One country, two systems

"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle formulated by Deng Xiaoping, the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China during the early 1980s. He suggested that there would be only one China, but distinct Chinese regions such as Hong Kong and Macau could retain their own economic and administrative systems, while the rest of the PRC (or simply "China") uses the socialism with Chinese characteristics system. Under the principle, each of the two regions could continue to have its own governmental system, legal, economic and financial affairs, including trade relations with foreign countries.

One country, two systems
Chinese name
Portuguese name
PortugueseUm país, dois sistemas [ũ pɐˈiʃ ˈdoiʃiʃˈtemaʃ]

Background in the context of Hong Kong

Hong Kong was a colony of the United Kingdom, ruled by a governor for 156 years from 1841 (except for four years of Japanese occupation during WWII) until 1997, when it was returned to Chinese sovereignty. China had to accept some conditions, stipulated in the Sino-British Joint Declaration, such as the drafting and adoption of Hong Kong's mini-constitution before its return. The Basic Law ensured Hong Kong will retain its capitalist economic system and own currency (the Hong Kong Dollar), legal system, legislative system, and people's rights and freedom for fifty years, as a special administrative region (SAR) of China. Set to expire in 2047, the current arrangement has permitted Hong Kong to function as its own entity in many international settings (e.g., WTO and the Olympics) rather than as a part of China.[1][2][3]

The Chinese renminbi is not legal tender in Hong Kong. Likewise, the Hong Kong Dollar is not accepted in stores in China. With this arrangement, a permit or visa is required when passing between the borders of Hong Kong and China, and people in Hong Kong generally hold Hong Kong SAR passports rather than Chinese passports. The official languages are a major factor besides the history of the former colony that has made Hong Kong and China distinct from each other, as Cantonese and English are the most widely used languages in Hong Kong while Mandarin is the official language of China. The central government in Beijing maintains control over Hong Kong's foreign affairs as well as the legal interpretation of the Basic Law. The latter has led democracy advocates and some Hong Kong residents to argue that the territory has yet to achieve universal suffrage as promised by the Basic Law, leading to mass demonstrations in 2014.[1][2][3]

Hong Kong and Macau

Deng Xiaoping proposed to apply the principle to Hong Kong in the negotiation with the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher over the future of Hong Kong when the lease of the New Territories (including New Kowloon) of Hong Kong to the United Kingdom was to expire in 1997. The same principle was proposed in talks with Portugal about Macau.

The principle is that, upon reunification, despite the practice of socialism in mainland China, both Hong Kong and Macau, which were colonies of the UK and Portugal respectively, can retain their established system under a high degree of autonomy for at least 50 years after reunification. What will happen after 2047 (Hong Kong) and 2049 (Macau) has never been publicly stated.

Chapter 1, Article 5 of the Hong Kong Basic Law, the constitutional document of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, reads:[4]

The socialist system and policies shall not be practised in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and the previous capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years.[5][6]

The establishment of these regions, called special administrative regions (SARs), is authorised by Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, which states that the State may establish SARs when necessary, and that the systems to be instituted in them shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in light of the specific conditions.

The SARs of Hong Kong and Macau were formally established on 1 July 1997 and 20 December 1999 respectively, immediately after the People's Republic of China (PRC) assumed the sovereignty over the respective regions.


The two SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are responsible for their domestic affairs including, but not limited to, the judiciary and courts of last resort, immigration and customs, public finance, currencies and extradition. Important cultural effects are exemption of the SARs from mainland laws mandating the use of simplified characters in publishing and Mandarin in public education and most broadcasting. The diplomatic relations and regional defence of the two SARs however, is the responsibility of the Central People's Government in Beijing.

Hong Kong continues using English common law and Macau continues using the Portuguese civil law system.


In Hong Kong, the system has been implemented through the Basic Law of Hong Kong, which serves as the "mini-constitution" of the region, and consistent with the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Similar arrangements are in place with Macau. Under the respective basic laws, the SARs have a high degree of autonomy and enjoy executive, legislative and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication. They formulate their own monetary and financial policies, maintain their own currencies, formulate their own policies on education, culture, sports, social welfare system, etc. within the framework of the basic laws.

As stipulated by the Basic Law, while the Central People's Government of the PRC is responsible for foreign affairs and defense in relation to the SARs, representatives of the Government of the SARs may participate, as members of delegations of the PRC, in diplomatic negotiations that directly affect the Regions, and in other international organizations or conferences limited to states and affecting the region. For those international organizations and conferences not limited to states, the SARs may participate using the names in the form of Hong Kong, China and Macau, China. As separate economic entities, both SARs of Hong Kong and Macau are members of the World Trade Organization. Hong Kong is also one of the member economies of APEC.

