An open-access repository or open archive is a digital platform that holds research output and provides free, immediate and permanent access to research results for anyone to use, download and distribute. To facilitate open access such repositories must be interoperable according to the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). Search engines harvest the content of open access repositories, constructing a database of worldwide, free of charge available research.
As opposed to a simple institutional repository or disciplinary repository, open-access repositories provide free access to research for users outside the institutional community and are one of the recommended ways to achieve the open access vision described in the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access. This is sometimes referred to as the self-archiving or "green" route to open access.
The benefits of open-access repositories, as opposed to conventional digital institutional repositories, are:
News and comment from the worldwide movement for open access to research
Academia.edu is an American social networking website for academics. The platform can be used to share papers, monitor their impact, and follow the research in a particular field. It was launched in September 2008, with 39 million unique visitors per month as of January 2019 and over 21 million uploaded texts. Academia.edu was founded by Richard Price, who raised $600,000 from Spark Ventures, HOWZAT Partners, Brent Hoberman, and others.Anita Coleman
Anita Coleman is an Indian American academic librarian, faculty and researcher in digital libraries. Anita Coleman is also the founder of an interdisciplinary open access repository, dLIST - Digital Library of Information Science and Technology.Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
The Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (abbreviated BVMC; in English: Miguel de Cervantes Virtual Library (MCDL)) is a large-scale digital library project, hosted and maintained by the University of Alicante in Alicante, Spain. It comprises the largest open-access repository of digitised Spanish-language historical texts and literature from the Ibero-American world. When officially launched in 1999 the BVMC was the first digital archive of Spanish-language texts on the internet, initially reproducing some 2,000 individual works by 400 of the most significant authors in Spanish, Latin American literary and Hispanic Africa. By 2005–2006 the number of registered and available works had reached over 22,000.
The library is named in honour of Miguel de Cervantes, the famous 16th-century Spanish author and one of the most illustrious names in world literary history.
From its beginning, in 1999, this library has chosen to apply structural markup based on XML and the TEI encoding scheme for the creation of its documents.Digital CSIC
Digital CSIC of Spain is an online open access repository of research produced by the Spanish National Research Council. It began in 2008. The council is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe, and produces a large amount of publications and data.E-LIS
Eprints in Library and Information Science (E-LIS) is an international open access repository for academic papers in Library and Information Science (LIS). Over 12,000 papers have been archived to date. It is freely accessible, aligned with the Open Access (OA) movement and is a voluntary enterprise.Figshare
Figshare is an online open access repository where researchers can preserve and share their research outputs, including figures, datasets, images, and videos. It is free to upload content and free to access, in adherence to the principle of open data. Figshare is one of a number of portfolio businesses supported by Digital Science.German National Library of Science and Technology
The German National Library of Science and Technology (German: Technische Informationsbibliothek), abbreviated TIB, is the national library of the Federal Republic of Germany for all fields of engineering, technology, and the natural sciences. It is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the 16 German states. Founded in 1959, the library operates in conjunction with the Leibniz Universität Hannover. In addition to acquiring scientific literature, it also conducts applied research in such areas as the archiving of non-textual materials, data visualization and the future Internet. The library is also involved in a number of open access initiatives. With a collection of over 9 million items in 2017, the TIB is the largest science and technology library in the world.Hprints
hprints (pronounced in English as aitch prints) is an archive for electronic preprints of academic papers in the fields of arts and humanities. It can be accessed freely via the Internet since it is an open access repository aiming at making scholarly documents publicly available to the widest possible audience.Hyper Articles en Ligne
Hyper Articles en Ligne, generally shortened to HAL, is an open archive where authors can deposit scholarly documents from all academic fields. It has a good position in the international web repository ranking.HAL is run by the Centre pour la communication scientifique directe, a French computing centre, which is part of the French National Centre for Scientific Research, CNRS. Other French institutions, such as INRIA, have joined the system. While it is primarily directed towards French academics, participation is not restricted to them.
Documents in HAL are uploaded either by one of the authors with the consent of the others or by an authorized person on their behalf. Since 2017 it's also possible to use Dissem.in, a tool for easy and semi-automated deposit.HAL is a tool for direct scientific communication between academics. A text posted to HAL is normally comparable to that of a paper that an investigator might submit for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal or conference proceedings. A document deposited in HAL will not be subjected to any detailed scientific evaluation, but simply a rapid overview, to ensure that it falls within the category defined above.
An uploaded document does not need to have been published or even to be intended for publication: It may be posted to HAL as long as its scientific content justifies it. But should the article be published, contributors are invited to indicate the relevant bibliographic information and the digital object identifier (DOI).
HAL aims to ensure the long term preservation of the deposited documents that are stored there permanently and will receive a stable web address. Thus, like any publication in a traditional scientific journal, it can be cited in other work.
The free online access to these documents provided by HAL is intended to promote the best possible dissemination of research work; the intellectual property remains that of the authors.
For physics, mathematics and other natural science topics, HAL has an automated depositing agreement with arXiv. A similar agreement exists with PubMed Central for biomedical topics.
