The Opata are three indigenous peoples of Mexico. Opata territory, the “Opatería” in Spanish, encompasses the mountainous northeast and central part of the state of Sonora, extending to near the border with the United States. Most Opatan towns were situated in river valleys and had an economy based on irrigated agriculture.[1] In the 16th century, when they first met the Spanish explorers, the Opata were the most numerous people in Sonora.[1] Today, some people continue to identify as Opatas and are working to restore aspects of pre-contact Opata culture, and revitalize Opata identity.[2][3] Some sources indicate that as an identifiable ethnic group, the Opata and their language are now extinct, or nearly extinct.[4]

Tehuimas and Tegüimas
Total population
Regions with significant populations
Mexico (Sonora)
Opata and Spanish
Indigenous Religion
Related ethnic groups
Other Chichimecas


At the time of the first contact with the Spanish in the 16th century there were multiple sub-groups of Opata people. However, by the mid 17th century the Spanish identified only three Opatan groups.[5] The largest was the Eudeve (eh-oo-deh-veh), whose ancient villages and current towns encompass the western portions of traditional Opata territory. The Eudeve also referred to themselves for short as Deve. Both names mean "people" in their language.

The second largest group was first known as the Ore, but were later called the Tegüima or Tehuima (teh-wee-mah). Their ancient villages and current towns encompass the northeastern and central portion of Opata territory. Tehuima means "river people."

The smallest Opatan group was the Ova or Jova (ho-vah). Jova means "water people". They originally inhabited eight villages in the southeastern portion of Opata territory. Some of the village names include: Negarachi, Sahuaripa, Teopari, Tutuaca, Xiripa, and Yepomera. A number of the Jova lived in Chihuahua. These people were still independent, and not under Spanish rule, as late as 1678. [6]

During the 18th century the Jova inter-married with neighboring Eudeves to the extent where they merged into one group of people. At that point the Jova no longer could be identified as a distinct indigenous ethnic group.


The Opata language is a Uto-Aztecan language, related to neighboring languages such as O'odham, Tarahumara, Tepehuan, Yaqui and Mayo, among others.

The name of the Eudeve dialect is Dohema. The Tehuimas spoke Tehuima, and the Jovas spoke Jova. The Eudeve and Tehuima languages were closely related, as "different as Portuguese and Spanish." Jova was a more distinct language.[7]

During the 1993 census in Mexico, 12 persons claimed to be “Opata” speakers, but this is widely considered to be an error in the census count.

Professor Manuel García Madrid, an Opata from Sonora, has published a linguistic text on the Tehuima dialect. American linguistic anthropologist David L. Shaul has done extensive research and published much material on the Eudeve dialect. Field anthropologist Campbell Pennington researched and published much information on the Opatan peoples and their dialects during the latter part of their history.

As the three Opatan dialects were similar, and all three groups lived adjacent to one another, Franciscan missionaries had by about 1800 lumped them together into one group they called "Opata."[8] Several Franciscan missionary records and subsequent anthropological accounts state that “Opata” was borrowed from a Pima Indian word meaning “enemy,” the name allegedly given by the northern and southern Piman peoples to their Opatan neighbors. However, according to Opatan oral traditionalists, “Opata” is the name some Tehuima villages gave to themselves and means “iron people,” since iron ore was abundant in Opata territory, and Opata spear tips were made from iron ore. Thus, those Tehuima people were also known as “the iron spear people.” Some anthropological texts state that the “Opata” referred to themselves collectively in their own language as “Joylraua.” However, according to Opata oral traditionalists, Joylraua was the name of an ancient Eudeve village named after an honored chieftain of that village.

Opata population

Population estimates for Opatería at the time of Spanish contact range from 20,000 to 70,000, with most estimates nearer the higher figure. The Opatas were the most numerous of the several indigenous groups in the state of Sonora, and the river valleys of their territory were densely populated with their permanent villages. Disease, war, and famine reduced the aboriginal population of Opatería to 6,000 by 1764.[9] Today, there are no known full-blooded Opatas left, but mestizo descendants still make up the majority population of traditional Opata territory. Many Opata descendants reside in other parts of Sonora, greater Mexico, and the southwestern United States, particularly in Arizona, where their ancestors migrated to work in agriculture and mining.


