Open access to scholarly communication in Germany has evolved rapidly since the early 2000s. Publishers Beilstein-Institut, Copernicus Publications, De Gruyter, Knowledge Unlatched, Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information, ScienceOpen, Springer Nature, and Universitätsverlag Göttingen belong to the international Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.
There are a number of collections of scholarship in Germany housed in digital open access repositories. They contain journal articles, book chapters, data, and other research outputs that are free to read. As of March 2018 some 161 institutions in Germany maintain repositories, according to the UK-based Directory of Open Access Repositories.
Listings of German repositories can be found in the Germany-based registries Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) and Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation (DINI), and in international registries Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR), Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), and Open Archives Initiative's OAI-PMH Registered Data Providers. Experts consider BASE the most comprehensive registry for Germany.
In 2012, German repositories with the highest number of digital assets were Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt's elib (46,136 items); ZBW – Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft's EconStor (45,268 items); German Medical Science (41,753 items); Universität Bielefeld's PUB (32,695 items); and Alfred-Wegener-Institut's ePIC (29,480 items). "Most of Germany's open access repositories can be found in the most heavily populated Länder: North Rhine-Westphalia (27), Baden-Württemberg (28) and Bavaria (22)."
The upcoming 2019 "International Conference on Open Repositories" will be held in Hamburg.
All major German research institutions have signed the 2003 Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, including the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation, Fraunhofer Society, German Rectors' Conference, and Max Planck Society.
"The Federal Ministry of Education and Research released its open access strategy paper entitled "Open Access in Germany" on September 20, 2016 which contains a clear commitment to the principles of open access and open science.
"Open-Access-Tage" (Open Access Days) have occurred annually since 2007 in various German-speaking locales, including Berlin, Dresden, Göttingen, Hamburg, Köln, Konstanz, Munich, Regensburg. The 2018 event will be held in Graz, Austria.
In 2007 several German institutions launched the general information website, "Open-access.net". The Allianz der Wissenschaftsorganisationen in 2008 initiated an effort to expand open access in order to "exhaust the potential of digital publishing."
Bielefeld University Library hosts the "Transparent Infrastructure for Article Charges" project, which covers article processing charges for publications of Germany and elsewhere. The project began around 2014.
Key events in the development of open access in Germany include the following:
Berlin 5 Open Access: From Practice to Impact, Padova
News and comment from the worldwide movement for open access to research
The Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (German: Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung) is located in Bremerhaven, Germany, and a member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres. It conducts research in the Arctic, the Antarctic, and the high and mid latitude oceans. Additional research topics are: North Sea research, marine biological monitoring, and technical marine developments. The institute was founded in 1980 and is named after meteorologist, climatologist, and geologist Alfred Wegener.BASE (search engine)
BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine) is a multi-disciplinary search engine to scholarly internet resources, created by Bielefeld University Library in Bielefeld, Germany. It is based on free and open-source software such as Apache Solr and VuFind. It harvests OAI metadata from institutional repositories and other academic digital libraries that implement the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), and then normalizes and indexes the data for searching. In addition to OAI metadata, the library indexes selected web sites and local data collections, all of which can be searched via a single search interface.
Users can search bibliographic metadata including abstracts, if available. However, BASE does not currently offer full text search. It contrasts with commercial search engines in multiple ways, including in the types and kinds of resources it searches and the information it offers about the results it finds. Results can be narrowed down using drill down menus (faceted search). Bibliographic data is provided in several formats, and the results may be sorted by multiple fields, such as by author or year of publication.
Paying customers include EBSCO Information Services who integrated BASE into their EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS). Non-commercial services can integrate BASE search for free using an API. BASE becomes an increasingly important component of open access initiatives concerned with enhancing the visibility of their digital archive collections.On 6 October 2016, BASE surpassed the 100 million documents threshold having indexed 100,183,705 documents from 4,695 content sources.Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities
The Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities (German: Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften), abbreviated BBAW, is the official academic society for the natural sciences and humanities for the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg. Housed in three locations in and around Berlin, Germany, the BBAW is the largest non-university humanities research institute in the region.The BBAW was constituted in 1992 by formal treaty between the governments of Berlin and Brandenburg on the basis of several older academies, including the historic Prussian Academy of Sciences from 1700 and East Germany's Academy of Sciences of the German Democratic Republic from 1946. By this tradition, past members include the Brothers Grimm, Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt, Lise Meitner, Theodor Mommsen, Albert Einstein, and Max Planck. Today the BBAW operates as a public law corporation under the auspices of the German National Academy of Sciences, and has over 300 fellows and 250 additional staff members. Its elected scientific membership has included 78 Nobel laureates.The BBAW operates several subsidiary research centers. Projects include compiling large dictionaries; editing texts from ancient, medieval, and modern history; and editing the classical literature from diverse fields. Notable examples include Inscriptiones Graecae, the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, the German Dictionary (German: Deutsches Wörterbuch), the Ancient Egyptian Dictionary (Altägyptischen Wörterbuch), the bibliography of works by Alexander von Humboldt, and a scholarly edition of the works of Ludwig Feuerbach.Bielefeld University
Bielefeld University (German: Universität Bielefeld) is a university in Bielefeld, Germany. Founded in 1969, it is one of the country's newer universities, and considers itself a "reform" university, following a different style of organization and teaching than the established universities. In particular, the university aims to "re-establish the unity between research and teaching", and so all its faculty teach courses in their area of research. The university also stresses a focus on interdisciplinary research, helped by the architecture, which encloses all faculties in one great structure. It is among the first of the German universities to switch some faculties (e.g. biology) to Bachelor/Master-degrees as part of the Bologna process.
