On the Waterfront is a 1954 American crime drama film, directed by Elia Kazan and written by Budd Schulberg. It stars Marlon Brando and features Karl Malden, Lee J. Cobb, Rod Steiger, Pat Henning and Eva Marie Saint in her film debut. The soundtrack score was composed by Leonard Bernstein. The film was suggested by "Crime on the Waterfront" by Malcolm Johnson, a series of articles published in November–December 1948 in the New York Sun which won the 1949 Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting, but the screenplay by Budd Schulberg is directly based on his own original story. The film focuses on union violence and corruption amongst longshoremen, while detailing widespread corruption, extortion, and racketeering on the waterfronts of Hoboken, New Jersey.
On the Waterfront was a critical and commercial success. It received twelve Academy Award nominations and won eight, including Best Picture, Best Actor for Brando, Best Supporting Actress for Saint, and Best Director for Kazan. In 1997, it was ranked by the American Film Institute as the eighth-greatest American movie of all time; in AFI's 2007 list, it was ranked 19th. It is Bernstein's only original film score not adapted from a stage production with songs.
In 1989, On the Waterfront was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.
|On the Waterfront|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Elia Kazan|
|Produced by||Sam Spiegel|
|Screenplay by||Budd Schulberg|
|Story by||Budd Schulberg|
|Suggested by||"Crime on the Waterfront"|
by Malcolm Johnson
|Music by||Leonard Bernstein|
|Edited by||Gene Milford|
|Distributed by||Columbia Pictures Corporation|
|Box office||$9.6 million|
Mob-connected union boss Johnny Friendly (Lee J. Cobb) gloats about his iron-fisted control of the waterfront. The police and the Waterfront Crime Commission know that Friendly is behind a number of murders, but witnesses play "D and D" ("deaf and dumb"), accepting their subservient position, rather than risking the danger and shame of informing.
Terry Malloy (Marlon Brando) is a dockworker whose brother Charley "the Gent" (Rod Steiger) is Friendly's right-hand man. Some years earlier, Terry had been a promising boxer, until Friendly had Charley instruct him to deliberately lose a fight that he could have won, so that Friendly could win money betting against him. Terry is used to coax Joey Doyle (Ben Wagner), a popular dockworker, into an ambush, preventing Joey from testifying against Friendly before the Crime Commission. Terry assumed that Friendly's enforcers were only going to "lean" on Joey to pressure him into silence, and is surprised when Joey is killed.
Joey's sister Edie (Eva Marie Saint), angry about her brother's death, shames "waterfront priest" Father Barry (Karl Malden) into fomenting action against the mob-controlled union. Friendly sends Terry to attend and inform on a dockworkers' meeting Father Barry holds in the church, which is broken up by Friendly's men. Terry helps Edie escape the violence, and is smitten with her. Another dockworker, Timothy J. "Kayo" Dugan (Pat Henning), who agrees to testify after Father Barry promises unwavering support, ends up dead after Friendly arranges for him to be crushed by a load of whiskey in a staged accident.
Although Terry resents being used as a tool in Joey's death, and despite Father Barry's impassioned "sermon on the docks" reminding the longshoremen that Christ walks among them and that every murder is a crucifixion, Terry is at first willing to remain "D and D", even when subpoenaed to testify. However, when Edie, unaware of Terry's role in her brother's death, begins to return Terry's feelings, Terry is tormented by his awakening conscience and confesses the circumstances of Joey's death to Father Barry and Edie. Horrified, Edie breaks up with him.
As Terry increasingly leans toward testifying, Friendly decides that Terry must be killed unless Charley can coerce him into keeping quiet. Charley tries bribing Terry, offering him a good job where he can receive kickbacks without any physical work, and finally threatens Terry by holding a gun against him, but recognizes that he has failed to sway Terry, who blames his own downward spiral on his well-off brother. In what has become an iconic scene, Terry reminds Charley that had it not been for the fixed fight, Terry's prizefighting career would have bloomed. "I coulda' been somebody. I coulda' been a contender", laments Terry to his brother, "Instead of a bum, which is what I am – let's face it." Charley gives Terry the gun, and advises him to run. Terry flees to Edie's apartment, where she first refuses to let him in, but finally admits her love for him. Friendly, having had Charley watched, has Charley murdered that night near the apartment and his body hung in an alley as bait to lure Terry out to his death, but Terry and Edie both escape the attempt on Terry's life.