At the time of first contact with the Spanish in the mid-16th century, the Opatería was a land of “statelets” – a number of independent, agricultural towns scattered up and down the inland valleys of the Sonora and other rivers. There were at least 5 Opata statelets, and 4 others which were either Opata, Pima, or mixed.[10] The statelets had populations of several thousand people, and consisted of towns surrounded by dispersed dwellings, and irrigated cropland on which the Opata grew corn, squash, beans, and cotton.[11] The Jova, however, were a more dispersed people, living in more rugged terrain, and depended more on hunting and gathering than the other Opata groups.[12]

The Opata fiercely resisted the expedition of Spanish explorer Francisco Ibarra in 1565 and for a period of 60 years thereafter, the Spanish made no further attempts to conquer the Opatería. However, during that period, the statelets declined and were replaced, in part, by a much-reduced population, and a “ranchería” culture of small settlements and dispersed dwellings. The likely cause of the decline of the statelets and population were epidemics of introduced European diseases, which killed thousands of the Opata and neighboring peoples. Jesuit missionaries established a mission in Opatería in 1628 and initially encountered little opposition to their efforts to evangelize, and later, to re-organize Opata society along Spanish lines.[13] The Opata slowly became Spanish allies of convenience. Opata soldiers joined the Spanish in campaigns against their common enemy the Apache. By 1800, the Opata were mostly followers of Christianity, commonly spoke Spanish, and were largely under the rule of the Spanish government.[14] Many Opatans became cowboys on Spanish ranches, or migrated to mining towns to work in the mines.[15]

Tension between the Spanish, the Mexicans, and the Opata manifested itself in numerous revolts in the 19th century. In 1820, 300 Opata warriors defeated a Spanish force of 1,000 soldiers, and destroyed a mining town near Tonichi. Later, they won another battle at Arivechi, killing more than 30 soldiers. A Spanish force of 2,000 soldiers finally defeated the Opata, forcing the survivors to surrender. The Spanish executed the Opata leaders, including Dorame, a Eudeve, whose surname is still common in the Opatería region of Sonora.[16] Revolts continued after Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821. Another Opata leader, Dolores Gutiérrez, was executed in 1833 by the Mexicans for his involvement in a revolt.[17] Although the Opata had formidable reputations as warriors, they were never able to unite as a single people to oppose the Spanish and Mexicans.

There were also fierce battles with the Apache that took a heavy toll on the Opata.[18]

Most of the Opata supported the French during their brief rule of Mexico from 1864 to 1867, as did most Sonoran Indians. An Opata, Refugio Tanori, became a general in the military forces supporting the Imperial rule of Maximilian I. When Tanori's forces were defeated, he fled to Guaymas, and boarded a ship headed for Baja California. Before the ship reached the peninsula, it was stopped by Republican forces. Tanori was captured and executed.[19] The retribution of the Mexicans against the Opata after the defeat of the French occupation resulted in the loss of nearly all of their remaining lands and the end of their resistance to Mexican rule.[20]

In 1902, American anthropologist Ales Hrdlicka, estimated the number of full-blood Opatas at 500 to 600. Another anthropologist, Carl Lumholtz, commented that the Opatas had “lost their language, religion, and traditions, dress like the Mexicans, and in appearance are in no way distinguishable from the laboring class of Mexico with which they are thoroughly merged through frequent intermarriage.”[21]

Settlement pattern and livelihood

At the time of first contact with the Spanish, the Opata may have been the most numerous and culturally complex people living in Oasis America, comprising the desert regions of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States.[22]

The towns of the Opata were found in the broad valleys of the five north-south trending rivers of northern and eastern Sonora. The rivers, west to east, are the San Miguel, Sonora, Moctezuma, and the two upper tributaries of the Yaqui, the Bavispe and the Arcos. The Opata were not members of a single political entity, but rather organized into a number of “statelets” – several of which may have also been populated by their neighbors to the south, the Pima Bajo. The statelets were characterized by a ruling class, slavery, irrigation agriculture, and emphasis on trade. They featured a central town, functioning as the seat of government, of at least 200 two and three story adobe houses and a population of six per house or 1,200 or more.[23] In the countryside for several miles in every direction from the central town were satellite communities: hamlets of 9 to 25 houses and “rancherías” of less than 9 houses.[24]

The Opata depended upon agriculture for most of their subsistence. Maize, beans, squash, and cotton were the principal crops. Due to the scarcity and irregularity of rainfall, the Opata practiced canal irrigation as well as dry-land farming techniques. Early Spanish explorers described large and productive fields among the Opata. The Opata also hunted game, especially deer, with bows and arrows, fished in the rivers with spears and nets and gathered wild foods, such as Chenopodium and cactus leaves and fruits.[25] They also produced a fermented maize atole beverage known as tanori, which was normally drunk during certain ceremonies and celebrations. (Expert preparers of that beverage often took on the second name of Tanori.)

