Open-door academic policy

An open-door academic policy, or open-door policy, is a policy if a university accepting to enroll students without asking for evidence of previous education, experience, or references. Usually, payment of the academic fees (or financial support) is all that is required to enroll.

Universities may not employ the open-door policy for all their courses, and those that have a universal open-door policy where all courses have no entry requirements are called open universities. The policy is seen to be a part of the educational revolution.[1] From the dictionary meaning of the open-door policy, which is the idea of granting access to those who want access to the country freely,[2] a similar idea can be drawn in terms of education.[3]

According to Deepa Rao, the open-door academic policy is one of the main ways in which adult learners become a part of university/college life.[4] The recognized demand for post-secondary education made many institutions commit strongly to the policy, but many concealed limitations in the policy can prevent some from securing a degree.[4]

History

From the beginning of universities and colleges in western countries, during the early parts of the 20th century, higher education was supplied in large amounts. During these times the acceptance of all varieties of students was very limited, yet this approach was coming under pressure due to an increase in the industrial and business industry's demand for highly trained and educated employees.[5] The Civil Rights Movement during the 1960s and the Baby Boom in the 1940s-1950s, also presented further reasoning for the implementation of the open-door academic policy.[5]

In response to these pressures, the colleges and universities lowered standards of admission and offered financial support to try and win back the students. This soon turned into the open-door policy, which became a successful and well used form of recruiting students.[6]

Pros and cons

Positively, the open-door academic policy has enabled a step into higher education such as a bachelor's degree, to those who had been restricted access to these opportunities due to social or economic factors.[5] The policy has also created a sufficient amount of well trained students to fulfill the demand for educated employees for the industrial and business industries.[5]

However, despite its benefits the open-door academic policy has faced its criticism. The graduation rates of colleges are closely tied to their admissions policies. Six years after beginning a four-year program, an average of 60% of students nationwide will have graduated. However, that rate varies from 89% at colleges that accept less than one-quarter of applicants to 36% at those with an open admissions policy.[7] Additionally, the offering of financial support has created a heated issue for higher education due to the requirement for students fees which enable the universities and colleges to stay current with changing technology, employment needs and the fluctuating student population.[5]

Eligibility

The following list indicates the criteria for applicants looking to apply at an open-door university or college:

  • Non-traditional students, for example those who have delayed enrollment (those who did not go straight into university education after completing secondary education)[4]
  • On average, between the ages of 22-29.[4]
  • Usually accompanied by an adult diploma or GED, in place of a normal high school diploma.[4]

This list of criteria will differ depending on the university or college that is being applied for, this is just a general conclusion from one college.[4]

Limiting factors

Limiting factors restrict the student acceptance rate due to the following situations:

  • Funding cuts, which can be supported by further funding. For example, funding through the school e.g. school fairs, raffles etc. Budget rearrangement is also a consideration in terms of allocating a smaller portion of funding for the open-door academic policy courses.
  • Lack of teaching staff, teachers resources, classroom space.
  • Over-subscription.
  • Legal terms restricting access for some students.
  • Waiting lists.
  • Prioritizing of students whom have submitted.
  • Increase in education levels of students who submit.[5]

Notable institutions with open-door policies

The open-door academic policy's requirements can differ not only between different countries, but also between sub-national jurisdictions (states, provinces, regions). The following is a list of some universities and colleges around the world that have an open-door academic policy:

See also

References

  1. ^ Ng, Pedro Pak-Tao (1980). "Open-Door Education in Chinese Communes: Rationale, Problems, and Recent Changes". Modern China. 6 (3): 327–356. JSTOR 189007.
  2. ^ http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/open-door-policy
  3. ^ "open-door policy - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online". www.ldoceonline.com. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "NCSALL: The Open Door Policy". www.ncsall.net. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Hendrick, Ruth Zimmer; Hightower, William H.; Gregory, Dennis E. (2006). "State Funding Limitations and Community College Open Door Policy: Conflicting Priorities?". Community College Journal of Research and Practice. 30 (8): 627–640. doi:10.1080/10668920600746078.
  6. ^ Cohen & Brawer, A & F (2003). The American Community College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  7. ^ "What are the graduation rates for students obtaining a bachelor's degree?". Fast Facts. National Center for Education Statistics. May 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
Alternative pathways in education

Alternative pathways in education are alternative means of obtaining educational qualifications, other than the traditional means of gaining access to or completing the required study to obtain the educational qualifications.

