Open education

Open education is education without academic admission requirements and is typically offered online. Open education broadens access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems.[1] The qualifier "open" refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning. One aspect of openness or "opening up" education is the development and adoption of open educational resources.

Institutional practices that seek to eliminate barriers to entry, for example, would not have academic admission requirements. Such universities include the Open University in Britain, and Athabasca University, Thompson Rivers University, Open Learning in Canada. Such programs are commonly (but not necessarily) distance learning programs like e-learning, MOOC and OpenCourseWare. Whereas many e-learning programs are free to follow, the costs of acquiring a certification may be a barrier. Many open education institutes offer free certification schemes accredited by organisations like UKAS in the UK and ANAB in the United States; others offer a badge.

Open education and flexible learning - Graphic illustration
Open education and flexible learning

History

Even before the computer was developed, researchers at public universities were working at educating citizens through informal education programs. In the early 1900s, 4-H clubs were formed which taught youth the latest in technological advances in agriculture and home economics. The success that the youth had in utilizing "new" methods of farming and home economics, caused their parents to adopt the same practices.

As the 4-H club idea was spreading across the country, Congress passed the Smith-Lever Act. which created the Cooperative Extension Service in the United States Department of Agriculture. The Cooperative Extension Service is a partnership between the USDA, land grant universities in each state, and counties throughout the United States. Through the work of the Cooperative Extension Services and 4-H, people throughout the United States have easy and inexpensive (most often free) access to the latest research done at land-grant universities without having to visit a college campus or attend college courses. The educational programs and resources offered by 4-H and the Cooperative Extension Service meet people where they are, and offer them the opportunity to learn what they want to learn, on their own schedules. In order to meet the changing needs of citizens and the use of new technology, the Cooperative Extension Service has created eXtension, which provides research based, non-biased information on a wide variety of topics to people through the use of the internet.

The ability to share resources on the web at little cost compared to the distribution of hard copies can facilitate open education. An early example of this is the opencourseware program, established in 2002 by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which was followed by more than 200 universities and organizations. Similar to the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities from the Open Access movement, are the goals and intentions from open education specified in the Cape Town Open Education Declaration. MOOC is a more recent form of online course development getting more attention since the fall of 2011 which was followed by a number of non-certificate-granting programs, including edX, Coursera and Udacity.

Learning philosophies

Open education and flexible learning
Open education and flexible learning

Open education is motivated by a belief that learners want to exercise agency in their studies. Specifically, people engaged in the learning process want to conduct inquiries about potential topics of study, to have a hands-on educational experience instead of a strictly textbook-focused education, to take responsibility for their educational decisions, to experience the emotional and physical side of education, to understand how education and community are related, and to have personal choice in the focus of their classroom studies.[2]

These learners do a great deal for one another in promoting learning. Learning in a group environment or contributing to a group is beneficial to each learner. Collaborative group work has substantial benefits, such as increased participation by all group members, better understanding and retention of material, mastery of skills, and increased enthusiasm that can spur the participant on to independent learning. The philosophy of an open education centers on student learning and sees the teacher become the learning assistant. Teachers are to observe, guide, and provide materials for the learners. The teachers should facilitate, not dominate, the learning process. Open education is optimistic in the belief that the freedom of choice and student direction will promote a better quality of learning.[3]

The basis for the learning philosophies of open education can be traced back to the work of educational reformer John Dewey and developmental psychologist Jean Piaget.

Technology utilized

Available technologies for open education are important in the overall efficiency of the program. They promotes an absolute openness in the dissemination of education, eliminating barriers including, but not limited to, cost and access to free and relevant resources.[4] After available technologies have been found, there need to be appropriate applications on the technologies for the specific online education program.