The statelet era of Opata history endured from 1350 to 1550 AD. With decreasing population due to European diseases, Opatan societies in the 17th century became smaller and less complex.

Opatan attire and dwellings

Opata women were skilled weavers and wove dyed and full-length colorful cotton fiber dresses. Men generally dressed more scantily in skirts made of hide, but also wore serapes (shawls) in cold weather. Footwear consisted of sandals made from hide. Women often wore only hide skirts similar to those of men during warm weather, and both sexes often went about nude during the hot season. Necklaces and other adornments made from hide, stone, bone, shell, and feathers were worn.

Dwellings consisted of thatched huts and small houses made of adobe and zacate with thatched roofs. During warm, dry seasons, semi-subterranean dwellings known as a hu'uki were also used. (In addition, hu'ukis were used as sweat lodges, and small ones were constructed for the purpose of storing legumes to keep them cool and fresh longer).

Opatan sexual mores and family planning

Homosexuality and transgenderism were not taboo in traditional Opatan society.[26][27] Same-sex couples existed in some villages, including effeminate males who dressed and lived as women.[28] There were plural marriages of village leaders where they took their sisters-in-law as spouses or concubines.[29][30]

Fertility rites also took place. Described as "obscene" in Spanish priests' written accounts (see, for example Cañas, 1730), a commonly reported fertility rite was a round dance known as the "Mariachi" (Bandolier, 1890).

Contemporary Opatan society

Although most residents of Opata Country today are of Opata descent and acknowledge it, very few Opata traditions are exercised by the general Opatan populace today, and their character is generally mestizaje (mainline Mexican mestizo) as opposed to a traditional indigenous character and lifestyle.

However, the ancient Opatan spring procession rite known today as the fariseo (with some Catholicism mixed in) is still exercised during Easter week in most towns and villages in Opata Country. The rite includes the wearing of masks and the use of traditional Opatan instruments during the procession that include hand-held gourd rattles, bands of small ankle rattles, and hand-held drums. Masks often include traditional ones carved from Cottonwood, depicting various painted human and animal-like facial figures.

Noted Opatas and history

Sisibotari was a respected Jova chieftain known throughout Opata Country who lived from the late 16th century to the mid-17th century. He served as a major intermediary between the Opatan peoples and the Spanish, which helped maintain peace between the two peoples during his time. ("Sisibotari" means, "The Great Lord"). Father Andrés Pérez de Ribas described Sisibotari as, "He was handsome and still young, wore a long coat attached at his shoulder like a cape, and his loins were covered with a cloth, as was the custom of that nation. On the wrist of his left hand, which holds the bow when the hand pulls the cord to send the arrow, he wore a very becoming marten skin".[31]

Kathleen Alcalá is an accomplished Mexican-American author of Opata descent who has included Opata themes in some of her works. / Teresa Leal is an Opata-Mayo civic leader and founder of indigenous women's and indigenous people's community health organizations in Ambos Nogales. She filed as the co-plaintiff-appellant, with the Sierra Club (Grand Canyon Chapter), in a citizen law suit filed in the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, against the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission.