The Hong Kong Basic Law also provides constitutional protection on various fundamental human rights and freedoms. Specifically, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and international labour conventions which are implemented under Article 39 of the Hong Kong Basic Law and the Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance.

Nonetheless, the governments of the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong both consider the principle to have been successfully implemented, quoting official reports of both the United Kingdom and the United States.

The Central People's Government in Beijing maintain relations with Hong Kong government through the Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in Hong Kong. For Macau, Beijing uses the Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macao Special Administrative Region in Macau. While the counterpart offices of the Hong Kong government for the Central People's Government in Beijing is the Office of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in Beijing, and Macau government's office in Beijing is the Office of the Macau Special Administrative Region in Beijing.

Perceptions of the erosion of autonomy of Hong Kong

After Britain returned Hong Kong to China in 1997, Beijing promised that the Hong Kong citizens would be free to elect their local government. However, Beijing seemed to have a different idea of these free elections than Hong Kong's democracy movement. It seemed as if the Communist Party of China would allow Hong Kong's citizens free elections, but only out of the candidates who had been selected by Beijing. One of the reasons for the protests by Hong Kong's citizens and students was because Beijing had broken its promise to grant them open elections by 2017; thus, they demanded "true universal suffrage."[7]

Several incidents have caused portions of the Hong Kong public to call into question the PRC's pledge to allow a high degree of autonomy in Hong Kong. Some international observers and human rights organisations have expressed doubts about the future of the relative political freedoms enjoyed in Hong Kong.

In the year after the Handover, surveys showed high levels of satisfaction with Beijing's hands-off relationship with the former colony.[8]

The year before, the Provisional Legislative Council passed laws restricting the right of abode, leading to a case brought against the government, which ended in a loss for the government in the Court of Final Appeal in 1999. The government then took its case to the National People's Congress. The legal establishment expressed its disapproval of the act Martin Lee described as "giving away" Hong Kong's autonomy with a silent march. Polls showed the events had knocked the public's confidence in the government, despite the fact that most were in favour of the government's stance over the court's.[8]

The proposals in Article 23 of the Basic Law in 2003 (which were withdrawn due to mass opposition) were claimed to undermine autonomy.

On 10 June 2014, Beijing released a new report[9] asserting its authority over the territory. This ignited criticism from many people in Hong Kong, who said that the Communist leadership was reneging on its pledges to abide by the "one country, two systems" policy that allows for a democratic, autonomous Hong Kong under Beijing's rule.[10]

During the 2014 Hong Kong protests, students demanded more political freedom in direct response to the "831 decision" of the NPCSC. The participants demanded freedom of choice, electoral freedom, democracy and, in particular, they wanted to participate in the elections of the head of the administration of Hong Kong. The name "umbrella movement" originated because the students protected themselves with umbrellas from the pepper spray of the police. Thus, umbrellas became the symbol of this movement.[7] In 2016, Joshua Wong, Alex Chow and Nathan Law, student leaders of the protests, were indicted for their roles in the protests and found guilty.

Causeway Bay booksellers case

The disappearances of five staff at Causeway Bay Books – an independent publisher and bookstore – in October to December 2015 precipitated an international outcry as cross-border abductions were widely suspected. Although at least two of them disappeared in mainland China, one in Thailand, one member was last seen in Hong Kong, but apparently had found his way across the Chinese land border in Shenzhen without the necessary travel documents.[11] The unprecedented disappearance of a person in Hong Kong, and the bizarre events surrounding it, shocked the city and crystallised international concern over the suspected abduction of Hong Kong citizens by Chinese public security bureau officials and their likely rendition, in violation of several articles of the Basic Law and the one country, two systems principle.[12][13][14] It was later confirmed that they are under detention in mainland China although most had reappeared in Hong Kong and cancelled their missing persons' reports with the police.

On 16 June 2016, shortly after he returned to Hong Kong, Lam Wing-kee gave a long press conference in which he detailed the circumstances surrounding his eight-month detention, and describing how his confession and those of his associates had been scripted and stage-managed. Lam implicated the involvement of the Central Investigation Team, which is under direct control of the highest level of the Beijing leadership. His revelations stunned Hong Kong and made headlines worldwide, prompting a flurry of counter-accusations and denials from mainland authorities and supporters.[15][16]

Hong Kong National Party ban

On 17 July 2018, the Hong Kong Police Force served the party convenor a notice under the Societies Ordinance, seeking to ban the Party for sedition, on grounds of national security with respect to Chinese territorial integrity. The party and its convenor Andy Chan submitted their case against being outlawed. Ten days later, in an unprecedented move, Secretary for Security John Lee on 24 September 2018 officially banned the party on national security grounds.[17]