After finding Charley's body, Terry sets out to shoot Friendly, but Father Barry prevents it by blocking Terry's line of fire and convincing Terry to fight Friendly by testifying in court instead. Terry proceeds to give damaging testimony implicating Friendly in Joey's murder and other illegal activities, causing Friendly's mob boss to cut him off and Friendly to face indictment.
After the testimony, Friendly announces that Terry will not find employment anywhere on the waterfront. Terry is shunned by his former friends and by a neighborhood boy who had previously looked up to him. Refusing Edie's suggestion that they move far away from the waterfront together, Terry shows up during recruitment at the docks. When he is the only man not hired, Terry openly confronts Friendly, calling him out and proclaiming that he is proud of what he did. The confrontation develops into a vicious brawl, with Terry getting the upper hand until Friendly's thugs gang up on Terry and nearly beat him to death. The dockworkers, who witness the confrontation, show their support for Terry by refusing to work, unless Terry is working, too, and pushing Friendly into the river. Encouraged by Father Barry and Edie, the badly injured Terry forces himself to his feet and enters the dock, followed by the other workers. A soaking wet and face-scarred Friendly, now left with nothing, swears revenge on them all, but his threats fall on deaf ears as they enter the garage, and the door closes behind them.
The film is widely considered to be Elia Kazan's answer to those who criticized him for identifying eight (former) Communists in the film industry before the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) in 1952. One of Kazan's critics was his friend and collaborator, the noted playwright Arthur Miller, who had earlier written the first version of the script, originally titled The Hook. Kazan had agreed to direct it, and in 1951 they met with Harry Cohn at Columbia Pictures about making the picture. Cohn agreed in principle to make The Hook, but there were concerns about the portrayal of corrupt union officials. When Cohn asked the antagonists be changed to Communists, Miller refused. Cohn sent a letter telling Miller it was interesting he had resisted Columbia's desire to make the movie "pro-American". Kazan asked Miller to rewrite the script; Miller declined due to his disenchantment with Kazan's friendly testimony before the HUAC. Kazan then replaced Miller with Budd Schulberg.
After rewriting the script, Schulberg and Kazan approached Darryl F. Zanuck, who eventually told them he did not like a single thing about the script, asking, "Who's going to care about a bunch of sweaty longshoremen?" This led Kazan and Schulberg to meet with independent producer Sam Spiegel, who set up a deal with Columbia. Spiegel was insistent on Schulberg delivering a perfect screenplay, and barraged the writer with changes and suggestions, to the frustration of Schulberg.
Schulberg's script nonetheless went through a number of changes before reaching the screen. In an early draft, the Terry Malloy character was not an ex-pug dockworker, but a cynical investigative reporter, as well as an older, divorced man.
Terry Malloy's fight against corruption was in part modeled after whistle-blowing longshoreman Anthony DeVincenzo, who testified before a real-life Waterfront Commission about activities on the Hoboken Docks and suffered a degree of ostracism for his deed. DeVincenzo sued and settled, many years after, with Columbia Pictures over the appropriation of what he considered his story. DeVincenzo claimed to have recounted his story to screenwriter Budd Schulberg during a month-long session of waterfront barroom meetings. Schulberg attended DeVincenzo's waterfront commission testimony every day during the hearing.
The character of Father Barry was based on the real-life "waterfront priest" Father John M. Corridan, a Jesuit priest and graduate of Regis High School who operated a Roman Catholic labor school on the west side of Manhattan. Father Corridan was interviewed extensively by Schulberg, who also wrote the foreword to a biography of Father Corridan, Waterfront Priest by Allen Raymond.
The character of Johnny Friendly was partially based on International Longshoremen's Association boss Michael Clemente. Friendly also had aspects of former Murder, Inc. head Albert Anastasia, who was a top enforcer for the crime family that ran the Hoboken docks, the Luciano – later Genovese – family. In 1979, Clemente and other members of the Genovese family were indicted for corruption and racketeering on the New York waterfront.