  1. ^ a b Yetman, David A. (2010). The Opatas: In Search of a Sonoran People. University of Arizona Press. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  2. ^ Global Spark, "Nicole Yanes, Opata Nation" 2015.
  3. ^ "The 3rd International Indigenous Women's Symposium on Environmental and Reproductive Health" April 14-15 2018
  4. ^ Yetman, David A. (2010). The Ópatas: In Search of a Sonoran People. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0816528977.
  5. ^ Yetman, p. 65
  6. ^ Ortiz Zapata, Juan (1678). "Relación de las Misiones que la Compañía de Jesús tiene en el Reino y Provincia de la Nueva Vizcaya en la Nueva España [List of Missions of the Society of Jesus in the Kingdom and Province of the Nueva Vizcaya in the New Spain]." Nacion de las Ovas Donde Hay Algunos. In García Figueroa, Juan. (1857). Documentos para la Historia de México. IVa Serie, Vol. iii (in Spanish). Mexico: J. R. Navarro. pp. 341–342.
  7. ^ Johnson, Jean B. "The Opata: An Inland Tribe of Sonora." in The North Mexican Frontier, ed. by Basil C. Hedrick, J. Charles Kelly, and Carroll L. Riley. Carbondale, IL; Southern Illinois U Press, 1971, p. 171
  8. ^ Yetman, p. 78
  9. ^ Yetman, p. 79
  10. ^ Riley,Carroll L. The Frontier People: The Greater Southwest in the Protohistoric Period. Albuquerque: U of NM Press, 1987, p. 72
  11. ^ Yetman, p. 20
  12. ^ Johnson, p. 171
  13. ^ Yetman, pp. 34, 82; Riley, p. 84
  14. ^ Forbes, Jack D. “Historical Survey of the Indians of Sonora, 1821-1910.” Ethnohistory. Vol. 4, No. 4 (Fall 1957), p. 336
  15. ^ Yetman, pp.90-91
  16. ^ Yetman, pp 220-222; Forbes, 339-340
  17. ^ Spicer, Edward H., Cycles of Conquest (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1962) p. 62
  18. ^ Stevens, Robert C. (1964). "The Apache Menace in Sonora 1831-1849". Arizona and the West. 6 (3): 211–222. JSTOR 40167832.
  19. ^ Yetman, pp. 243-244
  20. ^ Yetman, pp. 244-245
  21. ^ Forbes, 358; Yetman, pp. 244-245
  22. ^ Doolittle, William E. “Settlements and the Development of ‘Statelets’ in Sonora, Mexico.” Journal of Field Archaeology., Vol 11, No. 1 (Spring 1984), p. 13
  23. ^ Doolittle, William E. “Aboriginal Agricultural Development in the Valley of Sonora, Mexico.” Geographical Review, Vol 70, No. 3 (Jul 1980), p. 339
  24. ^ Doolittle, 1984, pp. 19-20
  25. ^ Riley, pp 59-65
  26. ^ Yetman, p. 56
  27. ^ Hammond & Rey, p. 251
  28. ^ de la Canal, pp. 135v-137v
  29. ^ de la Canal, pp. 129-131
  30. ^ Cañas, p. 10
  31. ^ The Mexican Dream: Or, The Interrupted Thought of Amerindian Civilizations - J. M. G. Le Clezio - Google Books


  • Bandolier, Adolph Francis Alphonse. Final report of Investigations among the Indians of the Southwestern United States, Carried on Mainly in the Years From 1880 to 1885. Part I (Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America; American Series III: Cambridge University Press. 1890) pp. 68, 239.
  • Cañas, Cristóbal. Estado de la Provincia de Sonora, julio de 1730. Documentos para la historia de México, 3a seri. 1835-1857. Transcribed, with notes by Flavio Molina Molina, 1978. Hermosillo, México: Diocese of Sonora.
  • de la Canal, Gerónimo. Report of Gerónimo de la Canal: January 31, 1653. (Misiones 26. Archivo General de la Nación.)
  • Hammond, George, & Rey, Agapito. Narratives of the Coronado expedition, 1540-1542. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1940.
  • Yetman, David. The Opatas: In Search of a Sonoran People Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2010.

Oral traditionalist consultants

  • Doña Claudia, Don Domingo, Doña Gloria, and "El Güico" of Opata Country.
  • Cachora Guitemea of the Yoeme (Yaqui) Nation of Sonora

Further reading


Arivechi is a town in Arivechi Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located in the east of Sonora at 28°55'"N 109°11'"W, at an elevation of 556 meters.

The settlement of San Javier de Arivechi was founded in 1627 by the Jesuit missionary Pedro Méndez. The land had been occupied by the Opata tribe, conceded in the mission system of the Rectorado de San Francisco de Borja together with the peoples of Pónida y Bacanora. Arivechi became a municipality in 1932.

The area is crossed by the Sahuaripa River, which is a tributary of the Yaqui River.

The economy is based on cattle raising and agriculture.

Arivechi lies on tarmacked highway 117, which links Arivechi to Agua Prieta. The distance to the international border is 339 kilometers (211 mi).


