King's Highway 407 (pronounced "four-oh-seven") is a tolled 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. Comprising a privately leased segment as well as a publicly owned segment, the route spans the entire Greater Toronto Area (GTA) north of the city of Toronto, travelling through the suburbs of Burlington, Oakville, Mississauga, Brampton, Vaughan, Markham, Pickering, Whitby, and Oshawa before ending in Clarington, north of Bowmanville. The segment between Burlington and Brougham in Pickering is leased to and operated by the 407 ETR Concession Company Limited and is officially known as the 407 Express Toll Route (407 ETR). It begins at the junction of the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) and Highway 403 in Burlington, and travels 107.9 km (67.0 mi) across the GTA to Brock Road in Pickering. East of Brock Road, the freeway continues east as Highway 407 (referred to as Highway 407 East during develeopment to distinguish it from the 407 ETR), a toll route operated by the provincial government, for 30.8 km (19.1 mi) to Taunton Road in Clarington. Highway 407 is the first electronically operated toll highway opened in the world; there are no toll booths along the length of the route. Distances are calculated automatically using transponders or licence plates, which are scanned at entrance and exit points. Major interchanges along the route include the QEW, Highway 403, Highway 401, Highway 410, Highway 427, Highway 400, Highway 404, and Highway 412.
Highway 407 was planned in the late 1950s as a freeway bypassing the Toronto segment of Highway 401, the busiest highway in the world. However, construction did not begin until 1987. During the early 1990s, the provincial government proposed tolling the highway to alleviate a revenue shortfall. The central sections of Highway 407 opened in 1997, and the remaining sections were built quickly over the following four years, with the final segment opening in mid-2001. Despite being included in the 400-series network, the Highway 407 ETR section is not considered part of the provincial highway network due to it now being privately operated. The segment is operated privately under a 99-year lease agreement with the provincial government, which was sold in 1998 for about C$3.1 billion to a consortium of Canadian and Spanish investors operating under the name 407 International Inc. The privatization of the Highway 407 ETR section has been the source of significant criticism, especially regarding the increases in tolls, plate denial, and false charges. In addition, the safety of segments constructed following the sale of the freeway has been called into question. Many have come to regard Highway 407 ETR as a luxury, as opposed to the bypass of Highway 401 it was originally conceived to be.
The first phase of a provincially-owned and tolled extension of the route, known solely as Highway 407 (and not as Highway 407 ETR), opened to traffic from Brock Road in Pickering to Harmony Road in Oshawa on June 20, 2016. Included as part of this extension was construction of a tolled north-south link between Highways 401 and 407 known as Highway 412. Construction is currently underway to extend the provincially owned portion of Highway 407 easterly to Highway 35 / Highway 115 in Clarington. This construction is being completed in two stages, with the first phase opening on January 2, 2018 as a 9.6 km extension to Taunton Road, and the second phase opening in 2020. This construction includes an additional link to Highway 401 east of Oshawa that will be known as Highway 418.
Even though the highway does not enter Toronto city proper, Toronto is used as a control city for Highway 407 in Halton and Durham Regions due to the similar sizes of the suburban municipalities the highway passes through.
|Maintained by |
Province of Ontario
407 ETR Concession Company Limited
|Length||138.7 km (86.2 mi)|
Opened June 7, 1997
Extended January 2, 2018
|West end||Highway 403 / Queen Elizabeth Way – Burlington|
| Highway 403 – Mississauga, Oakville|
Highway 401 – Milton
Highway 410 – Brampton
Highway 400 – Toronto, Barrie
Highway 404 – Toronto
Highway 412 – Whitby
|East end||Taunton Road - Oshawa|
Highway 407 is a 138.7-kilometre (86.2 mi) controlled-access highway that encircles the GTA, passing through Burlington, Oakville, Mississauga, Brampton, Vaughan, Markham, Pickering, Whitby, and Oshawa as well as travelling immediately north of Toronto. Although the general public felt that tolling made the highway a luxury rather than its original purpose of relieving traffic on Highway 401, Highway 407 ETR has had average daily trip counts of over 350,000 vehicles in June 2014. The 407 ETR is contractually responsible for maintaining high traffic levels as justification for increasing tolls, but conduct their own traffic studies. Despite increased usage, parallel roads that Highway 407 was intended to supplement continue to grow congested, forcing the MTO to revisit costly widening projects of Highway 401 and the QEW.
Highway 407 has been designed with aesthetics and environmental concerns in mind by featuring landscaped embankments, 79 storm drainage ponds, as well as a curb and gutter system. Unlike most other Ontario highways, it features concrete pavement as opposed to top-coated asphalt. Because of this, the high-mast lighting along the urban portions of the route feature fewer luminaires than asphalt-surfaced freeways.
Highway 407 begins in Burlington within Halton Region at the Freeman Interchange between Highway 403 and the QEW, from which it branches off northward. The six-lane route passes under Brant Street, Upper Middle Road, and Guelph Line (Halton Regional Road 1) before it interchanges with Dundas Street (Halton Regional Road 5, formerly Highway 5). It briefly enters greenspace as it curves gently to the northeast, avoiding the nearby Niagara Escarpment. The route is crossed by Walkers Line, east of which residential subdivisions line the south side and greenspace lines the north. At an interchange with Appleby Line (Halton Regional Road 20), the highway straightens and travels parallel to Dundas Street before passing over Bronte Creek and under the Canadian National Railway's (CN) Halwest Subdivision.