According to Richard Schickel in his biography of Kazan, Marlon Brando initially refused the role of Terry Malloy, and Frank Sinatra (a native of Hoboken, where the film was being made) then had "a handshake deal" – but no formally signed contract – to play the part, even attending an initial costume fitting. But Kazan still favored Brando for the role, partly because casting Brando would assure a larger budget for the picture. While Brando's agent, Jay Kanter, attempted to persuade Brando to change his mind, Kazan enlisted actor Karl Malden, whom Kazan considered more suited to a career as a director than as an actor, to direct and film a screen test of a "more Brando-like" actor as Terry Malloy, in an effort to persuade Spiegel that "an actor like Marlon Brando" could perform the role more forcefully than Sinatra. To that end, Malden filmed a screen test of Actors Studio members Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward performing the love scene between Terry and Edie. Persuaded by the Newman/Woodward screen test, Spiegel agreed to reconsider Brando for the role, and shortly afterward, Kanter convinced Brando to reconsider his refusal. Within a week, Brando signed a contract to perform in the film. At that point, a furious Sinatra demanded to be cast in the role of Father Barry, the waterfront priest. It was left to Spiegel to break the news to Sinatra that Malden had been signed for this role.
The part of Edie Doyle was offered to Grace Kelly, who turned it down, preferring to make Rear Window instead. Kazan said in his autobiography A Life that the choice of an actress to play Edie Doyle was narrowed to Elizabeth Montgomery and Eva Marie Saint. There was something well-bred about Montgomery that Kazan thought would not be becoming for Edie, who was raised on the waterfront in Hoboken, New Jersey. He gave the part to Saint.
The role of Terry's older brother Charley was originally offered to Lawrence Tierney, who asked for too much money, so the role went to Rod Steiger. Despite playing Terry's older brother, Steiger was one year younger than Brando.
On the Waterfront was filmed over 36 days on location in various places in Hoboken, New Jersey, including the docks, workers' slum dwellings, bars, littered alleys, and rooftops. The church used for exterior scenes in the film was the historic Our Lady of Grace, built in 1874, while the interiors were shot at the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul at 400 Hudson Street.
Upon its release, the film received positive reviews from critics, and was a commercial success, earning an estimated $4.2 million at the North American box office in 1954. In his July 29, 1954, review, New York Times critic A. H. Weiler called the film "an uncommonly powerful, exciting, and imaginative use of the screen by gifted professionals".
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a critical score of 98% with an average rating of 9.2/10 and a critical consensus of "With his electrifying performance in Elia Kazan's thought-provoking, expertly constructed melodrama, Marlon Brando redefined the possibilities of acting for film and helped permanently alter the cinematic landscape".
|Best Motion Picture||Won||Sam Spiegel, producer|
|Best Director||Won||Elia Kazan|
|Best Actor||Won||Marlon Brando|
|Best Screenplay||Won||Budd Schulberg|
|Best Supporting Actor||Nominated||Lee J. Cobb |
Winner was Edmond O'Brien – The Barefoot Contessa
|Best Supporting Actor||Nominated||Karl Malden |
Winner was Edmond O'Brien – The Barefoot Contessa
|Best Supporting Actor||Nominated||Rod Steiger |
Winner was Edmond O'Brien – The Barefoot Contessa
|Best Supporting Actress||Won||Eva Marie Saint|
|Best Art Direction-Set Decoration Black-and-White||Won||Richard Day|
|Best Cinematography (Black-and-White)||Won||Boris Kaufman|
|Best Film Editing||Won||Gene Milford|
|Best Score of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture||Nominated||Leonard Bernstein |
Winner was Dimitri Tiomkin – The High and the Mighty
American Film Institute recognition
In 1989, the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress, and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. It is also on the Vatican's list of 45 greatest films, compiled in 1995.
The first home video release of the film was by Columbia Pictures Home Entertainment in 1982, on VHS and Beta. RCA/Columbia Pictures Home Video later re-released it in 1984, 1986, and 1990, respectively, the latter being a part of the Columbia Classics line-up. Columbia TriStar later reissued the film on VHS in 1995 as part of the line-up's "Studio Heritage Collection", and the first DVD version was released in 2001. Among the special features is the featurette "Contender: Mastering the Method", a video photo gallery, an interview with Elia Kazan, an audio commentary, filmographies, production notes, and theatrical trailers. The film has been added to the Criterion Collection.