Bacerac is a town in Bacerac Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora. It is situated in the northeast of the state and the municipality has boundaries with Bavispe Municipality in the north, with Huachinera in the south, with the state of Chihuahua in the east, and with the municipalities of Nacozari de García and Villa Hidalgo in the west. The municipal seat lies at an elevation of 1,432 meters above sea level.

The area of the municipality is 1,275.8 km2. and the total population was 1,342 in 2005. Most of the inhabitants lived in the municipal seat. The population has been diminishing since 1995 when it was 1,535. Causes are the lack of employment and the absence of middle-level schools for families to better educate their children. [1]

The territory once was occupied by the Opata Indians. In 1645, the Jesuit missionary Cristóbal García founded a settlement to which he gave the name of Santa María de Bacerac, which is derived from the Opata language and means "place where water is seen".

Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy and the crops are destined to support the occupation of cattle raising, the herd consisting of approximately 10,000 head of cows.


Bacoachi is a small town in Bacoachi Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora. The area of the municipality is 487 square miles (1,260.65 km²) and the population (rural and urban) was 1,456 in 2005, with 924 inhabitants residing in the municipal seat. [1] The elevation of the municipal seat is 4,429 feet (1,350 meters) above sea level.

Bacoachi is located southeast of Cananea and has boundaries in the north with Naco, in the east with Fronteras, in the southeast with Nacozari, in the southwest with Arizpe and in the east with Cananea. See maps at [2] or [3]

The territory was originally inhabited by the Opata Teguima Indians, who called their settlement "Cuchibaciachi". In 1649, Captain Simón Lazo de la Vega founded a Spanish town in the same spot. The name means "water snake" in the indigenous language.

Most of the land is mountainous and is part of the Sierra de Sonora. There are still pine forests and a rich variety of fauna, including coyotes, jaguars, deer, raccoons, wild pigs, skunks, and owls, among others.

The population has been decreasing due to immigration to the United States of America.

There are few roads but the municipality is connected to the capital, Hermosillo, by the Hermosillo-Cananea highway.

Agriculture and cattle raising are the main economic activities. Most of the agriculture is involved in growing grasses for the cattle, which numbered over 25,000 head in 2000.


Banámichi (Opata: Banamitzi) is a small town in Banámichi Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora. Geographical coordinates are 30°01′N 110°13′W.

Chief of the General Staff (Czech Republic)

The Chief of the General Staff (Czech: Náčelník Generálního štábu) is the highest-ranking and most senior military officer of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic. He is appointed by the President of the Czech Republic, who is the commander-in-chief. The current Chief of the General Staff is General of the Army Aleš Opata.


Huachinera is the municipal seat of Huachinera Municipality in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora. The municipal area is 1,184.86 km2 (457.48 sq mi), with a population of 1,147 registered in 2000.It was founded as Juan Evangelista de Huachinera in 1645 by the Spanish missionary Cristóbal García. The land now occupied by the municipality was once the home of the Ópata Indians.

The land is mainly mountainous, and the main settlement lies at an elevation of 814 meters (2,671 ft). Peaks reach the height of 2,700 meters (8,900 ft). The average annual temperature is 16.9 °C (62.4 °F) and the average annual rainfall is 427.0 mm (16.81 in).

Agriculture and cattle raising are the two main economic activities. Corn and beans are raised for subsistence while grasses are grown for cattle fodder. The cattle herd had 15,457 head in 2000, and calves are exported to the United States. There is one mine, Santa Gertrudis, which has brought employment to the region.


Huásabas is the municipal seat of Huásabas Municipality in the northeast of the Mexican state of Sonora. The municipal area is 711.17 km² (274.58 mi²) with a population of 966 registered in 2000. Most of the inhabitants live in the municipal seat.

Huásabas is connected to Moctezuma by a paved road; the distance being 47 km. The state capital, Hermosillo, lies at a distance of 215 km.

It was founded in 1645 by the Jesuit missionary Marcos del Río, with the name of "San Francisco de Huásaca". The land was occupied at the time by the Ópata Indians. In the Ópata language, Huásaca has two meanings: place of grassy lands or place of lands full of trash carried by the river.The land is mountainous and the main settlement lies at an elevation of 850 meters (2,790 ft). The average annual temperature is 20.3 °C (68.5 °F) and the average annual rainfall is 490.8 mm (19.32 in).The region is crossed by the Río Bavispe, which is a tributary of the Río Yaqui.

