Open access in France

In France, open access to scholarly communication is relatively robust and has strong public support.[1], a digital platform for social science and humanities publications, launched in 1999. Hyper Articles en Ligne (HAL) began in 2001. The French National Center for Scientific Research participated in 2003 in the creation of the influential Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities.[1] Publishers EDP Sciences and OpenEdition belong to the international Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association.[2]

Open access publications in France 1990 to 2018 OpenAIRE
Growth of open access publications in France, 1990-2018

Open Repositories

There are a number of collections of scholarship in France housed in digital open access repositories.[3] They contain journal articles, book chapters, data, and other research outputs that are free to read. The main open repository platform in use for French higher education and research institutions is HAL. It hosts over 520 000 fulltext documents and about 1.5 million references. More than 120 institutions have opened their own institutional portals on the HAL platform.

Open access publishing

France's main actor in open access publishing is This set of publishing platforms is specialized in Human and Social Sciences (HSS). It hosts 490 journals, 5,600+ books, 2,600+ blogs and 39,000 events. Openedition is operated by an institutional unit called CLEO, and funded by CNRS, EHESS, Aix Marseille Université and Université d'Avignon. It uses for books and journals a "freemium" business model: most content is available in HTML format for free, and the other formats (pdf, epub) are available to the subscribed institutions.


Key events in the development of open access in France include the following:

  • 1999
    • Creation of the portal by Marin Dacos, with 2 open access journals
  • 2001
  • 2005
  • 2013
    • Signature of a partnership agreement in favour of open archives and HAL by French higher education and research institutions[4]
  • 2016
    • Law for a digital Republic, creating a right for the researchers to submit their accepted manuscripts to institutional repositories, eventually with an embargo period, even if they've signed an copyright transfert agreement.[5]
  • 2018

See also

Open access publications in repositories in France as of 2018 OpenAIRE
Number of open access publications in various French repositories, 2018


  1. ^ a b "OA in France". Open Access in Practice: EU Member States. OpenAIRE. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  2. ^ "Members",, The Hague: Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, retrieved 7 April 2018
  3. ^ "France". Directory of Open Access Repositories. UK: University of Nottingham. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Convention de partenariat en faveur des archives ouvertes et de la plateforme mutualisée HAL" (PDF). Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur, de la recherche et de l'innovation. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  5. ^ "New French Digital Republic Law boosts support for OA and TDM". OpenAIRE blog. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  6. ^ "Big Deal Cancellation Tracking",, US: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, retrieved 30 June 2018
  7. ^ "National plan for open science" (PDF). MESRI. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  8. ^ "Plan S: Accelerating the transition to full and immediate Open Access to scientific publications" (PDF). Science Europe. 4 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  9. ^ "European countries demand that publicly funded research should be free to all". The Economist. 13 September 2018.

Further reading

External links

Centre pour l'Édition Électronique Ouverte

The Centre pour l'Édition Électronique Ouverte (Cléo; English: Centre for Open Electronic Publishing), based in Marseille, France, is overseen by Aix-Marseille University, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, and University of Avignon and the Vaucluse. It produces the open access academic publishing portal, which includes platforms Calenda, Hypotheses, OpenEdition Books, and OpenEdition Journals. OpenEdition focuses on publications in the academic fields of humanities and social sciences. The centre also issues a blog about open access.

Couperin (consortium)

COUPERIN (Consortium unifié des établissements universitaires et de recherche pour l'accès aux publications numériques) (English: Unified Consortium of Higher Education and Research Organizations for Access to Digital Publications) is an academic consortium in France. Formed in 1999, it includes more than 250 universities, research organizations, Grandes écoles (schools), COMUE, and others. The consortium negotiates with publishers the prices and conditions of access to scientific publications and other digital resources for the benefit of its members. It promotes open science, particularly with regard to scientific publications, both nationally and internationally. It is headquartered in Paris.

Education in France

The French educational system is highly centralized and organized, with many subdivisions. It is divided into the three stages of enseignement primaire (primary education), enseignement secondaire (secondary education), and enseignement supérieur (higher education). In French higher education, the following degrees are recognized by the Bologna Process (EU recognition): Licence and Licence Professionnelle (bachelor's degrees), and the comparably named Master and Doctorat degrees. In the program of education of France it doesn't include online school.

Hyper Articles en Ligne

Hyper Articles en Ligne, generally shortened to HAL, is an open archive where authors can deposit scholarly documents from all academic fields. It has a good position in the international web repository ranking.HAL is run by the Centre pour la communication scientifique directe, a French computing centre, which is part of the French National Centre for Scientific Research, CNRS. Other French institutions, such as INRIA, have joined the system. While it is primarily directed towards French academics, participation is not restricted to them.

