Open communication

In business, open communication (or open access to communication resources) is the ability of anyone, on equal conditions with a transparent relation between cost and pricing, to get access to and share communication resources on one level to provide value added services on another level in a layered communication system architecture. Simply put, Open access plans are to deregulate oligarchy of telecom operators in a bid to give consumers more choices for equipment, services and service vendors or carriers. It will also provide some breathing room for the controversial Net neutrality that has been the central issue between mobile carriers, like AT&T, Verizon and Sprint Nextel, and web media moguls, like eBay, and Google. True open communication is where employees are encouraged to share their thoughts and concerns, both good and bad, without the worry of retaliation from management when the feedback is bad.

Socioeconomic Impact

The concept of Open Access to Communication Resources is central in the ongoing transformation of the communication market from a "vertically integrated" market with a few operators owning and operating everything between the physical medium and the end-user, to an "open horizontal market" with an abundance of actors operating on different levels and providing value added services on top of each other.

Open Access is also a broad approach to policy and regulatory issues that starts from the question: what do we want to bring about outside of purely industry sector concerns? It places an emphasis on: empowering citizens, getting the best from public and private sector contributions and encouraging local innovation, economic growth and investment.

It is not simply about making micro-adjustments to the technical rules of the policy and regulatory framework but seeking to produce fundamental changes in the outcomes that can be delivered through it. Since the advent of World Wide Web (WWW) in the early 1990s, the greatest advantage the web culture has brought about through dot-com boom-and-bust cycles is decentralization that has created more user-centric society, embracing diversity, practicality, voluntarism and egalitarianism in every field across the planet.

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BerliOS (short for "Berlin Open Source") was a project founded by Fraunhofer FOKUS, the Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems located in Berlin, to coordinate the different interest groups in the field of open source software (OSS) and to assume a neutral coordinator function. The target groups of BerliOS were developers and users of open source software on the one side and OSS-related companies on the other.

BerliOS consisted of several subprojects:

Developer, a hosting platform for open source projects similar to, GNU Savannah and JavaForge

DocsWell, a database for open source related documentation

SourceWell, a news service for open source projects

SourceLines, a "best practice" database for successful open source projects

SourceBiz, a list of open source companies

DevCounter, a database of open source developer profiles

OpenFacts, a wiki-based open source knowledge database (using the MediaWiki software)

SourceAgency (beta), a platform for coordinating open source funding

Clandestine abuse

Clandestine abuse is sexual, psychological, or physical abuse "that is kept secret for a purpose, concealed, or underhanded."Child sexual abuse is often kept secret:

A victim of child sexual abuse is under a great deal of pressure to keep the abuse secret. In many cases of child molestation, the molester has threatened to harm the child or a member of the child's family. The molester might have told the child that he would not be believed even if the child did tell. Another common situation is that the molester will tell the child that if the child tells about the abuse, he will get into trouble. The clear message is given to the child that if another person finds out, something bad will happen to the child. This pressure to maintain silence can often be successfully overcome by establishing open communication between children and adults through a proper educational program for children.

Classis Britannica

The Classis Britannica (literally, British fleet, in the sense of 'the fleet in British waters' or 'the fleet of the province of Britannia', rather than 'the fleet of the state of Britain') was a provincial naval fleet of the navy of ancient Rome. Its purpose was to control the English Channel and the waters around the Roman province of Britannia. Unlike modern (and some contemporary Roman) "fighting navies", its job was largely the logistical movement of personnel and support, and keeping open communication routes across the Channel.

There is no literary reference in the classical historians to the Classis Britannica by that name, and archaeological evidence is also tantalizingly scant (although tiles stamped CLBR are common along the east Kent coast and in London, suggesting either government buildings or an early instance of army surplus), meaning that details of its history and form are unfortunately based on a large degree of interpretation.

Direct revelation

Direct revelation is a term used by some Christian churches to express their belief in a communication from God to a person, by words, impression, visions, dreams or actual appearance. Direct revelation is believed to be an open communication between God and man, or the Holy Spirit and man, without any other exterior (secondary) means. Direct revelation from evil spirits can also occur.

Examples of this is seen in God communicating the Ten Commandments to Moses on Mt. Sinai (Exodus 34:4); or the devil communicating knowledge to Jesus Christ during his temptation in the wilderness (Luke 4:1-12) or the appearance of an angel to the wife of Manoah telling her that she shall bear Samson (Judges 13:2). Direct revelation is classified as special revelation, but the word "direct" has come to make this type of revelation distinct.

Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems

The Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems, or FOKUS, is an organization of the Fraunhofer Society. Headquartered in Berlin (Charlottenburg), the institute is engaged in applied research and development in the field of Information and Communications Technology. The institute is jointly led by Prof. Manfred Hauswirth and Prof. Ina Schieferdecker. Manfred Hauswirth also holds a chair in at the Technische Universität Berlin. In addition to her position at Fraunhofer Institute FOKUS, Ina Schieferdecker is also a professor for Quality Engineering of Open Distributed Systems at Technische Universität Berlin. Gerd Schürmann is the institute’s deputy director.