The ban prohibited anyone who claims to be a HKNP member, or is found to provide aid to the party in any way, under the threat of being fined and jailed for up to two years. The definition of “providing aid” to the party and the two leaders were not made clear. Chan’s lawyers wrote to the Department of Justice seeking an assurance that providing legal assistance to him would not be regarded as providing assistance to the HKNP, but that assurance was not forthcoming.[18]

Victor Mallet controversy

In August, a controversy erupted in 2018 when the FCC hosted a lunchtime talk with Andy Chan, convenor of the Hong Kong Independence Party (HKIP) to take place on 14 August. Victor Mallet, Vice-chairman of the press organisation, chaired the session.[19] The governments of China and Hong Kong had called for the cancellation of the talk, because the issue of independence supposedly crossed one of the "bottom lines" on national sovereignty.[20][21] After a visit to Bangkok, Mallet was denied a working visa by the Hong Kong government.[22] Mallet was subjected to a four-hour interrogation by immigration officers on his return from Thailand on Sunday 7 October before he was finally allowed to enter Hong Kong on a seven-day tourist visa.[23]

In the absence of an official explanation, Mallet’s visa rejection was widely seen to be retribution for his role in chairing the Andy Chan talk which the FCC refused to call off.[19][21] Secretary for Security John Lee insisted the ban on Mallet was unrelated to press freedom, but declined to explain the decision.[23] The incident caused a furious debate over restrictions to freedoms that were supposedly protected by the Sino-British Joint Declaration under One Country Two Systems.[24]

Background in the context of Macau

Macau was a colony of Portugal, ruled by a governor for 442 years from 1557 (except for 4 years of limited Japanese occupation during WWII, because of Japanese respect to Portuguese neutrality) until 1999, when it was returned to Chinese sovereignty. China had to accept some conditions, stipulated in the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, such as the drafting and adoption of Macau's mini-constitution before its return. Like Hong Kong, the Basic Law ensured Macau will retain its capitalist economic system and own currency (the pataca), legal system (which is based on Portuguese civil law), legislative system, and people's rights and freedom for 50 years, as a special administrative region (SAR) of China. Set to expire in 2049, the current agreement has permitted Macau to function as its own entity in many international settings (e.g., WTO and the Olympics) rather than as a part of China.

As Macau has its own currency, the Chinese renminbi is not legal tender in Macau; the pataca is not even accepted in stores in China. With this agreement, a permit or visa is required when crossing between the borders of Macau and China, and people in Macau generally hold Macau SAR passports rather than mainland Chinese passports. Like Hong Kong, the official languages are a major factor that has made Macau and China distinct from each other besides the history of the former colony, as Cantonese and Portuguese are the most widely used languages in Macau, while Mandarin is the official language of China. The central government in Beijing also maintains control over Macau's foreign affairs as well as the legal interpretation of the Basic Law.


This system has also been proposed by the PRC government for Taiwan, but the Government of the Republic of China has refused this suggestion (it has also been claimed that the system was originally designed for Taiwan in order for it to be reunified with the PRC). More specifically, special provisions for the preservation of the military in Taiwan have also been proposed by the Chinese Communist Party (the ruling political party of the PRC), unlike that of Hong Kong and Macau, which are territories protected by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of the PRC. All of the major political parties in Taiwan, however, including those that lean towards Chinese reunification, have come out strongly against the "One country, Two systems". Some proposed instead "One country, Two governments", which was opposed outright by the PRC government, while some proposed that the "one country" highlighted in the system should be the ROC instead of the PRC. One of the few Taiwanese who have publicly supported the "One country, Two systems" is Li Ao, a Mainland-born novelist.

Although the "one country, two systems" guarantees that Hong Kong's economic and political systems will not be changed for 50 years after the British handover in 1997, Mainland Affairs Council of the Republic of China has cited 218 cases between 1997 and 2007 in which they claim the PRC has breached the right of the people of Hong Kong to self-rule and severely intervened in the judicial system as well as freedom of speech.[25]

Since the accession of Hu Jintao as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China on 15 November 2002, the PRC has stopped promoting immediate unification via "one country, two systems", although it remains official policy. The "one country, two systems" framework was not mentioned in the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China passed on 14 March 2005 to prevent the growing Taiwan independence movement at that time. A new policy of gradual economic integration and political exchanges is now preferred under the 1992 Consensus:[26] this new policy was emphasised during the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China in April 2005[27] as well as all subsequent major cross-strait exchanges, especially after Ma Ying-jeou from the pro-reunification Kuomintang party won the 2008 Republic of China presidential election. During his visit to Beijing in March 2012, former Kuomintang (KMT) Chairman Wu Po-hsiung proposed the one country, two areas (simplified Chinese: 一国两区; traditional Chinese: 一國兩區) framework to govern the cross-strait relations.[28] During the 2013 National Day of the Republic of China address on 10 October 2013, President Ma Ying-jeou addressed the public stating that people of both sides of the Taiwan Strait are all Chinese by ethnicity and that cross-strait relations are not international relations.[29]