The 2013 Criterion Collection release presents the film in three aspect ratios: 1.66:1, 1.85:1, and 1.33:1. The accompanying booklet explains the reasoning behind this choice: "In 1953, Columbia Pictures was transitioning to the new widescreen format and declared that all its upcoming films, including On The Waterfront, would be suitable for projection in any aspect ratio from the full frame of 1.33:1 to the then widest standard of 1.85:1. The customary frame of European cinematographer Boris Kaufman (Twelve Angry Men, Baby Doll) split the difference at 1.66:1, so that all that was required was for him to leave extra room at the top and bottom of the frame and make sure that nothing essential would be lost in the widescreen presentation. At its premiere in 1954, On The Waterfront was projected at 1.85:1. Over subsequent decades, millions of television viewers became accustomed to seeing the film with the open-matte 1.33:1 framing, a presentation that has carried over into the home video era. Here, for the first time, Criterion is presenting the film in all three aspect ratios so that viewers can compare and choose the version they prefer."
The 15th annual Venice International Film Festival was held from 22 August to 7 September 1954.1954 New York Film Critics Circle Awards
The 20th New York Film Critics Circle Awards, honored the best filmmaking of 1954.1954 in film
The year 1954 in film involved some significant events and memorable ones.2008 Giro di Lombardia
The 2008 Giro di Lombardia was the 102nd edition of this single-day road bicycle racing monument race. The event took place on 18 October 2008, with Damiano Cunego winning it, his fourth victory of the year, and the third of his career in the Giro di Lombardia and his second consecutive victory. Cunego managed to break away from the peloton with 15 kilometres on the descent of the Civiglio and was able to resist the chase of the peloton to win alone on the waterfront of Como. Janez Brajkovič of Astana finished 24 seconds behind, followed by Rigoberto Urán of Caisse d'Epargne.27th Academy Awards
The 27th Academy Awards honored the best films released in 1954. The Best Picture winner, On the Waterfront, was produced by Sam Spiegel and directed by Elia Kazan. It had twelve nominations and eight wins, matching two other films, Gone with the Wind (1939) and From Here to Eternity (1953), though those each had thirteen nominations.
On the Waterfront was the third film to receive five acting nominations, and the first to receive three in the Best Supporting Actor category. A "rematch" occurred in the category of Best Actor between Marlon Brando and Humphrey Bogart following Bogart's upset victory three years earlier. In a surprise win (Bing Crosby was the favored nominee), Brando received his first Oscar for his performance in On the Waterfront, which is now seen as one of the most justified upsets in Oscar history. The win was a culmination of four consecutive Best Actor nominations for Brando (starting with A Streetcar Named Desire in 1951), a record that remains unmatched to this day.
Grace Kelly won Best Actress for The Country Girl in another upset. Judy Garland, who was heavily favored to win Best Actress for the movie A Star Is Born, could not attend the ceremony as she had only recently given birth to her third child. Cameras were set up in her room so she could express her thanks in the likely case of her winning. Groucho Marx later sent her a telegram expressing that her loss was "the biggest robbery since Brink's."Dorothy Dandridge became the first African American actress to receive a nomination for Best Actress.Birchgrove Park
Birchgrove Park is a park and sports ground located in Birchgrove, New South Wales on the waterfront of Sydney Harbour. It is the location of Birchgrove Oval, the headquarters of the Sydney Cricket Club from 1897 to 1947 and a historic rugby league football ground which served as the original home of the Balmain Tigers club.Regarded as the spiritual birthplace of rugby league in Australia because it hosted the first professional matches in 1908, Birchgrove Oval hosted the official launch of the 2008 NRL season, which celebrated the sport's centenary in Australia. Australian Rules Football also has historical links to Birchgrove Park, with NSWFA matches played there from 1903 to 1926.During the 1908 New Zealand Māori rugby league tour of Australia a Sydney Metropolitan team hosted a match against the tourists at Birchgrove Park. The Balmain rugby league club played Premiership matches at the ground from their first season in 1908 until 1942.Budd Schulberg
Budd Schulberg (born Seymour Wilson Schulberg, March 27, 1914 – August 5, 2009) was an American screenwriter, television producer, novelist and sports writer. He was known for his 1941 novel, What Makes Sammy Run?, his 1947 novel The Harder They Fall, his 1954 Academy Award-winning screenplay for On the Waterfront, and his 1957 screenplay for A Face in the Crowd.Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan (; born Elias Kazantzoglou (Greek: Ηλίας Καζαντζόγλου); September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was a Greek-American director, producer, writer and actor, described by The New York Times as "one of the most honored and influential directors in Broadway and Hollywood history".He was born in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey), to Cappadocian Greek parents. After attending Williams College and then the Yale School of Drama, he acted professionally for eight years, later joining the Group Theatre in 1932, and co-founded the Actors Studio in 1947. With Robert Lewis and Cheryl Crawford, his actors' studio introduced "Method Acting" under the direction of Lee Strasberg. Kazan acted in a few films, including City for Conquest (1940).Noted for drawing out the best dramatic performances from his actors, he directed 21 actors to Oscar nominations, resulting in nine wins. He directed a string of successful films, including A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), On the Waterfront (1954), and East of Eden (1955). During his career, he won two Oscars as Best Director, three Tony Awards, and four Golden Globes. He also received an Honorary Oscar.