Fraunhofer Society

The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V., "Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research") is a German research organization with 72 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max Planck Society, which works primarily on basic science). With over 25,000 employees, mainly scientists and engineers and with an annual research budget of about €2.3 billion it is the biggest organization for applied research and development services in Europe.

Some basic funding for the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft is provided by the state (the German public, through the federal government together with the states or Länder, "owns" the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft), but more than 70% of the funding is earned through contract work, either for government-sponsored projects or from industry.It is named after Joseph von Fraunhofer who, as a scientist, an engineer, and an entrepreneur, is said to have superbly exemplified the goals of the society.

The organization has seven centers in the United States, under the name "Fraunhofer USA", and three in Asia. In October 2010, Fraunhofer announced that it would open its first research center in South America.

Fraunhofer UK Research Ltd was established along with the Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics, in Glasgow, Scotland, in March 2012.

Henning Schulzrinne

Henning Schulzrinne was the Chief Technology Officer (CTO) for the United States Federal Communications Commission, having been appointed to that role on December 19, 2011 to 2014 Previously he was chair and Julian Clarence Levi Professor of the Computer Science department at Columbia University. He is a co-chair of the Internet Technical Committee of the IEEE Communications Society.

Schulzrinne studied at the German TU Darmstadt in Darmstadt, where he earned his Vordiplom (cf. Diplom), then went on to earn his M.Sc. at the University of Cincinnati and his Ph.D. at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. From 1994 to 1996 he worked in Berlin at the Forschungs-Institut für Offene Kommunikationssysteme (GMD FOKUS), an institute of the now-defunct Gesellschaft für Mathematik und Datenverarbeitung (GMD) and now part of the Fraunhofer Society as Fraunhofer Institute for Open Communication Systems. Schulzrinne is an editor of the Journal of Communications and Networks.

Schulzrinne has contributed to standards. He co-designed the Session Initiation Protocol along with Mark Handley, the Real Time Streaming Protocol, the Real-time Transport Protocol, the General Internet Signaling Transport Protocol,

part of the Next Steps in Signaling protocol suite. Overall, as of November 5, 2015, his publications have been cited over 45,000 times, and he has an h-index of 80.He was elected to ACM Fellow (2014) for contributions to the design of protocols, applications, and algorithms for Internet multimedia.

Illinois Environmental Protection Agency

The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) of the state of Illinois is the primary body concerned with the protection of the environment for the state. The Illinois EPA's mission is "to safeguard environmental quality, consistent with the social and economic needs of the State, so as to protect health, welfare, property and the quality of life."Its stated goals are to:

Provide leadership to chart a new course for clean air which is responsive to relevant needs in Illinois and complies with priority aspects of the Clean Air Act Amendments.

Address outstanding solid and hazardous waste management concerns and participate, as appropriate, in the national deliberations on reauthorization of the hazardous waste program.

Utilize creative means to address the priority needs for clean and safe water in Illinois and participate, as appropriate, in the national deliberations on reauthorization of the water programs.

Enhance capability to fund environmental cleanup, when necessary, and to provide better service for private party actions.

Promote pollution prevention and market-based approaches for continued environmental progress.

Develop an environmental planning capability which emphasizes risk-based analysis, good science and sound data, and open communication and informed participation.The current director of the Illinois EPA is Alec Messina.

Inner source

Inner source is the use of open source software development best practices and the establishment of an open source-like culture within organizations. The organization may still develop proprietary software, but internally opens up its development. The term was coined by Tim O'Reilly in 2000.


OCARI (Open Communication protocol for Ad hoc Reliable industrial Instrumentation) is a low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) communication protocol that derives from the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. It was developed by the following consortium during the OCARI project that is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR):

Électricité de France, project leader


One-RF Technologies, Telit RF

Laboratoire toulousain de technologie et d'ingénierie des systèmes (LATTIS)

Laboratoire d'Informatique, de Modélisation et d'Optimisation des Systèmes (LIMOS)

Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique (INRIA)

Laboratoire de Recherche en InformatiqueSince the end of the Agency project, EDF and INRIA continued to work together with BeamLogic to industrialize OCARI.

Open admissions

Open admissions, or open enrollment, is a type of unselective and noncompetitive college admissions process in the United States in which the only criterion for entrance is a high school diploma or a certificate of attendance or General Educational Development (GED) certificate.

Open door policy (business)

An open door policy (as related to the business and corporate fields) is a communication policy in which a manager, CEO, MD, president or supervisor leaves their office door "open" in order to encourage openness and transparency with the employees of that company. As the term implies, employees are encouraged to stop by whenever they feel the need to meet and ask questions, discuss suggestions, and address problems or concerns with management. An open door policy is typically intended to foster an environment of collaboration, high performance, and mutual respect between upper management and employees.