East of Bronte Creek, Highway 407 enters an agricultural area, interspersed with woodlots. It enters Oakville at the Tremaine Road (Halton Regional Road 22) overpass, then gradually swerves to the north as it encounters an interchange with Bronte Road (Halton Regional Road 25, formerly Highway 25). The route crosses Sixteen Mile Creek just north of Glenarchy Conservation Area, then travels parallel to the creek for several kilometres. It swerves north after an interchange with Neyagawa Boulevard, near the hamlet of Glenarchy. After diverging from the creek, it curves northeast, parallel to and north of Burnhamthorpe Road, where it interchanges with Trafalgar Road (Halton Regional Road 3). Highway 407 then encounters Highway 403 at a large interchange where it curves sharply to the northwest; Highway 403, meanwhile, curves from the southeast to the northeast.
Now travelling parallel to and immediately west of the Halton–Peel regional boundary and Oakville–Mississauga city boundary, the six-lane Highway 407 progresses northwest alongside a power transmission corridor, with residential areas to the east and farmland to the west. The route continues as such northwest to Highway 401, passing under Lower Base Line and Eglinton Avenue and interchanging at Britannia Road and Derry Road before crossing the Canadian Pacific Railway's (CP) Galt Subdivision. At Highway 401, the route makes a sharp curve to the northeast, while interconnecting ramps weave across both freeways over several kilometres. It enters Peel Region at the Winston Churchill Boulevard (Peel Regional Road 19) overpass and follows another power transmission corridor just north of the Brampton–Mississauga boundary.
Highway 407 swerves east and encounters an interchange with Mississauga Road (Peel Regional Road 1) just prior to crossing the Credit River and the Orangeville Brampton Railway, after which it enters the urban GTA. After passing interchanges with Mavis Road (Peel Regional Road 18) and Hurontario Street (formerly Highway 10), the route encounters Highway 410 at another sprawling interchange located over Etobicoke Creek. Over the next 7 kilometres (4.3 mi), the route nudges northward into Brampton, interchanging with Dixie Road (Peel Regional Road 4) and Bramalea Road and meeting another CN railway line, before crossing Steeles Avenue (Peel Regional Road 15). Highway 407 curves back to the northeast as it interchanges with Airport Road (Peel Regional Road 7) and passes beneath another CN line, before encountering the final interchange in Peel Region at Goreway Drive. It crosses the West Humber River and former Highway 50 in Claireville Conservation Area before curving east into Vaughan, in York Region.
Immediately after crossing into Vaughan, Highway 407 encounters the first of three large interchanges with other 400-series highways in York Region. The Highway 427 interchange is a four-level partial stack located just north of Steeles Avenue in Vaughan and adjacent to the 407 ETR Concession Company offices. The interchange features weaved ramps which connect to former Highway 27, located just to the east. The route continues eastward, parallel to and between Steeles Avenue and Highway 7. It dives through the Humber River valley alongside a CN line and along the northern border of Thackeray Conservation Lands, passing beneath a CP line. After an interchange with Pine Valley Drive (York Regional Road 57), the route becomes sandwiched between the industrial lands of the Pine Valley Business Park and the Emery Creek Corporate Park. A partial interchange with Weston Road (York Regional Road 56) lies just west of the large four-level stack interchange with Highway 400, the only of its kind in Ontario. An interchange with Jane Street (York Regional Road 55) is interwoven into the east side of the Highway 400 interchange, below which pass the tunnels of the Line 1 Yonge–University subway, with the Highway 407 station (with its large commuter parking lot and GO Transit bus terminal serving the highway corridor) located to the south.
Still travelling alongside a power transmission corridor, Highway 407 crosses a complex rail wye which provides access to the CN freight yards to the north. After interchanging with Keele Street (York Regional Road 6), the route gently curves northward, passing under the CN Newmarket Subdivision, which carries the GO Transit Barrie Line and crossing the Don River. It curves back eastward as it interchanges with Dufferin Street (York Regional Road 53), travelling adjacent to and south of Highway 7. After interchanges with Bathurst Street (York Regional Road 38) and Yonge Street (York Regional Road 1), Highway 407 crosses the CN Bala Subdivision, which carries the GO Transit Richmond Hill Line. After an interchange with Bayview Avenue (York Regional Road 34), the highway swerves south and enters Markham. A partial interchange with Leslie Street (York Regional Road 12) precedes the third and final large freeway–freeway junction at Highway 404.
East of Highway 404, the freeway travels generally parallel to the Rouge River. It interchanges with Woodbine Avenue (York Regional Road 8) and Warden Avenue (York Regional Road 65), east of which the route travels alongside a CN line and crosses the GO Transit Unionville Line. Highway 407 continues straight eastward into a residential area, interchanging with Kennedy Road (York Regional Road 3), McCowan Road (York Regional Road 67), and Markham Road (York Regional Road 68), where it crosses the river and diverges from both the CN line and power transmission corridor. The route interchanges with Ninth Line (York Regional Road 69) and Donald Cousens Parkway (York Regional Road 48) before exiting the urban GTA and curving northeast over a CP line and into Rouge Park.
