Open-mid central unrounded vowel

The open-mid central unrounded vowel, or low-mid central unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɜ⟩. The IPA symbol is not the digit ⟨3⟩ or the Cyrillic small letter Ze (з). The symbol is instead a reversed Latinized variant of the lowercase epsilon, ɛ. The value was specified only in 1993; until then, it had been transcribed ⟨ɛ̈⟩.

The ⟨ɜ⟩ letter may be used with a raising diacriticɜ̝⟩, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel. It may also be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ɜ̞⟩, to denote the near-open central unrounded vowel.

Conversely, ⟨ə⟩, the symbol for the mid central vowel may be used with a lowering diacritic ⟨ə̞⟩ to denote the open-mid central unrounded vowel, although that is more accurately written with an additional unrounding diacritic ⟨ə̞͑⟩ to explicitly denote the lack of rounding (the canonical value of IPA ⟨ə⟩ is undefined for rounding).

Similarly, the symbol for the near-open central vowel with a raising diacritic ⟨ɐ̝⟩ may be used instead of ⟨ɜ⟩. Again, an additional unrounding diacritic ⟨ɐ̝͑⟩ may be used to explicitly denote the unroundedness, as the canonical value of IPA ⟨ɐ⟩ is also not definited for rounding.

Open-mid central unrounded vowel
ɜ
ɛ̈
ə̞
ɐ̝
IPA number326
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɜ
Unicode (hex)U+025C
X-SAMPA3
KirshenbaumV"
Braille⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Audio sample
source · help

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
ɜ
•
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[2] lig [lə̞χ] 'light' Also described as mid [ə],[3] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. See Afrikaans phonology
Bulgarian[4] пара [pɐ̝ˈra] 'coin' Unstressed allophone of /ɤ/ and /a/.[4] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩ or ⟨ə⟩. See Bulgarian phonology
Chinese Cantonese[5] / sam1 [sɐ̝m˥] 'heart' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩. See Cantonese phonology
Shanghainese[6] [kə̞ʔ˦] 'to reform' Allophone of /ə/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop; may be as open as [ɐ] for some speakers.[7]
Cotabato Manobo[8] [bätɜʔ] 'child' Allophone of /a/ before glottal consonants; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[8]
Dinka Luanyjang[9] [lɜ́ŋ] 'berry' Short allophone of /a/.[9]
Dutch[10] grappig [ˈχɾɑpə̞χ] 'funny' Possible realization of /ə/.[10] See Dutch phonology
English Received Pronunciation[11] bird [bɜːd] 'bird' Sulcalized (the tongue is grooved like in [ɹ]). "Upper Crust RP" speakers pronounce a more open vowel [ɐː], but for most other speakers it is actually mid ([ɜ̝ː]). This vowel corresponds to rhotacized [ɝ] in rhotic dialects.
General American[12][13] bust [bɜst] 'bust' The most common realization of the vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩ in American English. Nevertheless, it is not a standard pronunciation throughout the whole country.[11][14]
Ohio[14]
Most of Texas[14]
Northern Welsh[15] Some speakers.[15] Corresponds to /ə/ or /ʌ/ in other Welsh dialects.[16]
Scottish[17] [bɜ̠st] Somewhat retracted; may be more back /ʌ/ instead.
German Chemnitz dialect[18] passe [ˈb̥ɜsə] '[I] pass' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.
Many speakers[19] herrlich [ˈhɜːlɪç] 'fantastic' Common alternative to the diphthong [ɛɐ̯].[19] See Standard German phonology
Hausa[20] Possible allophone of /a/, which can be as close as [ə] and as open as [ä].[20]
Jebero[21] [ˈkɘnmɜʔ] 'indigenous person' Allophone of /a/ in closed syllables.[21]
Kaingang[22] [ˈɾɜ] 'mark' Varies between central [ɜ] and back [ʌ].[23]
Kalagan Kaagan[24] [mɜˈt̪äs] 'tall' Allophone of /a/; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[24]
Kallahan[25]
Li'o Ke'o[26] [mə̞re] 'dark' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.[26]
Mapudungun[27] ka [ˈkɐ̝ʐɘ̝] 'green' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩ or ⟨a⟩.
Paicî[28] rë [ɾɜ] 'they' (prefix) May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.
Portuguese[29][30] aja [ˈäʒɐ̝] 'act' (subj.) Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Standard[31] măr [mə̞r] 'apple' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩. See Romanian phonology
Transylvanian dialects[32] a [aˈʂɜ] 'such' Corresponds to [ä] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Sama Sibutu[33] [ˈsäpɜw] 'roof' Allophone of /a/; may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[33]
Sindhi[34] [sə̞rə̞] 'funeral' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə⟩.
Temne[35] pȧs [pɜ́s] 'brew' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩.[35]
Xumi Upper[36] [Rbɜ] 'pot, pan'
Yiddish Standard[37] ענלעך [ˈɛnlɜχ] 'similar' Unstressed vowel.[37] See Yiddish phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Wissing (2012), p. 711.
  3. ^ Wissing (2016), section "The rounded and unrounded mid-central vowels".
  4. ^ a b Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  5. ^ Zee (1999), p. 59.
  6. ^ Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  7. ^ Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), pp. 328, 330.
  8. ^ a b Kerr (1988), pp. 110, 113.
  9. ^ a b Remijsen & Manyang (2009), pp. 117, 119.
  10. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 129.
  11. ^ a b Ladefoged (1993), p. 82.
  12. ^ Gordon (2004b), p. 340.
  13. ^ Tillery & Bailey (2004), p. 333.
  14. ^ a b c Thomas (2001), pp. 27–28.
  15. ^ a b Tench (1990), p. 135.
  16. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 380–381.
  17. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 167.
  18. ^ Khan & Weise (2013), p. 236.
  19. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 52.
  20. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999), pp. 90–91.
  21. ^ a b Valenzuela & Gussenhoven (2013), p. 101.
  22. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  23. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  24. ^ a b Wendel & Wendel (1978), p. 198.
  25. ^ Santiago (2010), pp. 1, 8–10.
  26. ^ a b Baird (2002), p. 94.
  27. ^ Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 92.
  28. ^ Gordon & Maddieson (1996), p. 118.
  29. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  30. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  31. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 18.
  32. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  33. ^ a b Allison (1979), p. 82.
  34. ^ Nihalani (1999), p. 132.
  35. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010), p. 249.
  36. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 388.
  37. ^ a b Kleine (2003), p. 263.