Agriculture and cattle raising are the two main economic activities. Corn and beans are raised for subsistence while grasses are grown for cattle fodder. The cattle herd was 10,120 head in 2000. The economically active population in 2000 was only 347 workers in 2000. Important communities from Huásabas now live in Hermosillo, the capital city of Sonora, and in Tucson, Arizona. Still, they maintain strong ties to "El Pueblo" (the Town) and most of them come back once or twice a year, since both cities are located at a distance no longer than a four-hour drive.

Special celebrations take place on August 15, when the "Fiesta Patronal" occurs to commemorate the Assumption of Mary, the patron saint of Huásabas, including dances in the main square, rodeos, horse races, and music bands on the streets. Holy Week is extensively celebrated with solemn Catholic rites and a vivid performance of the Via Crucis on Good Friday.

In Huásabas cowboy culture is historically and profoundly rooted, which can still be observed in men's clothing, specially the extensive use of Texan style hats (sombreros) and boots, rodeos (jaripeos), and the extended usage of horse riding among cattle tenders.


Huepac is the seat of a Huépac Municipality in the center of the Mexican state of Sonora. The municipal area is 317.37 km² with a population of 1,142 registered in 2000. [1]

Most of the inhabitants live in the municipal seat.

Huépac was founded in 1644 by the Jesuit missionary Gerónimo de la Canal with the name of San Lorenzo de Güepaca. Its name comes from the Ópata Indian word, Güepaca, which means big valley ; from Güe big and paca, valley in Ópata. [2]

The land is hilly with valleys and the main settlement lies at an elevation of 304 meters. The average annual temperature is 21.4°C and the average annual rainfall is 424.0 mm. [3]

The region is crossed by the Rio Sonora, which receives the waters of the El Gavilán, Güevarachi and Triunfo.

Agriculture and cattle raising are the two main economic activities. Corn and beans are raised for subsistence while grasses are grown for cattle fodder. The cattle herd numbered 15,000 head in 2000. [4] The economically active population in 2000 was only 340 workers. [5]

List of extinct Uto-Aztecan languages

A large number of languages known only from brief mentions are thought to have been Uto-Aztecan languages, but became extinct without being documented. The following list is based on Campbell (1997:133–135).

San Nicolás (Nicoleño): spoken in California, thought to be a Takic language.

Giamina/Omomil: Kroeber (1907) and Lamb (1964) believe Giamina may constitute a separate branch of Northern Uto-Aztecan, although Miller (1983) is uncertain about this. It was spoken in Southern California.

Vanyume: a Takic language of California

Acaxee (Aiage): closely related to Tahue, a Cahitan language, linked with Tebaca and Sabaibo.

Amotomanco (Otomoaco): uncertain classification, possibly Uto-Aztecan. (See Troike (1988) for more details.)

Cazcan (Caxcan): sometimes considered to be the same as Zacateca, although Miller (1983) would only consider these to be geographical classifications.

Baciroa: closely connected to Tepahue


Batuc: possibly an Opata dialect


Cahuameto: probably belongs with Oguera and Nio

Chínipa: may be a Tarahumaran language close to Ocoroni, since colonial sources claim the two are mutually intelligible. It may also instead be a local name for a variety of Guarijío.

Coca: spoken near Lake Chapala.

Colotlan: a Pimic language closely related to Tepehuan, or Teul and Tepecano

Comanito: a Taracahitic language closely related to Tahue

Concho: probably a Taracahitic language (Troike 1988). Subdivisions include Chinarra and Chizo; Toboso is possibly related to Concho as well.

Conicari: a Taracahitic language closely related to Tahue

Guachichil: possibly a variant or close relative of Huichol

Guasave: possibly a Taracahitic language, or may instead be non-Uto-Aztecan language possibly related to Seri due to the speakers' maritime economy (Miller 1983). Dialects include Compopori, Ahome, Vacoregue, and Achire.

Guazapar (Guasapar): probably a Tarahumara dialect, or it may be more closely related to Guarijío and Chínipa. Guazapar, Jova, Pachera, and Juhine may possibly all be dialects of Tarahumara.

Guisca (Coisa)

Hio: possibly a Taracahitic language

Huite: closely related to Ocoroni, and may be Taracahitic

Irritila: a Lagunero band

Jova (Jobal, Ova): most often linked with Opata, although some scholars classify it as a Tarahumara dialect. Miller (1983) considers it to be "probably Taracahitan."