Until the opening of the first phase of 407E in June 2016, the final interchange along Highway 407 was with York–Durham Line (York/Durham Regional Road 30), the boundary between York Region and Durham Region as well as Markham and Pickering. The route curves eastward, then crosses West Duffins Creek north of the community of Whitevale and south of the future Pickering Airport and planned community of Seaton. Sandwiched between farm fields, the highway is crossed by North Road, where a future interchange is planned, and Sideline 24. Highway 407 ended just south of Brougham at a signalized intersection with Brock Road (Durham Regional Road 1) until the end of 2015, where it continued eastward as Highway 7. A new interchange has been built in conjunction with the provincially-maintained and tolled extension, Highway 407E, which was constructed east of this point, and ties in with the current freeway, eliminating the at-grade intersection.
Immediately east of Brock Road, this tollway falls under the ownership of the Province of Ontario and is now referred to as Highway 407 (unofficially Highway 407 East) instead of 407 ETR. This route runs parallel to both Highway 7 and Durham Regional Road 3 (with some crossovers) through the North of Pickering, Whitby, and Oshawa, until its eastern terminus at the proposed interchange between Highway 418 and Taunton Road. A major interchange of this route includes with Highway 412, which is a spur connecting the 407 with Highway 401 in Whitby. Both the 407 East Extension, as far as Harmony Road in Oshawa and Highway 412 opened to traffic on June 20, 2016. The highway will be further extended eastward through Clarington by 2020. The tolls along this portion of the highway began on February 1, 2017. 
Unlike most other toll highways, Highway 407 features no toll booths. Rather, a system of cameras and transponders allows for automatic toll collection. It is one of the earliest examples of a highway to exclusively use open road tolling. Highway 407 is otherwise designed as a normal freeway; interchanges connect directly to crossroads. A radio antenna detects when a vehicle with a transponder has entered and exited the highway, calculating the toll rate. For vehicles without a transponder, an automatic license plate recognition system is used. In both cases, monthly statements are mailed to users. The automatic plate recognition system is linked to several provincial and U.S. state motor vehicle registries. Toll rates are set by both the 407 ETR and the Province of Ontario for each of the respective sections they own. However, the province set out limitations in the 407 ETR lease contract for maintaining traffic volumes to justify toll rates. Despite this, rates have increased annually against the requests of the provincial government, resulting in several court battles and the general public regarding the route as a luxury.
As part of the contractual agreement with the government, the MTO is required to deny licence plate validation stickers to drivers who have an outstanding 407 ETR bill over 125 days past due. This process was temporarily halted in February 2000 due to numerous false billing claims. Following a judicial decision by the Ontario Divisional Court on November 7, 2005, the Ontario Registrar of Motor Vehicles was ordered to begin denying the validation or issue of Canadian license plates and vehicle permits for 407 ETR users who have failed to pay owed fees. On November 22, 2005, the MTO announced that it would appeal the decision but would begin to deny plates until the appeal was decided. On February 24, 2006, the Ontario Court of Appeals denied the government leave to appeal the 2005 decision. As a result, plate denial remains in place.
The rate rose for tolls in 2018.
As of February 1, 2018, the base tolls for driving on the 407 ETR are as follows:
|Duty Class||Light||Heavy||Heavy Multi-unit|
|Midday (Weekends & Holidays)||30.83¢/km||61.66¢/km||92.49¢/km|
|Peak Period (a.m.)||EB
|Peak Hours (a.m.)||EB
|Peak Period (p.m.)||EB
|Peak Hours (p.m.)||EB
(vehicle with transponder)
|Accessory Charge||Trip Toll||$1/journey||$2/journey||$3/journey|
Journey Without Transponder
To compensate for opening delays, tolling of both the Highway 407 extension and Highway 412 did not commence until February 2017. As of February 1, 2017, the following tolls applies for motorists utilizing these tollways. The rate stayed the same in 2018. These tolls will be applied to Highway 418 upon opening:
|Time period||Duty class|
(6am–10am and 3pm–7pm)
|29.00 ¢/km||58.00 ¢/km||87.00 ¢/km|
|23.00 ¢/km||46.00 ¢/km||69.00 ¢/km|
|Midday (weekends & holidays)
|22.00 ¢/km||44.00 ¢/km||66.00 ¢/km|
|19.00 ¢/km||38.00 ¢/km||57.00 ¢/km|
|Off-peak (weekends & holidays)
|19.00 ¢/km||38.00 ¢/km||57.00 ¢/km|
Although construction of Highway 407 did not begin until 1987, planning for the bypass of Highway 401 north of Toronto began in the late-1950s. Concepts for the new "dual highway" first appeared in the 1959 plan for Metropolitan Toronto. Land adjacent to several hydro corridors was acquired for the future freeway in the 1960s, but sat vacant as the Ontario Department of Highway (predecessor to the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO)) opted instead to widen Highway 401 to a twelve-lane collector-express system. The Highway 401 expansion project was considered a success and construction of Highway 407 was shelved for almost thirty years. The plan was revisited in the mid-1980s as congestion in Toronto pushed roads beyond capacity. In 1986, Premier David Peterson was given a helicopter tour of the city during rush-hour; construction of the highway was announced soon thereafter, and began in 1987.
The Ontario government's normal process for highway construction was not possible given the financial constraints of the recession of the early 1990s. The Peterson government sought out private sector partnerships and acquired innovative electronic tolling technology. Two firms bid on the project, with the Canadian Highways International Corporation being selected as the operator of the highway. Financing for the highway was to be paid by user tolls lasting 35 years, after which it would return to the provincial system as a toll-free 400-series highway. The succeeding government of Bob Rae announced on March 31, 1995, that the corridor reserved for Highway 403 between Burlington and Oakville would instead be built as a western extension of Highway 407.