College admissions in the United States

College admissions in the United States refers to the process of applying for entrance to institutions of higher education for undergraduate study at one of the nation's colleges or universities. For people intending to go immediately into college after high school, the college search usually begins in the eleventh grade of high school with most activity taking place during the twelfth grade, although students at top high schools often begin the process during their tenth grade or earlier. In addition, there are considerable numbers of students who transfer from one college to another, as well as adults older than high school age who apply to college. In 2019, there were allegations of a bribery situation which over 50 people were charged for a cheating scheme that appears by the U.S. government to have been in operation for 8 years straight.

Distance education

Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school. Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted (51 percent or more) are either hybrid, blended or 100% distance learning. Massive open online courses (MOOCs), offering large-scale interactive participation and open access through the World Wide Web or other network technologies, are recent developments in distance education. A number of other terms (distributed learning, e-learning, online learning, virtual classroom etc.) are used roughly synonymously with distance education.

Do-it-yourself biology

Do-it-yourself biology (DIY biology, DIY bio) is a growing biotechnological social movement in which individuals, communities, and small organizations study biology and life science using the same methods as traditional research institutions. DIY biology is primarily undertaken by individuals with extensive research training from academia or corporations, who then mentor and oversee other DIY biologists with little or no formal training. This may be done as a hobby, as a not-for-profit endeavour for community learning and open-science innovation, or for profit, to start a business.

Nalanda Open University

Nalanda Open University (NOU) is a university at Patna in Bihar state, India. It is the only university in Bihar providing education through distance and open education. Nalanda Open University Degree/Diploma /Certificates are eligible for higher studies, public & private sector employment and service promotions. It is recognized by University Grants Commission (UGC). It is a member of Association of Indian Universities which is mainly concerned with the recognition of Degrees/Diplomas awarded by the Universities in India, which are recognized by the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, and abroad for the purpose of admission to higher degree courses in Indian Universities.It is an open university which means that it follows an open-door academic policy and is open to everyone for admission with minimum requirements.

It is the second largest open university in India after Indira Gandhi National Open University(IGNOU).It is at present functioning from its camp office which is located at Biscomaun Bhawan, 2nd,3rd,4th and 12th Floors, Patna-800001. However, it is in the process of setting up its own campus after UGC made it mandatory for all universities in India to have their own campuses. New campus of Nalanda Open University is being constructed at Rajgir, Nalanda, Bihar adjacent to the ancient ruins of Nalanda. The campus is around 40 acres in area with building having 1.10-lakh square feet built up space and it is as per the requirement of UGC. It is expected to be completely built by August 2020.A tender has been floated by the university for University Automation System(UAS) software which would enable the university to provide most of its services such as registration of students, issue of admit cards, results, verification of degree, students records, study material, etc online. Software is expected to be in force within a year.

Open College of the Arts

The Open College of the Arts (OCA) is an open learning arts college, with a Head Office in Barnsley in South Yorkshire, England. Founded in 1987 by Michael Young, it is a registered charity and the distance learning partner of the University for the Creative Arts (UCA). As of the 2016/17 academic year, the full cost of a part-time degree with the Open College of the Arts is less than £10,000.

Open admissions

Open admissions, or open enrollment, is a type of unselective and noncompetitive college admissions process in the United States in which the only criterion for entrance is a high school diploma or a certificate of attendance or General Educational Development (GED) certificate.

Open collaboration

Open collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." It is prominently observed in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in Internet forums, mailing lists and online communities. Open collaboration is also thought to be the operating principle underlining a gamut of diverse ventures, including bitcoin, TEDx, and Wikipedia.Open collaboration is the principle underlying peer production, mass collaboration, and wikinomics. It was observed initially in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in Internet forums, mailing lists, Internet communities, and many instances of open content, such as creative commons. It also explains some instances of crowdsourcing, collaborative consumption, and open innovation.Riehle et al. define open collaboration as collaboration based on three principles of egalitarianism, meritocracy, and self-organization. Levine and Prietula define open collaboration as "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." This definition captures multiple instances, all joined by similar principles. For example, all of the elements — goods of economic value, open access to contribute and consume, interaction and exchange, purposeful yet loosely coordinated work — are present in an open source software project, in Wikipedia, or in a user forum or community. They can also be present in a commercial website that is based on user-generated content. In all of these instances of open collaboration, anyone can contribute and anyone can freely partake in the fruits of sharing, which are produced by interacting participants who are loosely coordinated.

An annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of open collaboration is the International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (OpenSym, formerly WikiSym). As per its website, the group defines open collaboration as "collaboration that is egalitarian (everyone can join, no principled or artificial barriers to participation exist), meritocratic (decisions and status are merit-based rather than imposed) and self-organizing (processes adapt to people rather than people adapt to pre-defined processes)."

