Đức and they would move eastwards towards the ARVN, with the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines reinforcing if required.:213-4
On the morning of 6 August after preparatory air and artillery strikes, helicopters from MAG-16 and MAG-36 began ferrying the Vietnamese and U.S. Marines to their landing zones. The Vietnamese Marines were heavily engaged on landing, killing 50 and capturing 20 PAVN from the 1st Battalion, 3rd Regiment before breaking contact at nightfall.:216
On the morning of 7 August the Vietnamese Marines moved north towards the hamlet of Thach Thu'ong (3) which the PAVN were believed to have fortified. The attack was delayed due to heavy rains and poor visibility prevented airstrikes until the afternoon. The Vietnamese made a frontal attack on the hamlet but were driven back twice before withdrawing to allow artillery and airstrikes to hit the PAVN positions.:216
On the morning of the 8th the Vietnamese Marines secured Thach Thu'ong (3) with no opposition as the PAVN had retreated during the night. 37 PAVN bodies were located in the village.:216 Also that day after 2 days without enemy contact the 2/5 Marines returned to Tam Kỳ.:217
At 08:30 as the 1/5 Marines which had been deployed in the Quế Sơn Valley with no enemy contact was preparing to move from Đại Đồng east towards Route 1 it began to receive harassment fire. By 15:00 as the Marine column approached the hamlet of Cam Khe in a heavy rainstorm approximately 30 PAVN were seen running across a paddyfield and were engaged by the Marines. Soon the entire Regiment was fighting the PAVN at close quarters, unable to call in supporting arms because of the poor visibility. At 17:30 the rains lifted and UH-1 gunships from VMO-6 and A-4s from MAG-12 began hitting the PAVN positions. By nightfall the PAVN had disengaged with the loss of over 100 dead, while the Marines had lost 14 dead and 65 wounded.:217–9
At 10:30 two PAVN Battalions engaged the Vietnamese Marine/ARVN Cavalry force near Vinh Huy in an all-day battle before disengaging at nighfall. South Vietnamese losses were 26 dead and 54 wounded while over 140 PAVN bodies were left behind.:219
Operation Lien Ket concluded on 14 August with the Vietnamese Marines/ARVN returning to Thăng Bình. Operation Colorado concluded on 22 August the Marines had suffered 99 dead and 212 wounded and the PAVN 283 killed.:220
The 2nd Division (Vietnamese: Sư đoàn 2) was a division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN)—the army of the nation state of South Vietnam that existed from 1955 to 1975. It was part of the I Corps that oversaw the northernmost region of South Vietnam, the centre of Vietnam.Charles F. Widdecke
Charles Fred Widdecke (May 11, 1919 - May 13, 1973) was a highly decorated officer of the United States Marine Corps who reached the rank of major general. Widdecke received the Navy Cross, the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat, for his actions during the Recapture of Guam in July 1944. He later commanded the 1st Marine Division at the end of Vietnam War.Chu Lai Base Area
Chu Lai Base Area (also known as Chu Lai Combat Base, Kỳ Hà Air Facility, or simply Chu Lai or Kỳ Hà) is a former U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Army and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) base in Chu Lai in central Vietnam.Flaming Gorge Dam
Flaming Gorge Dam is a concrete thin-arch dam on the Green River, a major tributary of the Colorado River, in northern Utah in the United States. Flaming Gorge Dam forms the Flaming Gorge Reservoir, which extends 91 miles (146 km) into southern Wyoming, submerging four distinct gorges of the Green River. The dam is a major component of the Colorado River Storage Project, which stores and distributes upper Colorado River Basin water.
The dam takes its name from a nearby section of the Green River canyon, named by John Wesley Powell in 1869. It was built by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation between 1958 and 1964. The dam is 502 feet (153 m) high and 1,285 feet (392 m) long, and its reservoir has a capacity of more than 3.7 million acre feet (4.6 km3), or about twice the annual flow of the upper Green. Operated to provide long-term storage for downstream water-rights commitments, the dam is also a major source of hydroelectricity and is the main flood-control facility for the Green River system.
The dam and reservoir have fragmented the upper Green River, blocking fish migration and significantly impacting many native species. Water released from the dam is generally cold and clear, as compared to the river's natural warm and silty flow, further changing the local riverine ecology. However, the cold water from Flaming Gorge has transformed about 28 miles (45 km) of the Green into a "Blue Ribbon Trout Fishery". The Flaming Gorge Reservoir, largely situated in Flaming Gorge National Recreation Area, is also considered one of Utah and Wyoming's greatest fisheries.Herman Poggemeyer Jr.