The first segment of Highway 407, between Highway 410 and Highway 404, was ceremoniously opened to traffic on June 7, 1997; no tolls were charged for a month to allow motorists to test-drive the freeway. Several other sections were well underway at this point. A 13-kilometre (8.1 mi) extension westwards to Highway 401 was opened just months later on December 13, 1997. That section was connected with Highway 403 to the south on September 4, 1998, with a temporary two lane ramp connecting to Trafalgar Road. In the east, an extension to Markham Road, at what was then the southern terminus of Highway 48, was completed in early 1998. However, due to the protest of local residents and officials concerning traffic spill-off (a scenario revisited with the extension to Oshawa), the freeway was opened only as far as McCowan Road on February 18. The short segment from McCowan Road to Markham Road remained closed for over a year, as locals feared the funneling of traffic onto Main Street, which is named Markham Road south of the freeway. Both Markham and McCowan were widened to four lanes between Highway 407 and Steeles Avenue at this time. This did not alleviate concerns, but on June 24, 1999, the extension opened to continued protest regardless.
|407 International Inc. / |
407 ETR Concession Company Ltd.
When Mike Harris was elected Premier in 1995 on his platform of the Common Sense Revolution, the Ontario government faced a $11 billion annual deficit and a $100 billion debt. Seeking to balance the books, a number of publicly owned services were privatized over the following years. Although initially spared, Highway 407 was sold quickly in the year leading up to the 1999 provincial elections. The highway was leased to a conglomerate of private companies for $3.1 billion. The Ontario corporation, known as 407 International Inc., is jointly owned by the Spanish multinational Cintra Infraestructuras (43.23%), as well as various subsidiaries of the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board (40%) and the Montreal-based engineering firm SNC-Lavalin (16.77%). The deal included a 99-year lease agreement with unlimited control over the highway and its tolls, dependent on traffic volume; however, the government maintains the right to build a transport system within the highway right-of-way.
When purchased, the highway travelled from the junction of Highway 403 in Mississauga to Markham Road in Markham. Extensions westward to the QEW and eastward to Highway 7 and Brock Road in Pickering were constructed by the corporation, as mandated in the lease agreement. The western extension, from Highway 403 southwest to the QEW, was not part of the original Highway 407 concept in 1987; rather, the corridor was originally intended to connect the Hamilton and Mississauga sections of Highway 403. Highway 407 was originally slated to assume the temporary routing for Highway 403 along the Mississauga-Oakville boundary to end at the QEW. However, the Bob Rae led Ontario government altered these plans in 1995, and the corporation constructed this section quickly upon obtaining the lease. Sections opened throughout the middle of 2001: between Neyagawa Boulevard and Highway 403 on June 17; between Bronte Road and Neyagawa Boulevard on June 29; between Dundas Street and Bronte Road on July 18; and between the Freeman Interchange and Dundas Street on July 30. In the east, a final extension between Markham Road and Highway 7 opened a month later on August 30.
On October 5, 2010, the Canadian Pension Plan announced that an agreement was reached with the owners of the roadway to purchase 10% stake for $894 million. This implies a value of close to $9 billion for the highway in its current state. However, in 1998, MPP E. J. Douglas Rollins found that as much as $104 billion had been spent by the province to that point.
Highway 407 ETR has been the subject of several controversies over its two decades of existence. While the privatization of the route and toll rate increases have been routinely criticized by the general public and politicians, cost-savings measures and the ensuing safety concerns resulted in an independent Ontario Provincial Police investigation shortly before the opening of the freeway. Finally, the public has accused the 407 ETR of predatory billing practices, including false billing and continued plate denial after bankruptcy.
An expert panel of engineers released a report outlining concerns regarding the decreased loop ramp radii and a lack of protective guardrail at sharp curves, in addition to the lack of a concrete median barrier to separate the opposite directions of travel. However, it was also argued that the large grass median was sufficient to prevent cross-over collisions, given that Highway 410 has a similar median.
The Ontario provincial government has quarrelled with 407 ETR over toll rates and customer service, but is largely tied down by the lease contract. On February 2, 2004, the government delivered notice to 407 ETR that they are considered to be in default of their contract because of 407 ETR's decision to raise toll rates without first obtaining provincial clearance. The court's initial decision sided with 407 ETR: on July 10, 2004, an independent arbitrator affirmed that 407 ETR has the ability to raise toll rates without first consulting the government. The government filed an appeal of this decision but was overruled by an Ontario Superior Court decision released on January 6, 2005; however, a subsequent ruling by the Ontario Court of Appeal on June 13, 2005 granted the government permission to appeal the decision. The government also faced off against 407 ETR in court regarding plate denial around this time.
A provincially owned 65-kilometre (40 mi) long extension to the 407 ETR, known as Highway 407 East (or 407E) during planning, began construction in 2012, with the project undertaken in two separate phases. Phase 1 was opened on June 20, 2016, consisting of a 22-kilometre (14 mi) extension to Harmony Road in Oshawa, as well as the 10-kilometre (6.2 mi) Highway 412. The extension was free of tolls until February 1, 2017. Phase 2A, opened January 2, 2018, added a 9.6-kilometre (6.0 mi) extension to Taunton Road at the future Highway 418 interchange. Phase 2B will add a further 23.3 kilometres (14.5 mi), consisting of an east-west extension from Taunton Road to Highway 35 and Highway 115, as well as Highway 418, the north-south connector to Highway 401; Phase 2B is scheduled for completion in 2020.
An environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the proposed extension was undertaken in the early 2000s. The assessment also included studies of the two north–south connectors. A preferred route was announced in June 2007, and the EA was completed in June 2009. On March 6, 2007, as part of the FLOW initiative, the Government of Canada and the Province of Ontario confirmed the extension of the 407 to Highway 35 and Highway 115 in Clarington, including the connector highways, with an announced completion date of 2013. On January 27, 2009, the provincial government announced that the extension would be a tolled highway but owned by the province and with tolls set by the province. The announcement also indicated that the province expected to issue a Request for Proposals later in the year. The contract, which is valued at $1.6 billion and includes construction and operation of the highway, was eventually awarded to the same consortium that owns 407 ETR.
On June 9, 2010, the MTO approved the extension as far east as Simcoe Street in Oshawa, announcing plans to phase construction of the extension. Local residents and politicians rejected the plan, as had happened with the section between McCowan Road and Markham Road. A motion was proposed in the Ontario Legislature to build the full extension in one project, but failed to pass. Instead, a compromise was issued on March 10, 2011: the first phase would extend Highway 407 to Harmony Road in Oshawa by 2015, including Highway 412; the second phase would then complete the extension to Highway 35 / 115 by 2020, including Highway 418. This timeline was confirmed by Premier Dalton McGuinty on May 24, 2012, and construction began in the first quarter of 2013.
In early December 2015, it was announced that contractor delays would push the opening of the first phase from December 18 to the spring of 2016. The extension did not open until the morning of June 20, 2016, in the last hours of Spring 2016.
On December 15, 2016, it was mentioned in the Markham Economist and Sun newspaper that the Highway 407 ETR proposes to widen the highway six to eight lanes between Markham Road and York-Durham Line and four to six lanes between York-Durham Line to west of Brock Road. The widening between York-Durham Line and Brock Road began in Spring 2018 and was completed in August 2018 while the widening between Markham Road and York-Durham Line will be done in 2019. A new Whites Road interchange (currently Sideline 26) will also be built.
The future town of Seaton is currently under development with the release of development lands in Durham north of the Gatineau Hydro Corridor and west of Brock Road. This development will include the future Pickering Airport, slated for construction in 2020. An interchange with a future extension of Rossland Road at the current North Road overpass (near Whitevale) will be built as part of the large road network planned for the development.
The following table lists the major junctions along Highway 407, as noted by the 407 ETR Concession Company Limited.
|Halton||Burlington||0.0||0.0||–||Highway 403 / Queen Elizabeth Way – Hamilton, Niagara Falls||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|6.0||3.7||5||Dundas Street||Formerly Highway 5|
|Oakville||14.0||8.7||13||Bronte Road - Oakville, Milton||Formerly Highway 25|
|22.2||13.8||21||Trafalgar Road - Oakville, Halton Hills|
|Halton–Peel||Milton–Mississauga||24.8||15.4||24||Highway 403 – Toronto|
|34A||Highway 401 east – Toronto||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|Peel||Brampton–Mississauga||34B||Highway 401 west – London||Signed as exit 34 westbound|
|45.2||28.1||44||Hurontario Street||Formerly Highway 10|
|51.1||31.8||50||Bramalea Road||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|55.7||34.6||54||Goreway Drive||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|York||Vaughan||58.9||36.6||58||Highway 427 – Toronto, Pearson International Airport|
|60.2||37.4||59||"Highway 27" - Toronto, Barrie||Former Highway 27|
|64.2||39.9||63||Pine Valley Drive||changeable message sign eastbound prior to overpass|
|66.4||41.3||65||Weston Road||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|67.1||41.7||66||Highway 400 – Toronto, Barrie||No access to Highway 7 or Steeles via Highway 400|
|Richmond Hill–Markham–Vaughan||78.4||48.7||77||Yonge Street||Former Highway 11|
|82.4||51.2||81||Leslie Street||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|83.4||51.8||82||Highway 404 – Toronto||No access to Highway 7 via Highway 404|
|92.6||57.5||92||Markham Road||Former Highway 48|
|94.7||58.8||94||Ninth Line||New ramps added 2009 - Westbound ramp from northbound Ninth Line. No access to Highway 407 eastbound from Ninth Line northbound.|
|96.4||59.9||96||Donald Cousens Parkway||No access to Highway 407 eastbound and westbound from Donald Cousens Parkway northbound.|
|Durham||Pickering||100||Rossland Road||Future interchange on existing freeway; currently North Road.|
|102||Whites Road||Future interchange proposed by Highway 407 ETR. Currently Sideline 26|
|106.5||66.2||Brock Road||At-grade intersection closed late 2015; corresponding segments of Brock Rd now Mowbray St and Elsa Storry Ave|
|107.3||66.7||Highway 7 / Sideline 16||At-grade intersection with former Brock Road alignment closed 2015; eastern terminus of 407 designation 2001–2016.|
|Eastern limit of 407 ETR. Western limit of provincially operated Highway 407|
|108||Westney Road||Future interchange on existing freeway|
|109||Salem Road||Future interchange on existing freeway. Currently eastbound off/on ramps used by service vehicles only to maintenance facility with no access to Salem Road.|
|Pickering–Whitby||111||Lake Ridge Road|
|Whitby||112||Highway 412||Tolled; connector freeway to Highway 401|
|118||Highway 12 / Baldwin Street – Brooklin, Orillia|
|Oshawa||122||Thornton Road||Future interchange on existing freeway|
|127||Harmony Road||Former Eastern Terminus of 407E (Phase One).|
|Clarington||132||Enfield Road||Opened January 2, 2018|
|135*||Highway 418||Phase 2A (2018):* Interchange unsigned, as 407 east traffic rerouted onto 418 stub south to Taunton Road. |
Phase 2B (2020): Full interchange; connector freeway to Highway 401.