His films were concerned with personal or social issues of special concern to him. Kazan writes, "I don't move unless I have some empathy with the basic theme." His first such "issue" film was Gentleman's Agreement (1947), with Gregory Peck, which dealt with anti-Semitism in America. It received 8 Oscar nominations and 3 wins, including Kazan's first for Best Director. It was followed by Pinky, one of the first films in mainstream Hollywood to address racial prejudice against black people. In 1954, he directed On the Waterfront, a film about union corruption on the New York harbor waterfront. A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), an adaptation of the stage play which he had also directed, received 12 Oscar nominations, winning 4, and was Marlon Brando's breakthrough role. In 1955, he directed John Steinbeck's East of Eden, which introduced James Dean to movie audiences.
A turning point in Kazan's career came with his testimony as a witness before the House Committee on Un-American Activities in 1952 at the time of the Hollywood blacklist, which brought him strong negative reactions from many liberal friends and colleagues. His testimony helped end the careers of former acting colleagues Morris Carnovsky and Art Smith, along with basically the work of playwright Clifford Odets. The two men had made a pact to name each other in front of the committee. Kazan later justified his act by saying he took "only the more tolerable of two alternatives that were either way painful and wrong." Nearly a half-century later, his anti-Communist testimony continued to cause controversy. When Kazan was awarded an honorary Oscar in 1999, dozens of actors chose not to applaud as 250 demonstrators picketed the event.Kazan influenced the films of the 1950s and 1960s with his provocative, issue-driven subjects. Director Stanley Kubrick called him, "without question, the best director we have in America, [and] capable of performing miracles with the actors he uses." Film author Ian Freer concludes that even "if his achievements are tainted by political controversy, the debt Hollywood—and actors everywhere—owes him is enormous." In 2010, Martin Scorsese co-directed the documentary film A Letter to Elia as a personal tribute to Kazan.Eva Marie Saint
Eva Marie Saint (born July 4, 1924) is an American actress. In a career spanning 70 years, she is possibly best known for starring in Elia Kazan's On the Waterfront (1954), for which she won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, and Alfred Hitchcock's North by Northwest (1959). She received Golden Globe and BAFTA Award nominations for A Hatful of Rain (1957) and won a Primetime Emmy Award for the television miniseries People Like Us (1990). Her film career also includes roles in Raintree County (1957), Exodus (1960), The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming (1965), Grand Prix (1966), Nothing in Common (1986), Because of Winn-Dixie (2005), Superman Returns (2006), and Winter's Tale (2014).Gene Milford
Arthur Eugene "Gene" Milford (January 19, 1902 – December 23, 1991) was an American film and television editor with about one hundred feature film credits. Among his most noted films are Lost Horizon (directed by Frank Capra - 1937), On the Waterfront (directed by Elia Kazan - 1954), A Face in the Crowd (Kazan - 1957), and Wait Until Dark (directed by Terence Young - 1967).Milford won the Academy Award for Best Film Editing for Lost Horizon (with Gene Havlick) and for On the Waterfront; he was also nominated for an Academy Award for One Night of Love (directed by Victor Schertzinger - 1934). He had been elected to the American Cinema Editors, and he and Barbara McLean received its inaugural Career Achievement Awards in 1988.House on the Waterfront
House on the Waterfront (French: Port du désir) is a 1955 French drama film directed by Edmond T. Gréville and starring Jean Gabin, Andrée Debar and Henri Vidal.It was made at the Billancourt Studios with some location filming in Marseilles. The film's sets were designed by Lucien Aguettand. Although completed in 1954, it wasn't released until the following year.KATM
KATM (103.3 MHz Kat Country 103) is a commercial FM radio station in Modesto, California and also heard in the nearby cities of Stockton and Merced. The station is owned by Cumulus Media and airs a country music format. Its studios are in Stockton, and its transmitter is located off South Bird Road in Vernalis, California.KAT Country often works with local charities and community organizations providing air time and fundraising opportunities. Most notably: the Make-A-Wish Foundation, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Toys for Tots, the Second Harvest Food Bank, the American Cancer Society and others.