Due to the growing pressure for the pro-independence Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) to engage in the cross-strait development over the past recent years developed by KMT-CPC, the DPP finally softened its stance on its Taiwan independence movement when the former chairman Frank Hsieh visited Mainland China on 4–8 October 2012, a groundbreaking visit by the highest rank in DPP, although he claimed that this trip was done in his private capacity and as a non-politician.[30] The DPP also established its party China Affairs Committee on 21 November 2012[31] and proposed the Broad One China Framework (simplified Chinese: 大一中原则; traditional Chinese: 大一中原則) on 27 May 2014 led by former chairman Shih Ming-teh.[32]

Comparison to proposals for Tibet

Jiang (2008) notes that the concept of "one country, two systems" is based on the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet signed in 1951, and that its mechanism is similar to how the Qing emperor integrated new territories it had conquered by permitting local elites in these regions to continue to enjoy power for a time and to exercise autonomy without apparently threatening distinct local customs. As the concept was merely a "tactical and transitional arrangement", a point of view argues that the territory of Hong Kong will gradually experience the same fate as Tibet since 1959 – forced assimilation and tight direct control by the central government. Over time, full assimilation, and abolition of local autonomy, would take place in a manner "illustrative of a similar Chinese imperial expansionist mentalité".[33]

The 14th Dalai Lama's 2005 proposal for "high-level autonomy" for Tibet, evolved from a position of advocating Tibetan independence, has been compared to "one country, two systems". He has said that his proposals should be acceptable to China because "one country, two systems" is accommodated for in the Chinese Constitution. State media rejected this claim, pointing out that "one country, two systems" was designed for the capitalist social systems of Hong Kong and Macau, which had never existed in Tibet.[34]

One country, two systems proposals for other countries

Muhammad Cohen, writing for Asia Times, suggests the "one country, two systems" formula is possible solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[35]

North Korea suggests the "one country, two systems" formula to bring about Korean unification, through a confederation of two systems within one country.[36] China has also promoted the idea; the difference between North Korea's motivation and China's is that North Korea seeks to maintain two separate governments, while China seeks gradual unification as it brings stability to the Korean peninsula with one centralised government.[37]

Irish Foreign Minister Simon Coveney said the arrangement linking Hong Kong with China could be a possible solution for addressing the fate of Northern Ireland after Brexit. The border between EU member Ireland and British-ruled Northern Ireland is becoming an increasing concern in divorce talks with Britain, with Dublin demanding that the frontier remain completely open, to avoid endangering the peace process.[38]