|-||Taunton Road*||Current terminus of Highway 407, as of January 2, 2018 (Phase 2A) |
Phase 2B (2020): Removal of direct 407 access to/from Taunton Road. North-South section of freeway to be renamed as part of Highway 418.
|136||Durham Regional Road 57||Planned opening 2020|
|143||Darlington-Clarke Townline||Planned opening 2020|
|147||Highway 35 / Highway 115 – Peterborough, Lindsay||Planned opening 2020; eastern terminus of Highway 407|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi|
The key high-volume highways in Ontario are the 400-series highways in the southern part of the province. The most important of these is the 401, the busiest highway in North America, with average annual daily traffic (AADT) of more than 425,000 vehicles in 2004 and daily traffic sometimes exceeding 500,000 vehicles.
The 407 deal is now considered a financial blunder on a par with Newfoundland’s lease of Churchill Falls to Quebec, and China’s surrender of Hong Kong to Britain, for equally ill-fated 99-year leases.
The new addition of 9.6 kilometres to Highway 407, including two new interchanges, will open in early January.
Rae also announced yesterday that the province will ask for private-sector proposals to design and construct the Burlington–Oakville link of Highway 403 as part of Highway 407.
Highway 407's 13 kilometre western extension opens today from Highway 410 in Brampton to Highway 401 in Mississauga.
Highway 407 grows again today with the opening of a controversial seven-kilometre stretch from Highway 404 to McCowan Road. As of 2:30 p.m., motorists will be able to travel Canada's first tollway from Highway 401 on the Mississauga/Milton border to McCowan Rd. in Markham.
The eastern section of Highway 407, running from McCowan Rd. to Markham Rd., opened Thursday to howls of protest from Markham residents.
Ministry officials explained Friday morning that in the interim, the north-south section from Highway 407 to Taunton will also be called Highway 407. Once the full north-south toll road from Highway 401 to Highway 407 is complete in two years, the name will revert to Highway 418.
The 407 Transitway is a bus rapid transit system (BRT) being planned along Ontario Highway 407, spanning the Greater Toronto Area between Brant Street in Burlington, and Enfield Road in Durham Region.
Planning for the 407 Transitway has occurred for five segments:
Brant Street to Hurontario Street
Hurontario Street to Highway 400
Highway 400 to Kennedy Road
Kennedy Road to Brock Road.
Brock Road to Enfield RoadThe Government of Ontario does not intend on opening the segment between Highway 400 to Kennedy Road until 2023. The project is listed in the regional transportation plan The Big Move within the 25-year timeframe.Bob Hunter Memorial Park
Bob Hunter Memorial Park is a greenspace preserve in Markham, Ontario, Canada. It is named in honour of Robert Hunter, one of the founders of Greenpeace. The park was officially opened in August 2006 by then Premier of Ontario, Dalton McGuinty.It consists of 500 acres (200 ha) of provincially owned land on the western edge of the Rouge River valley within Rouge Park, bounded roughly by Ontario Highway 407 to the north, Steeles Avenue East to the south, Little Rouge Creek (Rouge Park) to the east and the Canadian Pacific Railway Havelock subdivision (Kawartha Lakes Railway) line to the west.The city of Markham has a development plan for the park which includes renaturalizing the agricultural lands with Carolinian forests. In the spring of 2011, 25 hectares (62 acres) of forest were planted, and in the summer of 2011 a project began to create a meadow on land formerly used for agriculture. The park is scheduled to open in 2015 and "…will feature hiking and biking trails, a nature trail, restored wetland and re-planted native woodland."CPP Investment Board
The CPP Investment Board (French: L'office d'investissement du RPC), officially the Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, is a Canadian Crown corporation established by way of the 1997 Canada Pension Plan Investment Board Act, to oversee and invest the funds contributed to and held by the Canada Pension Plan (CPP). As of September 30, 2018, the CPP Investment Board manages over C$368 billion in investment assets for the Canada Pension Plan on behalf of 20 million Canadians. CPPIB is one of the world's largest sovereign wealth funds and one of the world's largest investors in private equity, having invested over US$28.1 billion between 2010 and 2014 alone.Cornell, Ontario
Cornell is a new community village being developed in northeast Markham, Ontario and bounded by Highway 407, 16th Avenue, Ninth Line, and the Donald Cousens Parkway. The 2011 population of this area was 9,880. Adding Cornell North's 2,178 (from 16th Avenue to Donald Cousens Parkway) it had 12,058 residents.In 2017, MoneySense ranked Cornell as one of the GTA's top 25 neighbourhoods in terms of affordability.Entertainment Centrum
Entertainment Centrum is to a type of entertainment complex in Canada developed by Pen Equity. There are four Entertainment Centrums: the Oakville, Mississauga, Whitby, and Ottawa (Kanata) Entertainment Centrums. These plazas have movie theatres, fitness centres, and restaurants, among other attractions. Patrons park in a parking lot outside the Centrum, and walk into an indoor open area. All four Centrums are anchored by Cineplex Cinemas or Landmark Cinemas multiplex cinema.