Since open education usually occurs at a different time and different place for most individuals across the world, certain technologies need to be utilized to enhance the program. These technologies are primarily online and serve a variety of purposes. Websites and other computer-based training may be used to provide lecture notes, assessments, and other course materials. Videos are provided and feature speakers, class events, topic discussions, and faculty interviews. YouTube and iTunesU are often used for this purpose. Students may interact through computer conferencing with Skype or Google+, e-mail, online study groups, or annotations on social bookmarking sites. Other course content may be provided through tapes, print, and CDs.

Governments, institutions, and people realize the importance of education. Human knowledge is crucial to producing competent leaders, innovators, and teachers. Educational systems must provide each individual the chance in building a better life. Technology has made the expansion of educational opportunities easier[5]. Through the Internet, students can easily find information practically on any topic while mentors are capable of sharing their expertise with any student within seconds. Educational materials are disseminated to a global audience without additional costs. Evolving technology makes it possible for learners to interact with the global community in the comfort of their homes. Under distance learning, universities and colleges expand their impact through online courses that people in any country can take[6].

Open education includes resources such as practices and tools that are not hampered by financial, technical, and legal impediments. These resources are used and shared easily within the digital settings. Technology revolutionized techniques in sending receiving information on a daily basis particularly in education. Availability of web resources has transformed everything[7]. Open education is founded on Open Educational Resources (OER) comprised or learning, teaching, and research sources[8]. With Open Education, the costs of textbooks which surged over three times the rate of inflation for many years must not hinder education. Based on the NBC News review of the Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics data, prices of student books increased three times inflation rates from January 1977 until June 2015 reflecting an increase of 1,041 percent[9][10].

OER can possibly address this problem since materials are free online and economical in printed form. Resources intended for buying textbooks can be rechanneled towards technology, enhancing the medium of instructions, and lowering debt[11]. Research studies also showed many students learn more because of their access to quality materials. Technology also has unlimited potentials in raising teaching and learning to a higher level[12].

Drawbacks

There are a number of concerns regarding the implementation of open education systems, specifically for use in developing countries. These include a potential lack of administrative oversight and quality assurance systems for educators/materials in some programs, infrastructure limitations in developing countries, a lack of equal access to technologies required for students' full participation in online education initiatives, and questions regarding the use of copyrighted materials.

See also

References

  1. ^ Open education for a global economy
  2. ^ "Open Education - The Classroom, Philosophical Underpinnings, English Beginnings, The American Experience, Controversies Questions and Criticisms".
  3. ^ "Cooperative Learning: Students Working in Small Groups" (PDF).
  4. ^ Hakim, Sittara (2017). "SAGE Journals: Your gateway to world-class journal research". E-Learning and Digital Media. 14 (4): 244–253. doi:10.1177/2042753017692724.
  5. ^ "How Has Technology Changed Education?". Purdue University Online. 2015-09-21. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  6. ^ "How can technology improve school education?". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  7. ^ "The Digital Learning Challenge: Obstacles to Educational Uses of Content in the Digital Age A Foundational White Paper". cyber.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  8. ^ "Open educational resources | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. 2017-07-20. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  9. ^ "College Textbook Prices Have Risen 1,041 Percent Since 1977". NBC News. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  10. ^ Kingkade, Tyler (2013-01-04). "College Textbook Prices Increasing Faster Than Tuition And Inflation". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  11. ^ "Open Educational Resources (OER)". Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  12. ^ "Open Education - SPARC". SPARC. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
Anadolu University

Anadolu University (Turkish: Anadolu Üniversitesi) is a public university in Eskişehir, Turkey. The university is ranked by Times Higher Education among the best in Turkey.

Axact

Axact (Urdu: ایگزیکٹ‎) is a Pakistan software company that runs numerous websites selling fake academic degrees. As of May 2015, it was being investigated by Pakistan's Federal Investigation Agency. The company also owns the media company BOL Network and sells fake degrees and theses to foreign students.