See also


  1. ^ a b Boland, Rory. "What Country Is Hong Kong in? China or Not?". Travel.
  2. ^ a b "China Resumes Control of Hong Kong, Concluding 156 Years of British Rule". The New York Times.
  3. ^ a b "1898 and all that—a Brief History of Hong Kong." The Economist, 28 June 1997
  4. ^ "Chapter I : General Principles". Government of the Hong Kong SAR. 17 March 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
  5. ^ Luo, Jing. Over A Cup of Tea: An Introduction To Chinese Life And Culture. [2004] (2004). University Press of America China. ISBN 0-7618-2937-7
  6. ^ Wong, Yiu-chung. [2004] (2004). One Country, Two Systems in Crisis: Hong Kong's Transformation. Lexington Books. Hong Kong. ISBN 0-7391-0492-6.
  7. ^ a b Jonathan Kaiman, Hong Kong’s umbrella revolution – the Guardian briefing, The Guardian, 30 September 2014, retrieved on 23 July 2017
  8. ^ a b Carroll, John M (2007). A Concise History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 221–228. ISBN 978-962-209-878-7.
  9. ^ "Full Text: The Practice of the "One Country, Two Systems" Policy in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014.
  10. ^ "Beijing's 'White Paper' Sets Off a Firestorm in Hong Kong". The New York Times. 11 June 2014. Archived from the original on 18 June 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  11. ^ "Hong Kong unsettled by case of 5 missing booksellers". The Big Story. Associated Press. 3 January 2016.
  12. ^ "Disappearance of 5 Tied to Publisher Prompts Broader Worries in Hong Kong". The New York Times. 5 January 2016.
  13. ^ Ilaria Maria Sala (7 January 2016). "Hong Kong bookshops pull politically sensitive titles after publishers vanish". The Guardian. London.
  14. ^ "Unanswered questions about the missing booksellers". EJ Insight. 5 January 2016.
  15. ^ "In Pictures: Over 1,000 protesters chant 'no to authority' in support of returned bookseller - Hong Kong Free Press HKFP". 18 June 2016.
  16. ^ "Returned bookseller says he was detained by 'special unit' in China, TV 'confession' was scripted". 16 June 2016.
  17. ^ "Hong Kong National Party's call for 'armed revolution' no mere political slogan but a threat to safety and order, security minister John Lee says". South China Morning Post. 24 September 2018.
  18. ^ Lum, Alvin (24 October 2018). "Hong Kong National Party founders lodge separate appeals against ban in effort to avoid legal action". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  19. ^ a b "Financial Times Editor Barred Entry Into Hong Kong". Time. 8 October 2018.
  20. ^ "Hong Kong rejects visa for FT editor". BBC. 6 October 2018.
  21. ^ a b "Ex-British foreign minister, US senator urge action on Hong Kong visa refusal". South China Morning Post. 9 November 2018.
  22. ^ "Journalist Victor Mallet allowed back into Hong Kong – for seven days only". 8 October 2018.
  23. ^ a b "Ban on journalist risks undermining business confidence, UK minister warns". South China Morning Post. 9 November 2018.
  24. ^ "Financial Times editor given one week to leave Hong Kong". Deutsche Welle. 8 October 2018.
  25. ^ "Analysis Report: 20 Years After Hong Kong's Handover" (PDF). Mainland Affairs Council. 29 June 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  26. ^ "The Risk of War Over Taiwan is Real". Financial Times. 1 May 2005. Archived from the original on 31 December 2005. Retrieved 26 July 2006.
  27. ^ "Hopes grow as second Taiwan leader visits China". The Age. Melbourne. 13 May 2005. Retrieved 26 July 2006.
  28. ^ "'One country, two areas' proposed by Wu Po-hsiung – Taipei Times". Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  29. ^ Press release: "President Ma Ying-jeou’s National Day Address 10/10/2013" Archived 29 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Taipei Representative Office in Finland, 15 October 2013
  30. ^ "Frank Hsieh confirms visit to China – Taipei Times". Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  31. ^ "General news: Su to Chair DPP’s 'China Affairs Committee'". Kuomintang, 21 November 2012
  32. ^ "'Broad one-China framework' set". Taipei Times. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
  33. ^ Hung, Ho-fung. "Three Views of Local Consciousness in Hong Kong". The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 12; Issue 44, No. 1; 3 November 2014.
  34. ^ ""One country, two systems" not possible for Tibet". China Tibet Information Center. Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United States. 28 July 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  35. ^ "Try 'one country, two systems' where it might work". Asia Times. 26 June 2017.
  36. ^ "N. Korea proposes 'one country, two systems' reunification". The Sun Daily.
  37. ^ "China backs 'one country, two systems' in Korean unification effort". 22 January 2013.
  38. ^ Irish minister suggests ‘Hong Kong solution’ for post-Brexit Northern Ireland, AFP, South China Morning Post, 22 November 2017
Chinese unification

Chinese (re)unification, more specifically Cross-Strait (re)unification, is the irredentist concept of Greater China that expresses the goal of (re)unifying the alleged mainland region of China and Taiwan region (of China) under the same real (de facto) administration.

Currently, the "mainland region" (commonly referred to as just "China" by other countries) is administered by the People's Republic of China (China/PRC), which is currently recognized by most countries and intergovernmental organizations (most prominently, the United Nations) as the rightful (de jure) sovereign state ruling over both China and the Taiwan region. The Taiwan region, which consists not only of the claimed Taiwan Province (of the PRC) but also of a small section of Fujian Province, is currently administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan/ROC), a state with limited (but not zero) recognition.

Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau

The Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau (Chinese: 政制及內地事務局) is an agency of the Government of Hong Kong responsible for the implementation of the Basic Law. The bureau is the intermediary between the HKSAR Government and the Central People's Government and other Mainland authorities under the principles of "One Country, Two Systems".The bureau is headed by the Secretary for Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Mr Patrick Nip.

Deng Xiaoping Theory

Deng Xiaoping Theory (simplified Chinese: 邓小平理论; traditional Chinese: 鄧小平理論; pinyin: Dèng Xiǎopíng Lǐlùn), also known as Dengism, is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping. The theory does not claim to reject Marxism–Leninism or Mao Zedong Thought but instead seeks to adapt them to the existing socio-economic conditions of China.Deng also stressed opening China to the outside world, the implementation of one country, two systems, and through the phrase "seek truth from facts", an advocation of political and economic pragmatism.