On June 27, 2013 Empire Theatres announced that it planned to sell the theatres at the two Centrums in Whitby and Kanata to Cineplex Entertainment, which would have rebranded them as Cineplex Cinemas. They were sold to Landmark Cinemas instead. On October 29, 2013, Empire Theatres closed its Whitby and Kanata locations. They reopened as Landmark Cinemas on October 31, 2013.
Pen Equity also owns the 10 Dundas East project in Downtown Toronto.Gantry (road sign)
A gantry (also known as a sign holder, road sign holder, sign structure or road sign structure) is a traffic sign assembly in which signs are mounted or railway signals are supported on an overhead support. They also often contain the apparatus for traffic monitoring systems and cameras, or open road tolling systems.
Gantries are usually built on high-traffic roads or routes with several lanes, where signs posted on the side of the highway would be hard for drivers to see. Gantries may be cantilevered or one sided on the left, right and center (sometimes referred to as a half-gantry or Butterfly gantry), or they may be bridges with poles on each side. Similar gantries are used in railway signalling on multi-track lines.Highway shield
A highway shield or route marker is a sign denoting the route number of a highway, usually in the form of a symbolic shape with the route number enclosed. As the focus of the sign, the route number is usually the sign's largest element, with other items on the sign rendered in smaller sizes or contrasting colors. Highway shields are used by travellers, commuters, and all levels of government for identifying, navigating, and organising routes within a county, state, province, or country. Simplified highway shields often appear on maps.List of former provincial highways in Ontario
The Canadian province of Ontario has an extensive network of Primary (King's), Secondary, and Tertiary Highways, with county-level and city-level roads linking between them. Over the years, however, Ontario has turned back numerous highways to municipal government bodies, renumbered them, or upgraded them to 400-series highways.
In 1997 and 1998, many sections of the provincial highway network were downloaded to local municipalities (such as cities, counties or regional municipalities) by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation as a cost-saving measure. While highways were occasionally transferred to local governments in the past, the 1997-1998 downloads represented the most significant changes to Ontario's highway network. Many highways were completely devolved, while of others only short sections remain under provincial jurisdiction (Highway 2, once stretching across Southern Ontario, now is only a few kilometres long). Below is a partial list of partially or wholly devolved highways since 1997.List of toll roads
The following is a list of toll roads. Toll roads are roads on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. This list also contains toll bridges and toll tunnels. Lists of these subsets of toll roads can be found in List of toll bridges and List of toll tunnels.Musselman Lake, Ontario
Musselman's Lake is a community settled adjacent to a 118-acre (0.48 km2) kettle lake of the same name in the town of Whitchurch–Stouffville, Ontario, Canada. It is located about 6 km north-northwest of urban Stouffville, and is part of the Greater Toronto Area.
It is accessible from Highway 48, which links Toronto to Beaverton, and from Highway 404, a limited-access 400-Series Highway 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) west of Musselman's Lake via Aurora Road or Bloomington Road. Ontario Highway 407 is located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south on Ninth Line in Markham. The main roads in the community are Ninth Line on the west side of the lake, and Lakeshore Road on the east. The area around the lake is dotted with a number of smaller kettle lakes, including Island Lake, Shadow Lake, Staley Lake and Windsor Lake. The area around Musselman's Lake feeds a small tributary to the East Holland River, which flows to the west.Nancy Diamond
Nancy Diamond (1941 – February 12, 2017) was a municipal politician in Ontario, Canada, who served as mayor of Oshawa from 1991 to 2003. Previously she was as a city councillor from 1988 to 1991. In 2010, she returned to council and served as a city and Durham regional councillor until her death in February 2017.Open road tolling
Open road tolling (ORT), also called cashless tolling or free-flow tolling, is the collection of tolls on toll roads without the use of toll booths. An electronic toll collection system is usually used instead. The major advantage to ORT is that users are able to drive through the toll plaza at highway speeds without having to slow down to pay the toll. In some installations, ORT may also reduce congestion at the plazas by allowing more vehicles per hour/per lane. The disadvantage to ORT is the possibility of "leakage"; that is, "violators" who do not pay. Leakage may either be written off as an expense by the toll operator, or offset in part or whole by fees and fines collected against the violators.Peterborough, Ontario
Peterborough ( PEE-tər-burr-oh) is a city on the Otonabee River in Central Ontario, Canada, 125 kilometres (78 mi) northeast of Toronto and about 270 kilometers (167 mi) southwest of Ottawa. According to the 2016 Census, the population of the City of Peterborough was 81,032. The population of the Peterborough Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), which includes the surrounding Townships of Selwyn, Cavan Monaghan, Otonabee-South Monaghan, and Douro-Dummer, was 121,721 in 2016. In 2016, Peterborough ranked No. 32 among the country’s 35 census metropolitan areas according to the CMA in Canada. Significant growth is expected starting in late 2019 when the Ontario Highway 407 extension is completed, connecting it to Highway 115/35 south of Peterborough. The current mayor of Peterborough is Diane Therrien.Peterborough is known as the gateway to the Kawarthas, "cottage country", a large recreational region of the province. It is named in honour of Peter Robinson, an early Canadian politician who oversaw the first major immigration to the area. The city is the seat of Peterborough County.Peterborough's nickname in the distant past was "The Electric City" as it was the first town in Canada to use electric streetlights. It also underscores the historical and present-day importance of technology and manufacturing as an economic base of the city, which has operations from large multi-national companies such as Siemens, Rolls-Royce Limited, and General Electric, and more local technology businesses such as Dynacast and Bryston. Electricity was one of the reasons Quaker Oats moved to the city, and as part of PepsiCo, remains a major fixture in the downtown area. However, over the years the number of major manufacturing plants has declined, and General Electric closed its last remaining facility in 2018. As a result, employment has been shifting toward the service industries and tourism is now the leading industry in the area.Peterborough is among the best places to retire in Ontario, according to some studies. Mayor Bennett made this comment in 2017: "We were noted as being one of the best cities in the country as being age friendly and we continue to build on that structure as we move along." He listed cultural activities and affordable living as some of the factors that attract seniors. In 2017, the city was also among the best places to invest in Canada according to Comfort Life magazine.Pickering, Ontario
Pickering (2016 population 91,771) is a city located in Southern Ontario, Canada, immediately east of Toronto in Durham Region. It was occupied for centuries by the Iroquoian-speaking Huron (now known as the Wyandot ).