An open door policy means, literally, that every manager's door is open to every employee. The purpose of an open door policy is to encourage open communication, feedback, and discussion about any matter of importance to an employee.

Open university

An open university is a university with an open-door academic policy, with minimal or no entry requirements. Open universities may employ specific teaching methods, such as open supported learning or distance education. However, not all open universities focus on distance education, nor do distance-education universities necessarily have open admission policies.

Pine Forest High School

Pine Forest High School is a high school in Pensacola, Florida. It was opened in 1975, with the first day of class being 10 November '75.

Pine Forest High is located on Longleaf Drive in a cluster of education buildings. Its neighbors are Longleaf Elementary School, West Florida High School of Advanced Technology George Stone Career Center.

The school was originally designed as a social experiment that included modular classroom walls (without doors on classrooms) in most areas to help promote open communication between teachers and students, as well as to foster the development of better manners and social skills. However, little proof has been offered as to the validity of this idea, and the modular walls were seldom put to use. The school has been renovating and replacing the modular walls with permanent walls.

Additionally, between 2000 and 2004, Pine Forest High School also placed an emphasis on its Journalism program, offering classes for Yearbook, Magazine and Newspaper. Their yearbooks were made in association with Herff-Jones and Jim Owens Photography, which also provided all staging for senior portraits.

Saint Gabriel International School

Saint Gabriel International School, or (simplified Chinese: Saint Gabriel国际学校; traditional Chinese: Saint Gabriel國際學校; pinyin: Saint Gabriel guó jì xué xiào) or SGIS, is recognized by the Department of Education in Pasig City, Philippines, owned by Dr. Mildred A. Go, Ed. D.. It started operations in 2000. It adheres to a global philosophy of education; thus, there is a continuous upgrading of its audio-visual materials to promote a deeper appreciation of countries, history and people, and whenever conditions allow, students are encouraged to go to Xiamen, China for at least two weeks to join the international group of students. The administration maintains an open communication among teachers, students, parents and even the outside community. Based on the results of the government exams given to the Seniors every year, the school falls within the upper 15% compared to all other schools in the Division of Pasig City.

Saint Gabriel International School provides ESL classes for students outside the Philippines including South Korean students. Saint Gabriel International School also provides students with Mandarin Chinese classes. The school has an average of 25 students per class.


Teamwork is the collaborative effort of a team to achieve a common goal or to complete a task in the most effective and efficient way. This concept is seen within the greater framework of a team, which is a group of interdependent individuals who work together towards a common goal. Basic requirements for effective teamwork are an adequate team size (about 6-8 members), available resources for the team to make use of (i.e. meeting space and time, guidance from a supervisor, support from the organization, etc.), and clearly defined roles within the team in order for everyone to have a clear purpose. Teamwork is present in any context where a group of people are working together to achieve a common goal. These contexts include an industrial organization (formal work teams), athletics (sports teams), a school (classmates working on a project), and the healthcare system (operating room teams). In each of these settings, the level of teamwork and interdependence can vary from low (e.g. golf, track and field), to intermediate (e.g. baseball, football), to high (e.g. basketball, soccer), depending on the amount of communication, interaction, and collaboration present between team members.

The Open Communication

The Open Communication Universities Debating Network (Serbian: Отворена комуникација/ Otvorena komunikacija) was founded in 1997 in Belgrade. Founded by both professors and students, it was established as an organization which promotes civic discourse, non-violent communication, critical thinking, argumentative presentation of ideas, public speaking as a form of free speech and the use of parliamentary debate as an educational and promotional tool.


Turkmenistan ( (listen) or (listen); Turkmen: Türkmenistan, pronounced [tʏɾkmɛnɪˈθtɑn]), formerly known as Turkmenia, officially the Republic of Turkmenistan, is a country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west. Ashgabat is the capital and largest city. The population of the country is 5.6 million, the lowest of the Central Asian republics and one of the most sparsely populated in Asia.

Turkmenistan has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times, Merv was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road, a caravan route used for trade with China until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1925, Turkmenistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR); it became independent upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.Turkmenistan possesses the world's sixth largest reserves of natural gas resources. Most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert. From 1993 to 2017, citizens received government-provided electricity, water and natural gas free of charge.The sovereign state of Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (also known as Turkmenbashi) until his death in 2006. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected president in 2007. According to Human Rights Watch, "Turkmenistan remains one of the world’s most repressive countries. The country is virtually closed to independent scrutiny, media and religious freedoms are subject to draconian restrictions, and human rights defenders and other activists face the constant threat of government reprisal." After suspending the death penalty, the use of capital punishment was formally abolished in the 2008 constitution.

Universal Chess Interface

A Universal Chess Interface (UCI) is an open communication protocol that enables chess engines to communicate with user interfaces.

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