References

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  • Baird, Louise (2002), "Kéo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32 (1): 93–97, doi:10.1017/S0025100302000178
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
  • Chen, Yiya; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2015), "Shanghai Chinese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (3): 321–327, doi:10.1017/S0025100315000043
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (7th ed.), Berlin: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4
  • Gordon, Matthew J.; Maddieson, Ian (1996), "The phonetics of Paici", in Maddieson, Ian (ed.), UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages IV, 93, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 111–124
  • Gordon, Matthew (2004b), "The West and Midwest: phonology", in Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W. (eds.), A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter, p. 340, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685
  • Kanu, Sullay M.; Tucker, Benjamin V. (2010), "Temne", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 247–253, doi:10.1017/S002510031000006X
  • Kerr, Harland (1988), "Cotabato Manobo Grammar" (PDF), Studies in Philippine Linguistics, 7 (1): 1–123, archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-11
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze (2013), "Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145
  • Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 261–265, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001385
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1993), A course in phonetics (3rd ed.), Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
  • Nihalani, Paroo (1999), "Sindhi", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 131–134, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Remijsen, Bert; Manyang, Caguor Adong (2009), "Luanyjang Dinka" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (1): 113–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003605, archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-09
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768
  • Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87–96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369
  • Santiago, Paul Julian (2010), The Phonetic Structures of Kalanguya
  • Sarlin, Mika (2014) [First published 2013], "Sounds of Romanian and their spelling", Romanian Grammar (2nd ed.), Helsinki: Books on Demand GmbH, pp. 16–37, ISBN 978-952-286-898-5
  • Schuh, Russell G.; Yalwa, Lawan D. (1999), "Hausa", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 90–95, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Tench, Paul (1990), "The Pronunciation of English in Abercrave", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 130–141, ISBN 1-85359-032-0
  • Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Thomas, Erik R. (2001), An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English, Publication of the American Dialect Society, 85, Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society, ISSN 0002-8207
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  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2013), "Shiwilu (Jebero)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 97–106, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000370
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External links

3 (disambiguation)

3 is a number, numeral, and glyph.

3, three, or III may also refer to:

AD 3, the third year of the AD era

3 BC, the third year before the AD era

March, the third month

Central vowel

A central vowel, formerly also known as a mixed vowel, is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a central vowel is that the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel. (In practice, unrounded central vowels tend to be further forward and rounded central vowels further back.)

E

E (named e , plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is the most commonly used letter in many languages, including Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Latin, Latvian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish.

History of the International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet was created soon after the International Phonetic Association was established in the late 19th century. It was intended as an international system of phonetic transcription for oral languages, originally for pedagogical purposes. The Association was established in Paris in 1886 by French and British language teachers led by Paul Passy. The prototype of the alphabet appeared in Phonetic Teachers' Association (1888b). The Association based their alphabet upon the Romic alphabet of Henry Sweet, which in turn was based on the Phonotypic Alphabet of Isaac Pitman and the Palæotype of Alexander John Ellis.The alphabet has undergone a number of revisions during its history, the most significant being the one put forth at the Kiel Convention in 1989. Changes to the alphabet are proposed and discussed in the Association's organ, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, previously known as Le Maître Phonétique and before that as The Phonetic Teacher, and then put to a vote by the Association's Council.

The extensions to the IPA for disordered speech were created in 1990, with its first major revision approved in 2016.

IPA Extensions

IPA Extensions is a block (0250–02AF) of the Unicode standard that contains full size letters used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Both modern and historical characters are included, as well as former and proposed IPA signs and non-IPA phonetic letters. Additional characters employed for phonetics, like the palatalization sign, are encoded in the blocks Phonetic Extensions (1D00–1D7F) and Phonetic Extensions Supplement (1D80–1DBF). Diacritics are found in the Spacing Modifier Letters (02B0–02FF) and Combining Diacritical Marks (0300–036F) blocks.