Bielefeld University has started an extensive multi-phase modernisation project, which is to be completed by 2025. A total investment of more than 1 billion euros has been planned for this undertaking.Books in Germany
As of 2018, ten firms in Germany rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: C.H. Beck, Bertelsmann, Cornelsen Verlag, Haufe-Gruppe, Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, Ernst Klett Verlag, Springer Nature, Thieme, WEKA Holding, and Westermann Druck- und Verlagsgruppe. Overall, "Germany has some 2,000 publishing houses, and more than 90,000 titles reach the public each year, a production surpassed only by the United States." Unlike many other countries, "book publishing is not centered in a single city but is concentrated fairly evenly in Berlin, Hamburg, and the regional metropolises of Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, and Munich."Copernicus Publications
Copernicus Publications (also: Copernicus GmbH) is a publisher of scientific literature based in Göttingen, Germany. Founded in 1994, Copernicus Publications currently publishes 28 peer-reviewed open access scientific journals and other publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union.
Copernicus Publications is part of the open-access publishing movement. Initially, the CC-BY-NC was used. In 2007, they switched to the CC-BY attribution license. Copernicus Publications has been described as the largest open access publisher in the Geo- and Earth system sciences, and it is known as one of the first publishers to embrace public peer review.In 2014, one of their journals was terminated under allegations of nepotistic reviewing and malpractice; see Pattern Recognition in Physics#History for details.Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (pronounced [ˌdɔʏtʃə ˈfɔɐ̯ʃʊŋsɡəˌmaɪnʃaft], DFG [ˌdeːʔɛfˈɡeː]; English: German Research Foundation) is a German research funding organization.Econstor
EconStor is a disciplinary repository for Economics and Business Studies which offers research literature in Open Access and makes it findable in various portals and search engines. The service is operated by the ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.The majority of the publications originates from German institutions in economic research and is provided in accordance with usage agreements. Individual researchers can also submit their scholarly papers to EconStor.
EconStor maintains a list of influential journals publishing literature in economics . According to latest criteria toll access journals and open access journals can only be included in EconStor collections/archives on condition that they are indexed in Scopus or SSCI and DOAJ as well. EconStor also feed its data to other databases and portals like EconBiz, Google & Google Scholar, BASE — Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, WorldCat, and OpenAIRE . Report publishers and journals publishing quality research are archived with EconStor e.g., Journal of Choice Modelling, International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences, and Weekly Report - DIW Berlin.
Publications include mostly working papers, discussion papers and conference proceedings, but also articles in journals and theses.
The most important professional association for economists in Germany, the Verein für Socialpolitik (German Economic Association), has been using EconStor since 2010 to publish conference papers submitted for its Annual Meeting online.
One of the most important online dissemination channels for EconStor documents is the database RePEc, where EconStor is also one of the largest content providers.
EconStor counts among the largest repositories in its discipline and in Germany with more than 127,000 full-texts.Education in Germany
The responsibility for the education system in Germany lies primarily with the states (Länder), while the federal government plays a minor role. Optional Kindergarten (nursery school) education is provided for all children between one and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory. The system varies throughout Germany because each state (Land) decides its own educational policies. Most children, however, first attend Grundschule from the age of six to eleven.
German education is very important to the German government. There are many reasons for this, but one main reason behind this is due to the fact that Germany has the world's second oldest population. Many Germans are at the retired age and are not about of the labor market. Even if by 2060, if the population decreases the way that the Federal Statistical Office of Germany believes, the best outcome would still still result in a "decreased working-age population". Because of this the German government has found great importance from the "internationalization of education". Internationalization can help promote immigration to Germany and it can help Germany's labor shortage. Like many other countries, Germany does struggle with low death rates but also low birth rate. Many individuals are living for quite a while and even though that is fortunate for them, it harms the economy. The German population is getting older and simply cannot be supported by its youth. Immigration is seen as a solution to solve this. Internalization not only helps the labor market but also creates schools with a great global connection.