Open supported learning

Open supported learning is the teaching method employed and pioneered by The Open University (OU), and is not the same as distance education or correspondence courses.

The term open refers to the open-door academic policy of OU, and the term supported refers to the fact that the students receive constant academic attention by academic staff and tutors.

Open university

An open university is a university with an open-door academic policy, with minimal or no entry requirements. Open universities may employ specific teaching methods, such as open supported learning or distance education. However, not all open universities focus on distance education, nor do distance-education universities necessarily have open admission policies.

Open university (disambiguation)

An open university is a university with an open-door academic policy.

Open university may also refer to:

Open University, a public distance-learning and research university based in the United Kingdom

Open University of Diversity, headquarters of Belgian artist Koen Vanmechelen

Open University Press, an academic publisher now owned by McGraw-Hill Education

Sex Worker Open University, a project created by and for sex workers in the United Kingdom

Outline of open educational resources

This outline of open educational resources provides a way of navigating concepts and topics in relation to the open educational resources (OER) movement.

P2P Foundation

P2P Foundation: The Foundation for Peer to Peer Alternatives is an organization with the aim of studying the impact of peer to peer technology and thought on society. It was founded by Michel Bauwens, James Burke and Brice Le Blévennec.The P2P Foundation is a registered institute founded in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Its local registered name is: Stichting Peer to Peer Alternatives, dossier nr: 34264847.

Participatory culture

Participatory culture is an opposing concept to consumer culture — in other words a culture in which private individuals (the public) do not act as consumers only, but also as contributors or producers (prosumers). The term is most often applied to the production or creation of some type of published media. Recent advances in technologies (mostly personal computers and the Internet) have enabled private persons to create and publish such media, usually through the Internet. Since the technology now enables new forms of expression and engagement in public discourse, participatory culture not only supports individual creation but also informal relationships that pair novices with experts. This new culture as it relates to the Internet has been described as Web 2.0. In participatory culture "young people creatively respond to a plethora of electronic signals and cultural commodities in ways that surprise their makers, finding meanings and identities never meant to be there and defying simple nostrums that bewail the manipulation or passivity of "consumers."The increasing access to the Internet has come to play an integral part in the expansion of participatory culture because it increasingly enables people to work collaboratively; generate and disseminate news, ideas, and creative works; and connect with people who share similar goals and interests (see affinity groups). The potential of participatory culture for civic engagement and creative expression has been investigated by media scholar Henry Jenkins. In 2005, Jenkins and co-authors Ravi Purushotma, Katie Clinton, Margaret Weigel and Alice Robison authored a white paper entitled Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. This paper describes a participatory culture as one:

With relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement

With strong support for creating and sharing one's creations with others

With some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the most experienced is passed along to novices

Where members believe that their contributions matter

Where members feel some degree of social connection with one another (at the least they care what other people think about what they have created).

SIM University

SIM University (Abbreviation: UniSIM) was a private university in Singapore from 2005 to 2017. The university was established and managed under the Singapore Institute of Management Group (SIM). It was the only Singapore private university after Nanyang University. It was Singapore's only private university that practices an Open-door academic policy towards working adults. The university only offered part-time programmes.

From 2010 to 2017, UniSIM was registered under the Committee for Private Education (CPE).In 2017, UniSIM was restructured into the sixth autonomous university, Singapore University of Social Sciences (SUSS) and brought under the ambit of the Ministry of Education. Subsequently, SUSS conducted an exercise to issue certificates in SUSS for UniSIM certificates. However, a statement will indicate that these qualifications had been received under the former’s name.

Social peer-to-peer processes

Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic. These peers can be humans or computers. Peer-to-peer (P2P) is a term that originated from the popular concept of the P2P distributed computer application architecture which partitions tasks or workloads between peers. This application structure was popularized by file sharing systems like Napster, the first of its kind in the late 1990s.

The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies in many areas of human interaction. P2P human dynamic affords a critical look at current authoritarian and centralized social structures. Peer-to-peer is also a political and social program for those who believe that in many cases, peer-to-peer modes are a preferable option.

University and college admission

University admission or college admission is the process through which students enter tertiary education at universities and colleges. Systems vary widely from country to country, and sometimes from institution to institution.

In many countries, prospective university students apply for admission during their last year of high school or community college. In some countries, there are independent organizations or government agencies to centralize the administration of standardized admission exams and the processing of applications.

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