Jumano; also Humano, Jumana, Xumana, Chouman (from a French source), Zumana, Zuma, Suma, and Yuma. Suma is probably the same language, while Jumano is possibly Uto-Aztecan.

Lagunero: may be the same as Irritila, and may also be closely related to Zacateco or Huichol.

Macoyahui: probably related to Cahita.

Mocorito: a Tahue language, which is Taracahitic.

Naarinuquia (Themurete?): Uto-Aztecan affiliation is likely, although it may instead be non-Uto-Aztecan language possibly related to Seri due to the speakers' maritime economy.

Nacosura: an Opata dialect

Nio: completely undocumented, although it is perhaps related to Ocoroni.

Ocoroni: most likely a Taracahitic language, and is reported to be mutually intelligible with Chínipa, and similar to Opata. Related languages may include Huite and Nio.

Oguera (Ohuera)

Patarabuey: unknown affiliation (Purépecha region near Lake Chapala), and is possibly a Nahuatl dialect.

Tahue: may also include Comanito, Mocorito, Tubar, and Zoe. It is possibly a Taracahitic language, and is definitely not Nahuan.

Tanpachoa: unknown affiliation, and was once spoken along the Río Grande.

Tecuexe: speakers were possibly part of a "Mexicano" (Nahua) colony.

Teco-Tecoxquin: an Aztecan language

Tecual: closely related to Huichol. According to Sauer (1934:14), the "Xamaca, by another name called Hueitzolme [Huichol], all ... speak the Thequalme language, though they differ in vowels."

Témori: may be a Tarahumara dialect.

Tepahue: possibly a Taracahitic language. Closely related languages or dialects include Macoyahui, Conicari, and Baciroa.

Tepanec: an Aztecan language.

Teul (Teul-Chichimeca): a Pimic language, possibly of the Tepecano subgroup.

Toboso: grouped with Concho.

Topia: perhaps the same as Xixime (Jijime).

Topiame: possibly a Taracahitic language.

Totorame: grouped with Cora.

Xixime (Jijime): possibly a Taracahitic language. Subdivisions are Hine and Hume. Its links with Acaxee are uncertain.

Zacateco: often considered the same as Acaxee, although this is uncertain. It is possibly related to Huichol, although Miller (1983) leaves it as unclassified.

Zoe: possibly a Taracahitic language, with Baimena as a subdivision. It is possibly affiliated with Comanito.

Mexican grizzly bear

The Mexican grizzly bear (Ursus arctos; formerly Ursus arctos nelsoni) is an extinct population of the grizzly bear.

The holotype was shot by H. A. Cluff at Colonia Garcia, Chihuahua in 1899. The extinct California grizzly bear extended slightly south into Baja California. The bears in Durango, Chihuahua, Sonora and central Mexico were likely more related to the bears of Arizona, New Mexico and Texas than to those of California.

Naco, Arizona

Naco, a Census-Designated Place (CDP) located in Cochise County, Arizona, United States had a recorded population of 1,046 during the 2010 census. It's located directly across the United States–Mexico border from its sister city Naco, Sonora. Naco is best known for an accidental 1929 air raid and is the first and only municipality in the Continental United States to have been aerially bombed by foreigners. The present-day unincorporated town of Naco, Arizona, was established in the early 20th century. The area was originally settled by the Nahua and Opata Indians. Naco means "nopal cactus" in the Opata language. The U.S. Congress officially established Naco as a Port of Entry on June 28, 1902. Today, the Naco port of entry is open 24 hours per day.

Occasionally the people on both sides of the border use the border fence as the net in a volleyball game.

Nácori Chico

Nácori Chico is a small town in Nácori Chico Municipality in the east of the Mexican state of Sonora.

Opata language

Ópata (also Teguima, Eudeve, Heve, Dohema) is either of two closely related Uto-Aztecan languages, Teguima and Eudeve, spoken by the Opata people of northern central Sonora in Mexico. It was believed to be dead already in 1930, and Carl Sofus Lumholtz reported the Opata to have become "Mexicanized" and lost their language and customs already when traveling through Sonora in the 1890s. In a 1993 survey by the Instituto Nacional Indigenista fifteen people in the Mexican Federal District self-identified as speakers of Ópata. This may not mean however that the language was actually living, since linguistic nomenclature in Mexico is notoriously fuzzy. Sometimes Eudeve is called Opata, a term which should be restricted to Teguima. Eudeve (which is split into the Heve (Egue) and Dohema dialects) and Teguima (also called Ópata, Ore) are distinct languages, but sometimes have been considered merely dialects of one single language. The INALI (Mexican National Institute for Indigenous Languages) does not count Opata among the currently extant indigenous languages of Mexico.