Herman Poggemeyer Jr. (April 22, 1919 - April 2, 2007) was a decorated officer in the United States Marine Corps with the rank of Major General. A veteran of three wars, he was severely wounded during the Recapture of Guam in July 1944. Poggemeyer later distinguished himself during Korean War and Vietnam and reached the general's rank in early 1970s. He completed his career as Commanding general, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune.Lewis J. Fields
Lewis Jefferson Fields (October 1, 1909 - March 5, 1988) was a highly decorated officer of the United States Marine Corps with the rank of lieutenant general. He served with 1st Marine Division during Vietnam War and later as Commanding General of United States Marine Corps Development and Education Command.List of allied military operations of the Vietnam War (1966)
This article is a list of known military operations of the Vietnam War in 1966, conducted by the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States and their allies.List of allied military operations of the Vietnam War (G–L)
This article is a list of known military operations of the Vietnam War conducted by the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States and their assorted allies. This is not a complete list. Operations are currently listed alphabetically, but are being progressively reorganised as a chronology.Republic of Vietnam Marine Division
The Republic of Vietnam Marine Division (RVNMD, Vietnamese: Sư Đoàn Thủy Quân Lục Chiến [TQLC]) was part of the armed forces of South Vietnam. It was established by Ngo Dinh Diem in 1954 when he was Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam, which became the Republic of Vietnam in 1955. The longest-serving commander was Lieutenant General Le Nguyen Khang. In 1969, the VNMC had a strength of 9,300, 15,000 by 1973., and 20,000 by 1975.The Marine Division trace their origins to French-trained Commandos Marine divisions recruited and placed under the command of the French Navy but officially incorporated in 1960. From 1970 onwards, the South Vietnamese marines and Airborne Division grew significantly, supplanting the independent, Central Highlands based Vietnamese Rangers as the most popular elite units for volunteers. Along with the Airborne the Marine Division formed the General Reserve with the strategic transformation under Vietnamization, with elite and highly-mobile units meant to be deployed in People's Army of Vietnam attacking points and incursions. By then, the level of training had improved considerably and U.S. General Creighton Abrams who oversaw Vietnamization stated that South Vietnam's Airborne and Marines had no comparable units to match it in the PAVN.This division had earned a total of 9 U.S. presidential citations, with the 2nd Battalion "Crazy Buffaloes" earning two.Richard A. Pittman
Master Sergeant Richard Allan Pittman (May 26, 1945 – October 13, 2016) was a United States Marine who received the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions on July 24, 1966 during the Vietnam War.Western Pacific Airlines
Western Pacific Airlines, or WestPac, started scheduled passenger flights on April 28, 1995, with eight Boeing 737-300s. The low-cost airline was formed in 1994 under the name Commercial Air, changed to Western Pacific. Edward Gaylord of Gaylord Entertainment Company was involved in the formation and management of Western Pacific. Its headquarters were in unincorporated El Paso County, Colorado, near Colorado Springs.Originally based at Colorado Springs Airport, Western Pacific routes were mainly west of the Mississippi River. Routes were extended to the eastern U.S. and on the west coast as new Boeing 737-300 aircraft were acquired. At one point the airline leased Boeing 727-200 jetliners as well. The airline declared bankruptcy in February 1998 and ceased operations.Wind power in Colorado
The US state of Colorado has vast wind energy resources and the installed electricity capacity and generation from wind power in Colorado has been growing significantly in recent years. The growth has been sustained due to a combination of falling costs (69% reduction from 2009 to 2018), continuing federal incentives (similar to those supporting most other resource development), and the state's aggressive renewable portfolio standard that requires 30% of the state's electricity to come from renewable sources by 2020.Wind power accounted for 14.2% of total electricity generated in Colorado during 2015.
Its share increased to more than 17% for years 2016 thru 2018. As of the end of 2018, more than three times as much power is produced by wind within the state as is produced from all other renewable sources combined.The cities of Pueblo, Brighton, and Windsor, Colorado are home to four Vestas manufacturing facilities which together employ about 3,500 people as of 2018. Overall, it is estimated that each wind turbine deployed supports about 30 jobs over the course of its lifetime through its manufacturing, supply chain, construction, and operation.
Easter Offensive (1972)
Post-Paris Peace Accords (1973–1974)