Documents in HAL are uploaded either by one of the authors with the consent of the others or by an authorized person on their behalf. Since 2017 it's also possible to use, a tool for easy and semi-automated deposit.HAL is a tool for direct scientific communication between academics. A text posted to HAL is normally comparable to that of a paper that an investigator might submit for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal or conference proceedings. A document deposited in HAL will not be subjected to any detailed scientific evaluation, but simply a rapid overview, to ensure that it falls within the category defined above.

An uploaded document does not need to have been published or even to be intended for publication: It may be posted to HAL as long as its scientific content justifies it. But should the article be published, contributors are invited to indicate the relevant bibliographic information and the digital object identifier (DOI).

HAL aims to ensure the long term preservation of the deposited documents that are stored there permanently and will receive a stable web address. Thus, like any publication in a traditional scientific journal, it can be cited in other work.

The free online access to these documents provided by HAL is intended to promote the best possible dissemination of research work; the intellectual property remains that of the authors.

For physics, mathematics and other natural science topics, HAL has an automated depositing agreement with arXiv. A similar agreement exists with PubMed Central for biomedical topics.

Over 120 institutions have their own entrance to HAL, called portals. HAL hosts institutional repositories (for universities, research organisms and units) as well as subject repositories ; one example is the Arts and Humanities eprint repository, hprints.

As an open access repository, HAL complies with the Open Archives Initiative (OAI-PMH) as well as with the European OpenAIRE project.

List of public universities in France

This list of public universities in France refers to the autonomous institutions which are distinguished as being state institutes of higher education and research that practice open admissions, designated "Université" by the French ministry of Higher Education and Research.For other types of institutions of higher education see the list of colleges and universities in France, including the national polytechnic institutes, the grandes écoles (among which are the three universities of technology) or private universities, such as the Catholic universities, the Protestant universities, the private secular universities, and the American University of Paris.

List of universities and colleges in France

This List of universities and colleges in France includes universities and other higher education institutes that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities. They are the backbone of the tertiary education institutions in France.

They are listed as different categories, depending on their administrative status, size and extents of research activity compared to educational activities.

Aside from the nationally funded public education system that provides recognised degrees to the vast majority of students in France and that keeps tuition fees low, there exist private institutes.

Media of France

Compared to other European nations, the French are not avid newspaper readers, citing only 164 adults out of every 1000 as newspaper readers.The French press was healthiest in the aftermath of World War II. A year after the end of the war, 28 papers had a combined circulation of about 7 million. However, seven years later that figure had been nearly halved. This decline was principally due to the greater popularity of the broadcast media and the subsequent diversion of advertising revenues. Since 2000 newly produced free papers have further weakened the established press. Still, 80 daily papers remain, and there are a wide range of weeklies, many of which now feature internet sites.

Regional papers have remained relatively unaffected by the decline, with provincial newspapers commanding a higher degree of reader loyalty. For example, Ouest-France, sells almost twice as many copies as any of the national dailies.

Open data in France

Online access to legal information was implemented in France in 1999 and complemented in 2002. In that regard, France has been at the forefront of Open Data in Europe.

Civic groups like Wikimedia France, Open Street Map France, Libertic or Regards Citoyens had been lobbying for Open Data for many years before public administrations took action.

Amongst public administrations, some cities pioneered the change: Rennes, then Paris thanks to the decision taken by the municipal council on June 8, 2010 relative to the publication of public data and the "Paris Data" portal made public on January 27, 2011.The inter-ministerial Task Force "fr:Etalab", under the authority of the Prime Minister, is in charge of creating and updating the portal for public Open Data , which has been made available since December 5, 2011 and hosts more than 19,000 datasets.

The role of Chief Data Officer in the French public administration was created by decree of September 16, 2014. The Chief Data Officer's attributions were specified so that "He/she may request from administrations that they hand over the inventory of the data they produce, receive, or collect. He/she shall hand in to the Prime Minister a yearly report on the inventory, the governance, the production, the dissemination and the use of data by administrations. Finally, he/she is authorized to conduct experimentations on the use of data, to reinforce the efficiency of public policies, to contribute to a better management of public spending and resources, and to improve the quality of public services provided to citizens." The Open Data Barometer, a project of the Web Foundation, had France ranked 10th in 2013, 4th in 2014 and 2d in 2015. The Open Knowledge Foundation created in 2013 the Open Data Index which compares data availability across countries in which France was ranked 16th in 2013, 3rd in 2014 and 10th in 2015.

Science and technology in France

Science and technology in France has a long history dating back to the Acádémie des Sciences, founded by Louis XIV in 1666, at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. France's achievements in science and technology have been significant throughout the past centuries as France's economic growth and industrialisation process was slow and steady along the 18th and 19th centuries. Research and development efforts form an integral part of the country's economy.

Scientific research in the country is supported by industry, by the network of French universities and by higher education establishments outside the main framework, Grandes écoles.

Projects +

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.