Department of Justice (Hong Kong)

The Department of Justice (Chinese: 律政司), is the department responsible for the laws of Hong Kong headed by the Secretary for Justice. Before 1997, the names of the department and the position was the Legal Department (律政署) and Attorney General (律政司) respectively.

The Department of Justice’s main value is the rule of law. This law is the law that has brought Hong Kong the success of being known as the world’s international financial centre. Their leading principle consists of the quote “One country, Two Systems”. The Department of Justice is very important in the legal system in many ways. One being that they give legal advice to other departments in the government system. “drafts government bills, makes prosecution decisions, and promotes the rule of law”. Its main goal is to ensure that Hong Kong’s status as the main centre for legal services is enhanced and maintained.

Government of Hong Kong

The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, commonly the Hong Kong Government or simplified as GovHK, refers to the executive authorities of the Hong Kong SAR. The Government is formally led by the Chief Executive of the SAR, who nominates its principal officials for appointment by the State Council of the People's Republic of China (Central People's Government).

The Government Secretariat is headed by the Chief Secretary of Hong Kong, who is the most senior principal official of the Government. The Chief Secretary and the other secretaries jointly oversee the administration of the SAR, give advice to the Chief Executive as members of the Executive Council, and are accountable for their actions and policies to the Chief Executive and the Legislative Council.Under the "one country, two systems" constitutional principle, the Government is exclusively in charge of Hong Kong's internal affairs and external relations. The Government of the People's Republic of China, of which the Hong Kong government is financially independent, is responsible for Hong Kong's defence and foreign policy. Despite gradually evolving, the overall governmental structure was inherited from British Hong Kong.

Government of Macau

The Government of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區政府; Portuguese: Governo da R.A.E. de Macau; conventional short name Macau Government, 澳門政府, Governo de Macau), are headed by secretariats or commissioners and report directly to the Chief Executive of Macau. The affairs of the Government are decided by secretaries, who are appointed by the Chief Executive and endorsed by the State Council (Central People's Government) in Beijing. As a special administrative region of the PRC, Macau has a high degree of autonomy, in light of the "One Country, Two Systems" policy. The Macau Government, financially independent from the CPG, oversees the affairs of Macau.

Hong Kong independence

Hong Kong independence (Chinese: 香港獨立) is a movement that advocates Hong Kong becoming an independent sovereign state. Hong Kong is a special administrative region (SAR) of China which enjoys a high degree of autonomy as compared to the mainland under the People's Republic of China (PRC), guaranteed under Article 2 of Hong Kong Basic Law as ratified under the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Since the transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the PRC in 1997, some Hongkongers have been concerned about Beijing's growing encroachment on the territory's freedoms and the failure of the Hong Kong government to deliver "genuine democracy".The current independence movement emerged after the 2014–15 Hong Kong electoral reform which deeply divided the territory, as it allowed Hongkongers to have universal suffrage conditional upon Beijing having the authority to screen prospective candidates for the Chief Executive of Hong Kong (CE), the highest-ranking official of the territory. It sparked the 79-day massive occupation protests dubbed as the "Umbrella Revolution". After the protests, many new political groups advocating for independence or self-determination were established as they deemed the "One Country, Two Systems" principle to have failed. According to a survey conducted by the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in July 2016, nearly 40% of Hongkongers aged 15 to 24 supported the territory becoming an independent entity, whereas 17.4% of the overall respondents supported independence, despite only 3.6% stating that they think it is "possible". 69.6% of respondents supported maintaining '1 country 2 systems'. Slightly over 13% of respondents supported direct governance by China.

Hong Kong–United Kingdom relations

Hong Kong–United Kingdom relations refers to international relations between the post-colonial Hong Kong and the United Kingdom. UK policy toward Hong Kong is underpinned by its substantial commercial interests, and fulfilling obligation as the other signatory of Sino–British Joint Declaration on the future of Hong Kong, in addition to support Hong Kong's mini-constitution, the Basic Law, and in accordance with China's policy of observing "one country, two systems".


Hongkongers (Chinese: 香港人), also known as Hong Kongese and Hong Kong citizen, are people who originate from Hong Kong. These terms are a special identity for those who hold legal residency in Hong Kong. Most Hongkongers were born and bred, or at least bred, in Hong Kong, sharing the same set of core values, including freedom, human rights and democracy, of Hong Kong. The terms themselves have no legal definition under the Hong Kong Government; more precise terms such as Hong Kong Permanent Resident (Chinese: 香港永久性居民; Cantonese Yale: Hèunggóng Wínggáusing Gēuimàhn) and Hong Kong Resident (香港居民; Hèunggóng Gēuimàhn) are used in legal contexts. However, the word "Hongkonger" was officially added to the Oxford English Dictionary in March 2014.Hong Kong citizen do not comprise one particular ethnicity, and citizen that live in Hong Kong are independent of Chinese citizenship and residency status. The majority of Hongkongers are of Chinese descent and are ethnic Chinese (with most having ancestral roots in the province of Guangdong); however there are also Hongkongers of, for example, Indian, Filipino, Nepalese, Indonesian, Pakistani, Vietnamese and British descent. Expatriates from many other countries live and work in the city.