With the ability to use Unicode for the presentation of IPA symbols, ASCII-based systems such as X-SAMPA or Kirshenbaum are being supplanted. Within the Unicode blocks there are also a few former IPA characters no longer in international use by linguists.

Kirshenbaum

Kirshenbaum , sometimes called ASCII-IPA or erkIPA, is a system used to represent the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in ASCII. This way it allows typewriting IPA-symbols by regular keyboard. It was developed for Usenet, notably the newsgroups sci.lang and alt.usage.english. It is named after Evan Kirshenbaum, who led the collaboration that created it. The eSpeak open source software speech synthesizer uses the Kirshenbaum scheme.

Latin alpha

Latin alpha (majuscule: Ɑ, minuscule: ɑ) or script a is a letter of the Latin alphabet based on one lowercase form of a, or on the Greek lowercase alpha (α).

List of Latin-script letters

This is a list of letters of the Latin script. The definition of a Latin-script letter for this list is a character encoded in the Unicode Standard that has a script property of 'Latin' and the general category of 'Letter'. An overview of the distribution of Latin-script letters in Unicode is given in Latin script in Unicode.

Mid central vowel

The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ə⟩, a rotated lowercase letter e.

While the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association does not define the roundedness of [ə], it is more often unrounded than rounded. The phonetician Jane Setter describes the pronunciation of the unrounded variant as follows: "[ə] is a sound which can be produced by basically relaxing the articulators in the oral cavity and vocalising." To produce the rounded variant, all that needs to be done in addition to that is to round the lips.

Afrikaans contrasts unrounded and rounded mid central vowels; the latter is usually transcribed with ⟨œ⟩. The contrast is not very stable, and many speakers use an unrounded vowel in both cases.Some languages, such as Danish and Luxembourgish, have a mid central vowel that is variably rounded. In some other languages, things are more complicated, as the change in rounding is accompanied with the change in height and/or backness. For instance, in Dutch, the unrounded allophone of /ə/ is mid central unrounded [ə], but its word-final rounded allophone is close-mid front rounded [ø̜], close to the main allophone of /ʏ/.The symbol ⟨ə⟩ is often used for any unstressed obscure vowel, regardless of its precise quality. For instance, the English vowel transcribed ⟨ə⟩ is a central unrounded vowel that can be close-mid [ɘ], mid [ə] or open-mid [ɜ], depending on the environment.

Naming conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) requires specific names for the symbols and diacritics used in the alphabet.

It is often desirable to distinguish an IPA symbol from the sound it is intended to represent, since there is not a one-to-one correspondence between symbol and sound in broad transcription. The symbol's names and phonetic descriptions are described in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. The symbols also have nonce names in the Unicode standard. In some cases, the Unicode names and the IPA names do not agree. For example, IPA calls ɛ "epsilon", but Unicode calls it "small letter open E".

Near-open central vowel

The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɐ⟩, a rotated lowercase letter a.

In English this vowel is most typically transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʌ⟩, i.e. as if it were open-mid back. That pronunciation is still found in some dialects, but most speakers use a central vowel like [ɐ].

While the IPA does not specify the rounding of [ɐ], its rounded variant has been reported to occur as a phoneme only in Sabiny, which contrasts overshort unrounded and overshort rounded near-open central vowels.In certain languages (e.g. Bulgarian, Cantonese and Portuguese), the symbol ⟨ɐ⟩ is used instead of ⟨ɜ⟩ to denote the open-mid central unrounded vowel.

Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The defining characteristic of an open-mid vowel is that the tongue is positioned one third of the way from an open vowel to a close vowel.

SAMPA chart

The following show the typical symbols for consonants and vowels used in SAMPA, an ASCII-based system based on the International Phonetic Alphabet. Note that SAMPA is not a universal system as it varies from language to language.

Schwa

In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (, rarely or ; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position. An example in English is the vowel sound of the 'a' in the word about. Schwa in English is mainly found in unstressed positions, but in some other languages it occurs more frequently as a stressed vowel.

In relation to certain languages, the name "schwa" and the symbol ə may be used for some other unstressed and toneless neutral vowel, not necessarily mid-central.

Table of vowels

This table lists the vowel letters of the International Phonetic Alphabet.

X-SAMPA

The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA; , /%Eks"s{mp@/) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London. It is designed to unify the individual language SAMPA alphabets, and extend SAMPA to cover the entire range of characters in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The result is a SAMPA-inspired remapping of the IPA into 7-bit ASCII.

SAMPA was devised as a hack to work around the inability of text encodings to represent IPA symbols. Later, as Unicode support for IPA symbols became more widespread, the necessity for a separate, computer-readable system for representing the IPA in ASCII decreased. However, X-SAMPA is still useful as the basis for an input method for true IPA.

Image
Open-mid central unrounded vowel (vector)
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