Over 120 institutions have their own entrance to HAL, called portals. HAL hosts institutional repositories (for universities, research organisms and units) as well as subject repositories ; one example is the Arts and Humanities eprint repository, hprints.
As an open access repository, HAL complies with the Open Archives Initiative (OAI-PMH) as well as with the European OpenAIRE project.Institutional repository
An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.An institutional repository can be viewed as a "...a set of services that a university offers to members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members." For a university, this includes materials such as monographs, eprints of academic journal articles—both before (preprints) and after (postprints) undergoing peer review—as well as electronic theses and dissertations. An institutional repository might also include other digital assets generated by academics, such as datasets, administrative documents, course notes, learning objects, or conference proceedings. Deposit of material in an institutional repository is sometimes mandated by that institution.
Some of the main objectives for having an institutional repository are to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving in an open access repository, to create global visibility for an institution's scholarly research, and to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including unpublished or otherwise easily lost ("grey") literature such as theses, working papers or technical reports.List of open-access projects
Some of the most important open-access publishing projects or lists of such projects are listed below.Open Research Online
Open Research Online (ORO) is a repository of research publications run by The Open University (OU).It uses the GNU ePrints software and its repositories use the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.It is an open access repository and it accepts books, journal articles, patents, conference articles, and theses.As of 21 September 2008, 496 of its publications are from the Mathematics and Computing Department of the OU, while over two thousand are from the Science department.Open access in Australia
Open access (OA) has seen extensive growth in Australia since the first open access repository was launched in 2001. There are Open Access policies at the two major research funders: The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian Research Council (ARC) . Around half of Australian Universities have an OA policy or statement; most policies are for Green (repository based) OA and OA has become a fundamental part of the scholarly publishing and research landscape in Australia. The Australasian Open Access Strategy Group (AOASG), the Council of Australia University Librarians (CAUL), and the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) are advocates for Open Access and related issues in Australia.Open access in India
In India, open access to scholarly communication has been developing for several decades. During May 2004, two workshops were organised by the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai which laid the foundation for the Open Access movement in India. In 2009, the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research began requiring that its grantees provide open access to funded research. The "Delhi Declaration on Open Access" in South Asia was issued on 14 February 2018, signed by dozens of academics and supporters.Open access in South Africa
Open access to scholarly communication in South Africa occurs online via journals, repositories, and a variety of other tools and platforms. Compared to other African nations, open access in South Africa has grown quickly in recent years.
According to UNESCO, South Africa is a leading African country in terms of open access policies on the governmental level and grass-roots initiatives in universities and research organizations. South African signatories to the international "Open Access 2020" campaign, launched in 2016, include the South African National Library and Information Consortium (SANLiC) and University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. As of January 2018, there are nine research entities with policies in the international Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies.Registry of Open Access Repositories
The Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) is a searchable international database indexing the creation, location and growth of open access institutional repositories and their contents. ROAR was created by EPrints at University of Southampton, UK, in 2003. It began as the Institutional Archives Registry and was renamed Registry of Open Access Repositories in 2006. To date, over 3,000 institutional and cross-institutional repositories have been registered.As of 2015, ROAR and the UK-based Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR) "are considered the two leading open access directories worldwide. ROAR is the larger directory and allows direct submissions to the directory. OpenDOAR controls submission of materials and is dependent on the discretion of its staff. OpenDOAR requires open access of scholarly publications; whereas ROAR allows other types of materials to be included. ROAR allows filtering by country, type of repository, and sorting by repository name."Social Science Open Access Repository
The Social Science Open Access Repository (SSOAR) is a database specialising in scholarly articles from the social sciences which is freely accessible on the Internet.
SSOAR is a full-text server, and Internet users can access full-text versions of documents free of charge and without prior registration. The repository follows the so-called "Green Road", a strategy for the implementation of Open Access whereby preprints or postprints of scholarly contributions are archived in an openly accessible repository in addition to being published in toll-access journals etc.
Because the project is coordinated by an editorial team and is supported by an advisory board made up of members of scholarly societies, the quality of the contributions is assured.
Moreover, SSOAR offers authors the opportunity to self-archive their texts, to make them freely accessible and, by so doing, to increase the visibility and reach of their work. The project is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).University of Palestine
University of Palestine (UP; Arabic: جامعة فلسطين) is a Palestinian private institution of higher education located in Al-Zahra' (south of Gaza City) . The university was established in 2005.
Each specialization has a supervisory committee of lecturers. There is an IT unit responsible for organizing communication between lecturers and students through the UPINAR Revision and the UPINAR Office Hour, using a technological program developed by these university teams.
University of Palestine offer open access repository for scholarly output by research centers, faculty staff and students. And published Arabic Lightweight OpencoursewareZenodo
Zenodo is a general-purpose open-access repository developed under the European OpenAIRE program and operated by CERN.
It allows researchers to deposit data sets, research software, reports, and any other research related digital artifacts. For each submission, a persistent Digital object identifier (DOI) is minted, which makes the stored items easily citeable.