During the years leading up to the 1997 handover of sovereignty from Britain to China, many residents left Hong Kong and settled in other parts of the world. As a result, there are groups of Hongkongers that hold immigrant status in other countries. Some who emigrated during that period have since returned to Hong Kong. Due to China's "one country, two systems" policy, Hong Kong is a highly autonomous region and operates largely independently of China, having its own passport, currency, flag, and official languages (Cantonese and English instead of Putonghua). Furthermore, due to increasing social and political tensions between Hong Kong and Mainland China and desinicisation in the territory, a recent poll found that most Hong Kong citizen identify themselves as Hongkongers, with an estimated figure of over 40%, while less than 27% identify themselves as Hongkongers in China and less than 18% as solely Chinese.

Information Centre for Human Rights and Democracy

For an organization with a similar name in Canada see International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development.The Information Centre for Human Rights and Democracy is a human rights organization based in Hong Kong that provides information human rights abuses in mainland China for news outlets. It is run single-handedly by Frank Lu Siqing.

A municipal court document obtained by Lu claims his information center was "registered in Hong Kong by foreign hostile element Frank Lu Siqing."

Lu may be able to continue his operations legally as Hong Kong is governed under the one country, two systems policy.

Lu has been imprisoned in mainland China twice, first in 1981 for calling for freedom of speech and again in 1989 for supporting the Tiananmen Square pro-democracy movement.

List of political parties in China

China, officially the People's Republic of China, is formally a multi-party state under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front of Democratic Germany.

Under the one country, two systems scheme, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, which were previously colonies of European powers, operate under a different political system to the rest of China. Currently, both Hong Kong and Macau possess multi-party systems.

Macao Basic Law

The Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區基本法, Portuguese: Lei Básica da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China) is the constitutional document of Macau, replacing the Estatuto Orgânico de Macau. It was adopted on 31 March, 1993 by National People's Congress and signed by President Jiang Zemin, and came into effect on 20 December, 1999.

In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Macau has special administrative region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of "one country, two systems" and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. The Macau Special Administrative Region is directly under the authority of the central government of China in Beijing, which controls the foreign policy and defense of Macau but otherwise grants the region a "high degree of autonomy." The Basic Law took force on December 20, 1999.

Macau national football team

The Macau national football team (Chinese: 澳門足球代表隊; Portuguese: Selecção Macaense de Futebol) represents the Chinese special administrative region of Macau in international association football. The team is supervised by the Macau Football Association (Chinese: 澳門足球總會; Portuguese: Associação de Futebol de Macau). The Macau football team has a ranking that is one of the lowest among the FIFA members. Although usually known as simply Macau, the EAFF refers to the team as Macau, China.

The national team has never qualified for the AFC Asian Cup or EAFF East Asian Championship. The team qualified for the 2006 AFC Challenge Cup, where they got one draw and two losses.

The team had been representing Macau in international football events before 1999 when Macau was a dependent territory of Portugal. It continues to represent Macau even after Macau was handed over to the People's Republic of China by Portugal and became a special administrative region of China in 1999. This team is separate from the China national football team, as the Basic Law and the principle of "one country, two systems" allows Macau to maintain its own representative teams in international sports competitions. In Macau, the Macau football team is colloquially referred to as the "Macau team" (澳門隊), while the Chinese national team is referred to as the "national team" (國家隊).

Mainland China

Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland (continental landmass).

There are two terms in Chinese for "mainland":

Dàlù (大陆; 大陸), which means "the continent", and

Nèidì (内地; 內地), literally "inland" or "inner land".In the PRC, the usage of the two terms are strictly speaking not interchangeable. To emphasize "equal footing" in Cross-Strait relations, the term must be used in official contexts with reference to Taiwan, with the PRC referring to itself as "the mainland side" (as opposed to "the Taiwan side"). But in its relations with Hong Kong and Macau, the PRC government refers to itself as "the Central People's Government", and Mainland China excluding Hong Kong and Macau is referred as Nèidì.

"Mainland area" is the opposing term to "free area of the Republic of China" used in the ROC Constitution.

One Country Two Systems Research Institute

The One Country Two Systems Research Institute (OCTS; Chinese: 一國兩制研究中心) is a Hong Kong think tank founded in 1990 by a group of pro-Beijing politicians. It is registered in Hong Kong as private non-profit company with limited liability, and has been granted the status of a public interest charitable organisation by the Government of Hong Kong.