Beginning in the 1770s, the area was settled by primarily ethnic British colonists. An increase in population occurred after the American Revolutionary War, when the Crown resettled Loyalists and encouraged new immigration. Many of the smaller rural communities have been preserved and function as provincially significant historic sites and museums.Promenade (shopping centre)
The Promenade Shopping Centre (formerly known as and still referred to as Promenade Mall) is a large regional shopping centre located in the area of Thornhill, Ontario, Canada. The mall has over 150 tenants, and is anchored by T & T Supermarket, Imagine Cinemas, H&M and Old Navy.Public–private partnership
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature. Governments have used such a mix of public and private endeavors throughout history. However, the late 20th century and early 21st century have seen a clear trend towards governments across the globe making greater use of various PPP arrangements.PPPs are best seen as a special kind of contract involved in infrastructure provision, such as the building and equipping of schools, hospitals, transport systems, water and sewerage systems.There is no consensus about how to define a PPP. PPPs can be understood of both as a governance mechanism and a language game. When understood as a language game, or brand, the PPP phrase can cover hundreds of different types of long term contracts with a wide range of risk allocations, funding arrangements and transparency requirements. And as a brand, the PPP concept is also closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services. When understood as a governance mechanism the PPP concept encompasses at least five families of potential arrangements, one of which is the long term infrastructure contract in the model of the UK's Private Finance Initiative (PFI). Particular types of arrangements have been favored in different countries at different times.
Infrastructure PPPs as a phenomenon can be understood at five different levels: as a particular project or activity, as a form of project delivery, as a statement of government policy, as a tool of government, or as a wider cultural phenomenon. Different disciplines commonly emphasize different aspects of the PPP phenomena. The engineering and economics professions primarily take a utilitarian, functional focus emphasising concerns such as project delivery and relative value-for-money (VfM) compared to the traditional ways of delivering large infrastructure projects. In contrast, public administrators and political scientists tend to view PPPs more as a policy brand, and as a useful tool for governments to achieve their objectives.
Common themes of PPPs are the sharing of risk and the development of innovative, and a way of financing over a long-term for the public and private sectors. The use of private finance is another key dimension of many PPPs, particularly those influenced by the UK PFI model, although this aspect has waned since the global financial crisis of 2008.
The PPP phenomenon has been controversial. The lack of a shared understanding of what a PPP is makes the process of evaluating whether PPPs have been successful complex. Evidence of PPP performance in terms of VfM and efficiency, for example, is mixed and often unavailable.According to Weimer and Vining, "A P3 typically involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time". Because P3s are directly responsible for a variety of activities, as indicated by Weimer and Vining, P3s can evolve into monopolies motivated by rent-seeking behavior(s).SNC-Lavalin
SNC-Lavalin Group Inc., is a Montreal-based company, which provides engineering, procurement and construction and engineering, procurement, and construction management services in a variety of industry sectors, including mining and metallurgy, oil and gas, environment and water, infrastructure and clean power. In many cases, SNC-Lavalin combines these services with its financing and operations and maintenance capabilities to provide end-to-end project solutions. Being the largest engineering firm in Canada with offices in over 50 countries and operations in over 160 countries, SNC-Lavalin is regularly ranked among the top engineering design firms in the world.Whitby, Ontario
Whitby is a town in Durham Region. Whitby is located in Southern Ontario east of Ajax and west of Oshawa, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, and is home to the headquarters of Durham Region. It had a population of 128,377 at the 2016 census and it is approximately 20 km (12 mi) east of the Toronto borough of Scarborough, and it is known as a commuter suburb in the eastern part of the Greater Toronto Area. While the southern portion of Whitby is predominantly urban and an economic hub, the northern part of the municipality is more rural and includes the communities of Ashburn, Brooklin, Myrtle, and Myrtle Station.