Opata sucker

The Opata sucker, or matalote Opata (Catostomus wigginsi), is a species of ray-finned fish in the Catostomidae family. It is found only in Mexico.


Opodepe is the municipal seat of Opodepe Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora.

The main settlement and the municipal seat had a population of 346 in 2000.[1]

The municipal seat of Opodepe is connected to Mex 15 by a road that was gravel in 2005.

The settlement of Querobabi, located near Federal Highway 15 (four-lane toll), has seen an increase in population from 900 in 1980 to 3,900 in 2005 while the municipal seat, located in the hill lands has seen a decrease from over 1,000 to its present population of less than 500.[2]

The land now occupied by Opodepe was once the land of the Opata Indians. The name of Opodepe comes from the Opata language, from the roots "opo", which means iron wood, "det" flat, and "pa" place, "in the plain of the ironwood".[3]

In 1704, Father Kino founded the mission settlement of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Opodepe in this town.

The land is divided between hills and flatland and the main settlement lies at an elevation of 596 meters. The average annual rainfall is 424.0 mm. [4]

The economically active population was 978 inhabitants in 2000. [5] Agriculture and cattle raising are the two main economic activities. Agriculture is used as a support for the cattle industry, with the cultivation of rye grass, barley, sorghum, and alfalfa.

Industrial activity is limited to the production of the nationally famous Querobabi bricks, roof tiles, and floor tiles, which are mostly exported to the United States of America.[6]

Phaseolus acutifolius

Phaseolus acutifolius, or the Tepary bean, is native to the southwestern United States and Mexico and has been grown there by the native peoples since pre-Columbian times. It is more drought-resistant than the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and is grown in desert and semi-desert conditions from Arizona through Mexico to Costa Rica. The water requirements are low and the crop will grow in areas where annual rainfall is less than 400 mm (16 in).

San Rafael, Arizona

San Rafael, is a ghost town in Pima County, Arizona, United States.

Seri people

The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. The majority reside on the Seri communal property (Spanish, ejido), in the towns of Punta Chueca (Seri: Socaaix) and El Desemboque (Seri: Haxöl Iihom) on the mainland coast of the Gulf of California. Tiburón Island (Tahejöc) and San Esteban Island (Cofteecöl and sometimes Hast) were also part of their traditional territory. They were historically seminomadic hunter-gatherers who maintained an intimate relationship with both the sea and the land. They are one of the ethnic groups of Mexico that has most strongly maintained their language and culture throughout the years after contact with Spanish and Mexican cultures.

The Seri people are not related culturally or linguistically to other groups that have lived in the area, such as the Opata, Yaqui (sg.: Yequim, pl.: Yectz), O'odham (sg.: Hapaay), or Cochimí. The Seri language is distinct from all others in the region and is considered a language isolate.Beside the Apache (sg.: Hapats, pl.: Hapatsoj) and Yaqui, the Seri are best known as fierce warriors for their fierce resistance against subjugation by the Spanish (sg.: Casopin) and later Mexicans (sg./pl.: Cocsar).

The name Seri is an exonym of uncertain origin. (Claims that it is from Opata or from Yaqui were nineteenth-century speculations based on similarity to words in those languages and not with clear evidence.) Their name for themselves is Comcaac (phonemically /kom'kɑːk/, phonetically [koŋˈkɑːk]); singular: Cmiique (phonemically /'kmiːkɛ/), phonetically [ˈkw̃ĩːkːɛ]).

Zoltán Opata

Zoltán Opata (also known as Zoltán Patai or Ormos Patai; 24 September 1900 – 19 May 1982) was a Hungarian football player and manager. As a player, he won six Hungarian league championships with Budapest-based side MTK in the 1920s and regularly appeared for Hungary national football team. After retiring from playing he became a manager and had successful spells with clubs in Yugoslavia, Romania and Poland.

More than 100,000 people
20,000–100,000 people
1,000–20,000 people
Less than 1,000 people

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