Cape Town Open Education Declaration

The Cape Town Open Education Declaration is a major international statement on open access, open education and open educational resources. It emerged from a conference on open education hosted in Cape Town on 14 and 15 September 2007 by the Shuttleworth Foundation and the Open Society Institute. The "aim of this meeting [being] to accelerate efforts to promote open resources, technology and teaching practices in education". Individuals and organizations that sign the Declaration share its "statement of principle, a statement of strategy and a statement of commitment".The declaration was "released officially" on January 22, 2008.

As of January 2014, over 2,400 individuals and 250 organisations (including the Wikimedia Foundation) have signed the declaration.

Curriki

Curriki is an online, free, open education service. Curriki is structured as a nonprofit organization to provide open educational resources primarily in support of K-12 education. Curricula and instructional materials are available at the Curriki website to teachers, professional educators, students, lifelong learners, and parents. The majority of the resources on the Curriki site fall under a Creative Commons license. Educational materials are provided by the Curriki community and are peer-reviewed for quality and adherence to standards.

The name Curriki is a portmanteau of the words "curriculum" and "wiki".Curriki's model is to develop curricula through community contributors, and to deliver curricula and open educational resources globally. Anyone with access to the Internet can contribute and use the material found on Curriki to teach themselves or others. Since the materials, which include digital textbooks, learning videos, and interactive resources, are provided in open source, they can be adapted as needed to particular requirements inside or outside of the classroom.

Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators and also learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Formal education is commonly divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then college, university, or apprenticeship.

A right to education has been recognized by some governments and the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age.

Harbin Normal University

Harbin Normal University (HNU) (simplified Chinese: 哈尔滨师范大学; traditional Chinese: 哈爾濱師範大學; pinyin: Hā'ěrbīn Shīfàn Dàxué) is a university located in Harbin, Heilongjiang province.

HNU has 27 Schools and Departments and offers 77 academic majors. It offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctorate degrees. It is a key university of Heilongjiang and is under direct administration of Heilongjiang Province Department of Education. Its predecessor was Hsing-chih Normal School which was named after T'ao Hsing-chih-a famous educationist, and founded in 1946 by the Communist Party of China.

HNU has a decent educational condition and strong faculty, it covers 3.46 million square meters land, has a building area of 150.1 square meters, a total value of 2.435 billion yuan in fixed assets, and teaching and research equipment worth 2.5 billion yuan.

HNU adheres to open education, engaging in comprehensive international communications, and has already built up intimate relationship of educational technology cooperation and academic exchange with more than 70 higher education institutions from 20-odd countries. Three Confucius Institute have been set up by HNU.

Daejin University, a South Korean private university, operates one of its two China campuses on the university grounds, with the other campus located at Soochow University in Suzhou. Daejin maintains its own building with accommodation and classrooms. also Yu Wenxia Miss World 2012 completed a four-year course in Folk Music in this university.

Indira Gandhi National Open University

Indira Gandhi National Open University known as IGNOU, is a Central University located at Maidan Garhi, New Delhi, India. Named after former Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi, the university was established in 1985 with a budget of ₹20 million, after the Parliament of India passed the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act, 1985 (IGNOU Act 1985). IGNOU is run by the central government of India, and with total active enrollment of over 4 million students, claims to be the largest university in the world.IGNOU was founded to serve the Indian population by means of distance and open education, providing higher education opportunities to all segments of society. It also aims to encourage, coordinate and set standards for distance and open education in India, and to strengthen the human resources of India through education. Apart from teaching and research, extension and training form the mainstay of its academic activities. It also acts as a national resource centre, and serves to promote and maintain standards of distance education in India. IGNOU hosts the Secretariats of the SAARC Consortium on Open and Distance Learning (SACODiL) and the Global Mega Universities Network (GMUNET), initially supported by UNESCO.

IGNOU has started a decentralisation process by setting up five zones; north, south, east, west and north-east. The first of the regional headquarters, catering to four southern states, Pondicherry, Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep, is being set up in the outskirts of Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala. The Ministry of HRD has entrusted the responsibility of developing Draft Policy on Open and Distance Learning and Online Courses to IGNOU.