Pro-democracy camp (Hong Kong)

The pro-democracy camp or pan-democracy camp (Chinese: 民主派 or 泛民主派) refers to a political alignment in Hong Kong that supports increased democracy, namely the universal suffrage of the Chief Executive and the Legislative Council as given by the Basic Law under the "One Country, Two Systems" framework.

The pro-democrats generally embrace liberal values such as rule of law, human rights, civil liberties and social justice, yet their economic positions vary. They are often identified as the "opposition camp" due to its non-cooperative and sometimes confrontational stance toward the Hong Kong SAR and Chinese central governments. Opposite to the pro-democracy camp is the pro-Beijing camp, whose members are perceived to be supportive of the central government of China. Since the handover, the pro-democracy camp has received 55 to 60 per cent of the votes in each election but returned less than a half of the seats in the Legislative Council due to the indirectly elected elements of the legislature.

The pro-democracy activists emerged from the youth movements in the 1970s and began to take part in electoral politics as the colonial government introduced representative democracy in the mid 1980s. The pro-democrats joined hand in pushing for greater democracy both in the transition period and after handover of Hong Kong in 1997. They also supported greater democracy in China and took the supporting role in the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989. The relationship between the pro-democrats and the Beijing government turned hostile after the Beijing's bloody crackdown on the protest and the pro-democrats were labelled "treason". After the 2004 Legislative Council election, the term "pan-democracy camp" (abbreviated "pan-dems") was more in use as more different parties and politicians from different political spectrums emerged.

In the 2016 Legislative Council election, the camp faced the challenge from the new localists who emerged after the Umbrella Revolution and ran under the banner of "self-determination" or Hong Kong independence. After the election, some localists joined the pro-democrats' caucus which rebranded itself as "pro-democracy camp".

Special administrative regions of China

The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government. They possess the highest degree of autonomy.

The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the administrative divisions of Mainland China, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982. Article 31 reads: "The state may establish special administrative regions when necessary. The systems to be instituted in special administrative regions shall be prescribed by law enacted by the National People's Congress in the light of the specific conditions".At present, there are two SARs established according to the Constitution, namely the Hong Kong SAR and the Macau SAR, former British and Portuguese dependencies, respectively, transferred to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, pursuant to the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984 and the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987. Pursuant to their Joint Declarations, which are binding inter-state treaties registered with the United Nations, and their Basic laws, the Chinese SARs "shall enjoy a high degree of autonomy". Generally, the two SARs are not considered to constitute a part of Mainland China, by both Chinese and SAR authorities.

There is additionally the Wolong Special Administrative Region in Sichuan province, which is however not established according to Article 31 of the Constitution.

The provision to establish special administrative regions appeared in the constitution in 1982, in anticipation of the talks with the United Kingdom over the question of the sovereignty over Hong Kong. It was envisioned as the model for the eventual reunification with Taiwan and other islands, where the Republic of China has resided since 1949. Special administrative regions should not be confused with special economic zones, which are areas in which special economic laws apply to promote trade and investments.

Under the One country, two systems principle, the two SARs continue to possess their own governments, multi-party legislatures, legal systems, police forces, monetary systems, separate customs territory, immigration policies, national sports teams, official languages, postal systems, academic and educational systems, and substantial competence in external relations that are different or independent from the People's Republic of China.

Special administrative regions should be distinguished from the constituent countries system in the United Kingdom or Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Wang Guangya

Wang Guangya (born March 1950; simplified Chinese: 王光亚; traditional Chinese: 王光亞; pinyin: Wáng Guāngyà) is a Chinese diplomat who is the former Director of the Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China. A career diplomat, Wang was previously Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. He served as Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations from 2003 to 2008.

Zhou Yongjun incident

The Zhou Yongjun incident was a political controversy which involved the rendition of Zhou Yongjun (周勇军), a former student activist during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, by the Hong Kong authorities to the People's Republic of China. Zhou attempted to enter Hong Kong from the United States via Macau using a forged Malaysian passport. Zhou's supporters alleged the renditioning to be illegal, and his lawyer, Democratic Party chairman Albert Ho, described Zhou's case as "posing the biggest challenge to the one country, two systems principle laid down in the Basic Law." The Government of Hong Kong refused to comment on individual cases, and the People's Republic of China said Zhou was detained on several charges, including one of financial fraud.

Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinYīguó liǎngzhì
Wade–GilesI4 Kuo2 Liang3 Chih4
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanizationyāt gwok léuhng jai
Jyutpingjat1 gwok3 loeng5 zai3
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