The station hosts a yearly Listener Appreciation Concert. As the concert crowds have grown, the venues have been changed to accommodate the growing number of attendees. The June 2nd show at the Stanislaus County Fairgrounds hosted around 20,000 fans in Turlock, California. In 2011, the Listener Appreciation Concert was held at Weber Point Event Center on the waterfront in Stockton, California.Karl Malden
Karl Malden (born Mladen George Sekulovich; March 22, 1912 – July 1, 2009) was an American actor. He was primarily a character actor who "for more than 60 years brought an intelligent intensity and a homespun authenticity to roles in theater, film and television", especially in such classic films as A Streetcar Named Desire (1951) — for which he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor — On the Waterfront (1954), Pollyanna (1960), and One-Eyed Jacks (1961). Malden also played in high-profile Hollywood films such as Baby Doll (1956), The Hanging Tree (1959), How the West Was Won (1962), and Patton (1970).
From 1972 to 1977, he portrayed Lt. Mike Stone in the television crime drama The Streets of San Francisco. He was later the spokesman for American Express. Film and culture critic Charles Champlin described Malden as "an Everyman, but one whose range moved easily up and down the levels of society and the IQ scale, from heroes to heavies and ordinary, decent guys just trying to get along", and at the time of his death, Malden was described as "one of the great character actors of his time" who created a number of "powerhouse performances on screen". Malden was also President of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences from 1989 to 1992.Lee J. Cobb
Lee J. Cobb (born Leo Jacoby, December 8, 1911 – February 11, 1976) was an American actor. He is best known for his performances in On the Waterfront (1954), 12 Angry Men (1957), and The Exorcist (1973). He also played the role of Willy Loman in the original Broadway production of Arthur Miller's 1949 play Death of a Salesman under the direction of Elia Kazan. On television, Cobb starred in the first four seasons of the Western series The Virginian. He typically played arrogant, intimidating and abrasive characters, but often had roles as respectable figures such as judges and police officers. He was twice nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, for The Brothers Karamazov (1958) and On the Waterfront (1954).Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor and film director. With a career spanning 60 years, he is well-regarded for his cultural influence on 20th-century film. Brando's Academy Award-winning performances include that of Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront (1954) and Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather (1972). Brando was an activist for many causes, notably the civil rights movement and various Native American movements. He is credited with helping to popularize the Stanislavski system of acting, having studied with Stella Adler in the 1940s. He is often regarded as one of the first actors to bring Method Acting (built from the Stanislavski system) to mainstream audiences.
He initially gained acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for reprising the role of Stanley Kowalski in the 1951 film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' play A Streetcar Named Desire, a role that he originated successfully on Broadway. He received further praise for his performance as Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront, and his portrayal of the rebellious motorcycle gang leader Johnny Strabler in The Wild One proved to be a lasting image in popular culture. Brando received Academy Award nominations for playing Emiliano Zapata in Viva Zapata! (1952); Mark Antony in Joseph L. Mankiewicz's 1953 film adaptation of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar; and Air Force Major Lloyd Gruver in Sayonara (1957), an adaptation of James Michener's 1954 novel. Brando was included in a list of Top Ten Money Making Stars three times in the 1950s, coming in tenth in 1954, sixth in 1955, and fourth in 1958.