Germany's secondary education is separated into two parts, lower and upper. Lower-secondary education in Germany is meant to teach individuals basic general education and gets them ready to enter upper-secondary education. In the upper secondary level Germany has a vast variety of vocational programs. The format of secondary vocational education is put into a way to get individuals to learn high skills for a specific profession. "Most of Germany highly skilled workforce has gone through the dual system of vocational education and training also known as V.E.T.". Many Germans participate in the V.E.T. programs. These V.E.T. programs are partnered with about 430,000 companies, and about 80 percent of those companies hire individuals from those apprenticeship programs to get a full-time job. This educational system is very encouraging to young individuals because they are able to actively see the fruit of their loom. The education system is encouraging to individuals because they know that most likely a job will be waiting for them when they are done with school. The skills that are gained through these V.E.T. programs are not easily transferable and once a company commits to an employ that came out of these vocational schools, they have a commitment to each other . Germany's V.E.T. programs prove that a college degree is not necessary for a good job and that training individuals for specific jobs could be successful as well German secondary education includes five types of school. The Gymnasium is designed to prepare pupils for higher education and finishes with the final examination Abitur, after grade 12 or 13. The Realschule has a broader range of emphasis for intermediate pupils and finishes with the final examination Mittlere Reife, after grade 10; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education and finishes with the final examination Hauptschulabschluss, after grade 9 and the Realschulabschluss after grade 10. There are two types of grade 10: one is the higher level called type 10b and the lower level is called type 10a; only the higher-level type 10b can lead to the Realschule and this finishes with the final examination Mittlere Reife after grade 10b. This new path of achieving the Realschulabschluss at a vocationally oriented secondary school was changed by the statutory school regulations in 1981 – with a one-year qualifying period. During the one-year qualifying period of the change to the new regulations, pupils could continue with class 10 to fulfil the statutory period of education. After 1982, the new path was compulsory, as explained above.
Other than this, there is the Gesamtschule, which combines the Hauptschule, Realschule and Gymnasium. There are also Förder- or Sonderschulen. One in 21 pupils attends a Förderschule. Nevertheless, the Förder- or Sonderschulen can also lead, in special circumstances, to a Hauptschulabschluss of both type 10a or type 10b, the latter of which is the Realschulabschluss.
The amount of extracurricular activity is determined individually by each school and varies greatly.
Many of Germany's hundred or so institutions of higher learning charge little or no tuition by international comparison. Students usually must prove through examinations that they are qualified.
In order to enter university, students are, as a rule, required to have passed the Abitur examination; since 2009, however, those with a Meisterbrief (master craftsman's diploma) have also been able to apply. Those wishing to attend a "university of applied sciences" must, as a rule, have Abitur, Fachhochschulreife, or a Meisterbrief. If lacking those qualifications, pupils are eligible to enter a university or university of applied sciences if they can present additional proof that they will be able to keep up with their fellow students through a Begabtenprüfung or Hochbegabtenstudium (which is a test confirming excellence and above average intellectual ability).
A special system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung allows pupils on vocational courses to do in-service training in a company as well as at a state school.Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Germany)
"BMBF" redirects here. It can also refer to the British Mountain Bike Federation.The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (German: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung), abbreviated BMBF, is a cabinet-level ministry of Germany. It is headquartered in Bonn, with an office in Berlin. The Ministry provides funding for research projects and institutions (aiming for “research excellence”) and sets general educational policy. It also provides student loans in Germany. However, a large part of educational policy in Germany is decided at the state level, strongly limiting the influence of the ministry in educational matters.Fraunhofer Society
The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e. V., "Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research") is a German research organization with 72 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max Planck Society, which works primarily on basic science). With over 25,000 employees, mainly scientists and engineers and with an annual research budget of about €2.3 billion it is the biggest organization for applied research and development services in Europe.
Some basic funding for the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft is provided by the state (the German public, through the federal government together with the states or Länder, "owns" the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft), but more than 70% of the funding is earned through contract work, either for government-sponsored projects or from industry.It is named after Joseph von Fraunhofer who, as a scientist, an engineer, and an entrepreneur, is said to have superbly exemplified the goals of the society.
The organization has seven centers in the United States, under the name "Fraunhofer USA", and three in Asia. In October 2010, Fraunhofer announced that it would open its first research center in South America.
