In India, open access to scholarly communication has been developing for several decades. During May 2004, two workshops were organised by the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai which laid the foundation for the Open Access movement in India. In 2009, the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research began requiring that its grantees provide open access to funded research. The "Delhi Declaration on Open Access" in South Asia was issued on 14 February 2018, signed by dozens of academics and supporters.
As of April 2018, there are approximately 212 active open access journals produced in India, according to the UK-based Directory of Open Access Journals. Titles include the Indian Journal of Community Medicine, Indian Journal of Medical Research, and Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology.
As of April 2018, there are at least 78 collections of scholarship in India housed in digital open access repositories. They contain journal articles, book chapters, data, and other research outputs that are free to read.
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Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published on behalf of the Indian Academy of Neurology. The journal publishes articles on the subjects of neurology, neuropsychiatry, and neuroimaging. It is indexed with Abstracts on Hygiene and Communicable Diseases, CAB Abstracts, Caspur, CINAHL, DOAJ, EBSCO, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, Expanded Academic ASAP, JournalSeek, Global Health, Google Scholar, Health & Wellness Research Center, Health Reference Center Academic, Hinari, Index Copernicus, Indian Science Abstracts, IndMed, Journal Citation Reports, MANTIS, OpenJGate, PubMed, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scimago Journal Ranking, SCOLOAR, Scopus, SIIC databases, Tropical Diseases Bulletin, and Ulrich's Periodicals Directory.Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (IAST: vaigyanik tathā audyogik anusandhāna pariṣada) abbreviated as CSIR was established by the Government of India in September of 1942 as an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India.
As of 2013, it runs 38 laboratories/institutes, 39 outreach centers, 3 Innovation Centers and 5 units throughout the nation, with a collective staff of over 14,000, including a total of 3987 scientists and 6454 technical and support personnel. Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, 1860.The research and development activities of CSIR include aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary of DST took additional charge as director general of CSIR, with effect from August 24, 2018.In terms of Intellectual property, CSIR has 2971 patents in force internationally and 1592 patents in force in India.In late 2007, the Minister of Science and Technology, Kapil Sibal stated, in a Question Hour session of the Parliament, that CSIR has developed 1,376 technologies/knowledgebase during the last decade of the 20th century.Education in India
Education in India is provided by public schools (controlled and funded by three levels: central, state and local) and private schools. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The approximate ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.
India has made progress in increasing the attainment rate of primary education. In 2011, Approximately 75% of the population, aged between 7 to 10 years, was literate. India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher education has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013, there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment levels of developed nations, a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India's comparatively young population.
At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group. Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private. The private education market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion market.As per the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrollment above 96%. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 229 million students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrollment, and a 19% increase in girl's enrollment. While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned particularly in its government run school system.While more than 95 percent of children attend primary school, just 40 percent of Indian adolescents attend secondary school (Grades 9-12).
Since 2000, the World Bank has committed over $2 billion to education in India. Some of the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day. States of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools.Although there are private schools in India, they are highly regulated in terms of what they can teach, in what form they can operate (must be a non-profit to run any accredited educational institution) and all other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation of government schools and private schools can be misleading.In January 2019, India had over 900 universities and 40,000 colleges. In India's higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. In universities, colleges, and similar institutions affiliated to the federal government, there is a maximum 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at the state level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, which is the highest percentage of reservations in India.Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science (IISc) is a public institute for research and higher education in science, engineering, design, and management. It is a premier scientific research institute in India and has been ranked first in the 'university' and 'overall' category for the last three consecutive years in the NIRF rankings (by the Government of India). It is located in Bangalore, India, and was established in 1909 with active support from Jamsetji Tata and Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. It is also locally known as the "Tata Institute". It was granted the Deemed University status in 1958.Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
The Indian Journal of Anaesthesia is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists. It covers anaesthesiology, critical care medicine, pain and palliative care, disaster management, and trauma and emergency medicine.Indian Journal of Community Medicine
The Indian Journal of Community Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. The journal publishes articles on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology, and social medicine.Indian Journal of Dental Research
The Indian Journal of Dental Research is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Society of Dental Research. It covers orodental diseases, preventive and community dentistry, oral pathology, and dentofacial orthopedics.Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
The Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Dermatologists, Venereologists and Leprologists. The journal covers clinical and experimental dermatology, cutaneous biology, dermatological therapeutics, cosmetic dermatology, dermatopathology, dermatosurgery, pediatric dermatology, photodermatology, and HIV medicine.Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
The Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Medical Microbiology. The journal publishes articles on medical microbiology including bacteriology, virology, phycology, mycology, parasitology, and protozoology.Indian Journal of Medical Research
The Indian Journal of Medical Research is a peer-reviewed online open-access medical journal, available as a print-on-demand compilation. It is published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Council of Medical Research. Since 1977, it has been published monthly with six issues per volume. The journal publishes original "technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues" in biomedical research as well as narrative and evidence-based review articles. The current editor-in-chief is Anju Sharma (Indian Council of Medical Research), who took up the position in January 2012 after previously having served in associate editor positions. In addition to regular issues, the journal publishes special issues and supplements, with the latter published under a different ISSN.Journal of Biosciences
The Journal of Biosciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru, India. The current editor-in-chief is Dr B J Rao. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2015 impact factor of 1.419.All volumes published are available free on the website of the Indian Academy of Sciences, http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci/index.html.List of archives in India
This is a list of archives in India, which collect and store historical documents, photographs, and other media.List of institutions of higher education in India
Below are links to lists of institutions of Higher education in India.List of libraries in India
This is a list of libraries in India.Media of India
Media of India consist of several different types of Indian communications media: television, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and Internet-based Web sites. Many of the media are controlled by large, for-profit corporations which reap revenue from advertising, subscriptions, and sale of copyrighted material. India also has a strong music and film industry. India has more than 70,000 newspapers and over 1600 satellite channels (more than 400 are news channels) and is the biggest newspaper market in the world - over 100 million copies sold each day.The first Indian media were established in the late 18th century with the newspaper Hicky's Bengal Gazette, founded in 1780. Auguste and Louis Lumière moving pictures were screened in Bombay during July 1895; and radio broadcasting began in 1927. Indian media—private media in particular—have been "free and independent" throughout most of their history. The period of emergency (1975–1977), declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the brief period when India's media were faced with potential government retribution.The French NGO Reporters Without Borders compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organisation's assessment of its Press Freedom Index. In 2011-12 India was ranked 131st out of 179 countries, which was a setback from the preceding year, while Freedom house, a U.S.-based NGO rates India, in its latest report, as "Partly Free".Medknow Publications
Medknow Publications also known as Wolters Kluwer Medknow or simply Medknow, is a publisher of academic journals on behalf of learned societies and associations. Previously an independent Indian publisher, Medknow is now part of within Wolters Kluwer's Health Division, and is part of Wolters Kluwer India.
Medknow is not a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. Some, but not all of its journals are listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals. The publisher briefly appeared on Beall's list in 2011, but was taken down, being described as "[a] publisher for many well-respected Indian professional societies and is disseminating abundant, high-quality research."National Digital Library of India
The National Digital library of India (NDLI) is a project under Ministry of Human Resource Development, India. The objective is to integrate several national and international digital libraries in one single web-portal. The NDLI provides free of cost access to many books in English and the Indian languages.Preprint
In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal. The preprint may be available, often as a non-typeset version available free, before and/or after a paper is published in a journal.Science and technology in India
After independence, Jawaharlal Nehru initiated reforms to promote higher education and science and technology in India. The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)—conceived by a 22-member committee of scholars and entrepreneurs in order to promote technical education—was inaugurated on 18 August 1951 at Kharagpur in West Bengal by the minister of education Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. More IITs were soon opened in Bombay, Madras, Kanpur and Delhi as well in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Beginning in the 1960s, close ties with the Soviet Union enabled the Indian Space Research Organisation to rapidly develop the Indian space program and advance nuclear power in India even after the first nuclear test explosion by India on 18 May 1974 at Pokhran.
India accounts for about 10% of all expenditure on research and development in Asia and the number of scientific publications grew by 45% over the five years to 2007. However, according to former Indian science and technology minister Kapil Sibal, India is lagging in science and technology compared to developed countries. India has only 140 researchers per 1,000,000 population, compared to 4,651 in the United States. India invested US$3.7 billion in science and technology in 2002–2003. For comparison, China invested about four times more than India, while the United States invested approximately 75 times more than India on science and technology. The highest-ranked Indian university for engineering and technology in 2014 was the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay at number 16; natural science ranks lower.While India has increased its output of scientific papers fourfold between 2000 and 2015 overtaking Russia and France in absolute number of papers per year, that rate has been exceeded by China and Brazil; Indian papers generate fewer cites than average, and relative to its population it has few scientists.