MIT OpenCourseWare

MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW) is an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to publish all of the educational materials from its undergraduate – and graduate-level courses online, freely and openly available to anyone, anywhere. MIT OpenCourseWare is a large-scale, web-based publication of MIT course materials. The project was announced on April 4, 2001 and uses Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike license. The program was originally funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and MIT. Currently, MIT OpenCourseWare is supported by MIT, corporate underwriting, major gifts, and donations from site visitors. The initiative has inspired more than 250 other institutions to make their course materials available as open educational resources through the Open Education Consortium.As of May 2018, over 2,400 courses were available online. While a few of these were limited to chronological reading lists and discussion topics, a majority provided homework problems and exams (often with solutions) and lecture notes. Some courses also included interactive web demonstrations in Java, complete textbooks written by MIT professors, and streaming video lectures.

As of May 2018, 100 courses included complete video lectures. The videos were available in streaming mode, but could also be downloaded for viewing offline. All video and audio files were also available from YouTube, iTunes U and the Internet Archive.

Massive open online course

A massive open online course (MOOC ) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web. In addition to traditional course materials, such as filmed lectures, readings, and problem sets, many MOOCs provide interactive courses with user forums to support community interactions among students, professors, and teaching assistants (TAs), as well as immediate feedback to quick quizzes and assignments. MOOCs are a recent and widely researched development in distance education, first introduced in 2006 and emerged as a popular mode of learning in 2012.Early MOOCs often emphasized open-access features, such as open licensing of content, structure and learning goals, to promote the reuse and remixing of resources. Some later MOOCs use closed licenses for their course materials while maintaining free access for students.

Nalanda Open University

Nalanda Open University (NOU) is a university at Patna in Bihar state, India. It is the only university in Bihar providing education through distance and open education. Nalanda Open University Degree/Diploma /Certificates are eligible for higher studies, public & private sector employment and service promotions. It is recognized by University Grants Commission (UGC). It is a member of Association of Indian Universities which is mainly concerned with the recognition of Degrees/Diplomas awarded by the Universities in India, which are recognized by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, and abroad for the purpose of admission to higher degree courses in Indian Universities.It is an open university which means that it follows an open-door academic policy and is open to everyone for admission with minimum requirements.

It is the second largest open university in India after Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU).It is at present functioning from its camp office which is located at Biscomaun Bhawan, 2nd,3rd,4th and 12th Floors, Patna-800001. However, it is in the process of setting up its own campus after UGC made it mandatory for all universities in India to have their own campuses. New campus of Nalanda Open University is being constructed at Rajgir, Nalanda, Bihar adjacent to the ancient ruins of Nalanda. The campus is around 40 acres in area with building having 1.10-lakh square feet built up space and it is as per the requirement of UGC. It is expected to be completely built by August 2020.A tender has been floated by the university for University Automation System(UAS) software which would enable the university to provide most of its services such as registration of students, issue of admit cards, results, verification of degree, students records, study material, etc online. Software is expected to be in force within a year.

OpenCourseWare

OpenCourseWare (OCW) are course lessons created at universities and published for free via the Internet. OCW projects first appeared in the late 1990s, and after gaining traction in Europe and then the United States have become a worldwide means of delivering educational content.

OpenEd

OpenEd is an online catalog of educational assessments, homework assignments, videos, games and lesson plans aligned to every Common Core standard and several other standards, and includes the only open source formative item bank. The site offers the ability for teachers to assign resources to their students online, letting students take assessments, do homework etc on their own computers or tablets. Assignments done online are graded automatically and presented to the teacher in a mastery chart. OpenEd's slogan mentions "assessment to instruction" meaning, formative assessments given on OpenEd can access OpenEd's large catalog on a per student basis to recommend the right resource to each student individually. The company has stated that functionality of searching the site and most of its resources are free and will continue to be free going forward. However, the company is also distributing premium content from publishers such as Pearson and Houghton Mifflin Harcourt to teachers for $9.95 per month.Currently 450,000 teachers or about 15% of all USA teachers are registered users. Recently, the company has been providing its resources with alignments to other tech companies. The API for finding standard and skill-aligned resources is used by ed tech leaders such as ACT (test), Pearson PLC, Pacific Metrics and many more.