Fraunhofer UK Research Ltd was established along with the Fraunhofer Centre for Applied Photonics, in Glasgow, Scotland, in March 2012.German Aerospace Center
The German Aerospace Center (German: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.), abbreviated DLR, is the national center for aerospace, energy and transportation research of Germany. Its headquarters are located in Cologne and it has multiple other locations throughout Germany. The DLR is engaged in a wide range of research and development projects in national and international partnerships. In addition to conducting its own research projects, DLR also acts as the German space agency. As such, it is responsible for planning and implementing the German space programme on behalf of the German federal government. As a project management agency, DLR also coordinates and answers the technical and organisational implementation of projects funded by a number of German federal ministries.German Rectors' Conference
The German Rectors' Conference/Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) is the voluntary association of state and state-recognised universities and other higher education institutions in Germany. It currently has 257 member institutions at which more than 96 per cent of all students in Germany are registered.List of libraries in Germany
This is a list of libraries in the Federal Republic of Germany. There is a much more extensive list available on the German Wikipedia. There are about 6,313 public libraries in Germany.List of universities in Germany
This is a list of the universities in Germany, of which there are about seventy. The list also includes German Technische Universitäten (universities of technology), which have official and full university status, but usually focus on engineering and the natural sciences rather than covering the whole spectrum of academic disciplines. Some seventeen German universities rank among top 250 universities in world Highest ranked universities in Germany include some research oriented universities for MS, MBA and Medical and Engineering.The list does not, however, cover the German Fachhochschulen (University of Applied Sciences) or institutions that cover only certain disciplines such as business studies, fine arts, or engineering. Those do not have all of the responsibilities and limitations of universities, and they cannot award doctorate degrees on their own.
In general, public German universities don't charge tuition fees. At many universities this usually also applies to foreign students, though regulations for non-EU foreign citizens differ regionally. Universities may charge small fees for administrative costs.Living Reviews (journal series)
Living Reviews is an open access journal series, which publishes regularly updated peer-reviewed review articles in various fields of science. Its concept of "living" articles takes advantage of web-based electronic publishing and allows authors to update their articles with the latest developments and research findings.
The concept of Living Reviews was developed by Bernard Schutz and Jennifer Wheary, who started the first journal, Living Reviews in Relativity, in 1998 at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics. The series now contains three entries
Living Reviews in Relativity
Living Reviews in Solar Physics
Living Reviews in Computational AstrophysicsIn June 2015, the series was sold to Springer Science+Business Media.Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (German: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck. The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany.According to its primary goal, the Max Planck Society supports fundamental research in the natural, life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 84 (as of December 2017) Max Planck Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. The society's budget for 2015 was about €1.7 billion. As of December 31, 2016, the Max Planck Society employed a total of 22,995 staff, of whom 14,036 were scientists, which represents nearly 61 percent of the total number of employees. 44.3% were female employees and 27% of all of the employees were foreign nationals.The Max Planck Institutes focus on excellence in research. The Max Planck Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and is widely regarded as one of the foremost basic research organizations in the world. In 2018, the Nature Publishing Index placed the Max Planck institutes third worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Harvard University). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences and Harvard University in the Times Higher Education institutional rankings. The Thomson Reuters-Science Watch website placed the Max Planck Society as the second leading research organization worldwide following Harvard University in terms of the impact of the produced research over science fields.The Max Planck Society and its predecessor Kaiser Wilhelm Society hosted several renowned scientists in their fields, including luminaries such as Otto Hahn, Werner Heisenberg, and Albert Einstein.ScienceOpen
ScienceOpen is an interactive discovery environment for scholarly research across all disciplines. It is freely accessible for all and offers hosting and promotional services within the platform for publishers and institutes. The organization is based in Berlin and has a technical office in Boston. It is a member of CrossRef, ORCID, the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, STM Association and the Directory of Open Access Journals. The company was designated as one of “10 to Watch” by research advisory firm Outsell in its report “Open Access 2015: Market Size, Share, Forecast, and Trends.”Walter de Gruyter
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (German: [ˈɡʁɔʏ̯tɐ] or [ˈxʁɔʏ̯tɐ]; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature. The company has its roots in the bookstore of the Königliche Realschule in Berlin, which had been granted the royal privilege to print books by King Frederick II of Prussia in 1749. In 1801 the store was taken over by Georg Reimer. In 1919, Walter de Gruyter (1862–1923) merged it with 4 other publishing houses into the company that became Verlag Walter de Gruyter & Co in 1923, and Walter de Gruyter GmbH in 2012.De Gruyter maintains offices around the globe, in Berlin, Basel, Boston, Munich, Beijing, Warsaw, and Vienna.