The 1960s saw Brando's career take a downturn. He directed and starred in the cult western film One-Eyed Jacks, a critical and commercial flop, after which he delivered a series of box-office failures, beginning with the 1962 film adaptation of the novel Mutiny on the Bounty. After 10 years, during which he did not appear in a successful film, he won his second Academy Award for playing Vito Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather, a role critics consider among his greatest. The Godfather was then one of the most commercially successful films of all time. With that and his Oscar-nominated performance in Last Tango in Paris, Brando re-established himself in the ranks of top box-office stars, placing sixth and tenth in the Money Making Stars poll in 1972 and 1973, respectively.
Brando took a four-year hiatus before appearing in The Missouri Breaks (1976). After this, he was content with being a highly paid character actor in cameo roles, such as in Superman (1978) and The Formula (1980), before taking a nine-year break from motion pictures. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Brando was paid a record $3.7 million ($15 million in inflation-adjusted dollars) and 11.75% of the gross profits for 13 days' work on Superman. He finished out the 1970s with his controversial performance as Colonel Kurtz in another Coppola film, Apocalypse Now, a box-office hit for which he was highly paid and which helped finance his career layoff during the 1980s.
Brando was ranked by the American Film Institute as the fourth-greatest movie star among male movie stars whose screen debuts occurred in or before 1950. He was one of six professional actors, along with Charlie Chaplin, U.S. President Ronald Reagan, Lucille Ball, Frank Sinatra, and Marilyn Monroe, named in 1999 by Time magazine as one of its 100 Most Important People of the Century. In this list, Time designated Brando as the "Actor of the Century".On the Waterfront (TV series)
On the Waterfront was a BBC Saturday morning children's programme, filmed at Brunswick Dock, Liverpool. It was hosted by Andrew O'Connor, Kate Copstick, Bernadette Nolan and Terry Randall. The programme ran for two seasons in 1988 and 1989, and consisted of comedy sketches interspersed with cartoons, competitions and music.
The Executive Producer was; Martin Hughes, the Producer; Stephen Rider Haggard
The writer Russell T Davies, later a BAFTA Award-winner for his work on programmes such as Queer as Folk and Doctor Who, worked on the series, writing the script for a comedy dubbed version of the French children's drama series The Flashing Blade.
The series is notable in giving the human and puppet double-act Bodger and Badger their first TV exposure.Pat Hingle
Martin Patterson Hingle (July 19, 1924 – January 3, 2009) was an American character actor who appeared in hundreds of television shows and feature films. His first film was On the Waterfront in 1954. He often played tough authority figures. Hingle was a close friend of Clint Eastwood and appeared in the Eastwood films Hang 'em High, The Gauntlet, and Sudden Impact.Stevedore
A stevedore, longshoreman, docker or dockworker is a waterfront manual laborer who is involved in loading and unloading ships, trucks, trains or airplanes.
After the shipping container revolution of the 1950s, the number of dockworkers required declined by over 90%, and the term "stevedore" has increasingly come to mean a stevedoring firm that contracts with a port, shipowner, or charterer to load and unload a vessel.World Trade Center Barcelona
World Trade Center Barcelona is a business park located in Barcelona, opened on 22 July 1999. This business centre is located on the waterfront close to the city centre, and has 40,000 m2 of rented office and a conference centre, conventions and meeting spaces with 20 different rooms.
WTCB building structure was inspired by the shape of a boat surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, and created by American architect Henry N. Cobb. The arrangement of the four buildings in a circle creates a central plaza of 2,500 m2, where shops and restaurants provide services to the users of the complex. The four towers house offices for rent, a congress centre and the Hotel Grand Marina.
Complex design allows renting offices from 40 to 3,000 m2 in a single plant. The flexibility of space is also a feature of the convention centre, offering the possibility of organising meetings of 8 to large events with up to 1,500 attendees.
|Opera and operetta|
List of compositions by Leonard Bernstein Category:Compositions by Leonard Bernstein
Awards for On the Waterfront