Open data

Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open-source data movement are similar to those of other "open(-source)" movements such as open-source software, hardware, open content, open education, open educational resources, open government, open knowledge, open access, open science, and the open web. Paradoxically, the growth of the open data movement is paralleled by a rise in intellectual property rights. The philosophy behind open data has been long established (for example in the Mertonian tradition of science), but the term "open data" itself is recent, gaining popularity with the rise of the Internet and World Wide Web and, especially, with the launch of open-data government initiatives such as Data.gov, Data.gov.uk and Data.gov.in.

Open data, can also be linked data; when it is, it is linked open data. One of the most important forms of open data is open government data (OGD), which is a form of open data created by ruling government institutions. Open government data's importance is borne from it being a part of citizens' everyday lives, down to the most routine/mundane tasks that are seemingly far removed from government.

Open educational resources

Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. There is no universal usage of open file formats in OER.

The term OER describes publicly accessible materials and resources for any user to use, re-mix, improve and redistribute under some licenses.The development and promotion of open educational resources is often motivated by a desire to provide an alternate or enhanced educational paradigm.

Openness

Openness is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on transparency and free, unrestricted access to knowledge and information, as well as collaborative or cooperative management and decision-making rather than a central authority. Openness can be said to be the opposite of secrecy.

Outline of open educational resources

This outline of open educational resources provides a way of navigating concepts and topics in relation to the open educational resources (OER) movement.

Richard Baraniuk

Richard G. Baraniuk is the Victor E. Cameron Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rice University and the Founder and Director of the open education initiatives OpenStax and Connexions.

Suez Canal University

The Suez Canal University is an Egyptian university serving the Suez Canal area, having its faculties divided among the Suez Canal governorates (Port Said, Suez & Ismailia Governorates). It was established in 1964. It is notable for its non-classic research. It has 48 faculties (16 in Ismaïlia, 13 in Port Said, 10 in Suez and 9 in Arish) with a total number of students reaching 21,325.The University has about 53 special units for research, education and community development.The university also includes number of centers and units which offer different types of services which are:

The Center Of Open Education

Which aim to provide an opportunity of continuing education for anyone who is holding a high school degree or a technical diploma who desires to raise their educational and cultural level and achieve a bachelor's degree grant by the faculties which participates in center's program as well as to give specializations to the bachelor's degree holders who want to have a specialization degrees in the areas which are taught by the Center

Suez Canal University Hospitals

Accredited Suez Canal University Hospitals provides evidence-based health care services that utilize top-notch technologies to serve the Egyptian community

Faculty members and leaders Development Center

which aim to provide continuing professional development opportunities for faculty members and leaders at the university

Information and Communication Technology Center

Which provides all the information about the university and its educational systems and the various details on programs of study various colleges

WikiEducator

WikiEducator is an international online community project for the collaborative development of learning materials, which educators are free to reuse, adapt and share without restriction. WikiEducator was launched in 2006 and is supported by the non-profit Open Education Resource Foundation (OER). A variety of learning resources are available on WikiEducator: direct instructional resources such as lesson plans and full courses, as well as learning-support resources, such as individual school portals and funding proposals.

WikiEducator's stated goal is to build a thriving and sustainable global community dedicated to the design, development and delivery of free content for learning in realisation of a free version of the education curriculum by 2015. The project purports to focus on building capacity in the use of MediaWiki and related free software technologies, developing free content for use in educational institutions and elsewhere, facilitating the establishment of community networks and collaboration, and fostering new technologies.

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