On-board diagnostics (OBD) is an automotive term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems give the vehicle owner or repair technician access to the status of the various vehicle subsystems. The amount of diagnostic information available via OBD has varied widely since its introduction in the early 1980s versions of on-board vehicle computers. Early versions of OBD would simply illuminate a malfunction indicator light or "idiot light" if a problem was detected but would not provide any information as to the nature of the problem. Modern OBD implementations use a standardized digital communications port to provide real-time data in addition to a standardized series of diagnostic trouble codes, or DTCs, which allow one to rapidly identify and remedy malfunctions within the vehicle.
GM's ALDL (Assembly Line Diagnostic Link) is a General Motors proprietary onboard diagnostic interface that started with the late 1970s and early 1980s CLCC (Closed Loop Carburetor Control) and early GM EFI systems. There is an appearance of standardization because the diagnostic jack didn't change over the years ALDL was utilized by GM. GM North America used a proprietary 12 position Metripack 280 diagnostic jack. GM Australia Holden used a 6 position Metripack 280 diagnostic jack. The GM Europe Opel and Vauxall used a 10 position Metripack 280 diagnostic jack. ALDL was not a standard. It was actually extremely fragmented. The information exchange changed with each powertrain control module (aka PCM, ECM, ECU). (A PCM integrates transmission and engine control on one Processing unit. ECM/ECU are engine control only with a separate TCM (Transmission Control Module) if needed.) While ALDL is the closest thing to standard on-board diagnostics prior to 1991 ALDL was not a standard. ALDL was even fragmented within GM brands, models, and model years. Trim levels in the same model year, division, and nameplate can use different communications. Different versions presented differences in diagnostic jack pin-outs, data protocols, and data rates (this is the reason for the ″Mask″ files needed for aftermarket software communication). Earlier versions used 160 bit/s, while later versions went up to 8192 bit/s and used bi-directional communications to the PCM or ECM/TCM.
ALDL on 1991 and later California emissions GM vehicles met the 1991 and later California OBD-I communication standard. This does not mean that ALDL is OBD-I. OBD-I was an early 1990s California-only mandate, not a United States federal mandate. It was not used on non-California emissions vehicles.
Some Asian, European, and North American diagnostic ports are sometimes incorrectly referred to as ALDL. A small number of vehicles manufactured before 1996 from other manufacturers used the GM Delphi Electronics engine and powertrain controllers; however, these used a modified ALDL communication protocol. Most did not and there was not a homogeneous name for these other proprietary diagnostic protocols and interface ports. Ford EEC, Toyota DLC, Chrysler, Nissan, Volkswagen, and others used their own on-board Diagnostics protocols and connectors, and are also not OBD-I compliant outside California.
Multiplex OBD or M-OBD is an OBD variant protocol used by Toyota, prior to OBD-II compliance. Toyota's DLC3 (Data Link Connector 3) is the standard 16-pin OBD-II connector, but a proprietary cable and software is required as generic OBD-II cables and software will not interface with it. The bus + line is SIL (Pin 7)
A 1991 and later California standard. It is not a USA Federal standard. The regulatory intent of OBD-I was to encourage auto manufacturers to design reliable emission control systems that remain effective for the vehicle's "useful life". The Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) of OBD-I vehicles can usually be found without an expensive 'scan tool'. Each manufacturer used their own diagnostic link connector (DLC), DLC location, DTC definitions, and procedure to read the DTCs from the vehicle. DTCs from OBD-I cars are often read through the blinking patterns of the 'Check Engine Light' (CEL) or 'Service Engine Soon' (SES) light. By connecting certain pins of the diagnostic connector, the 'Check Engine' light will blink out a two-digit number that corresponds to a specific error condition. The DTCs of some OBD-I cars are interpreted in different ways, however. Cadillac (gasoline) fuel-injected vehicles are equipped with actual on-board diagnostics, providing trouble codes, actuator tests and sensor data through the new digital Electronic Climate Control display. Holding down 'Off' and 'Warmer' for several seconds activates the diagnostic mode without the need for an external scan tool. Some Honda engine computers are equipped with LEDs that light up in a specific pattern to indicate the DTC. General Motors, some 1989–1995 Ford vehicles (DCL), and some 1989–1995 Toyota/Lexus vehicles have a live sensor data stream available; however, many other OBD-I equipped vehicles do not. OBD-I vehicles have fewer DTCs available than for OBD-II equipped vehicles.
OBD 1.5 refers to a partial implementation of OBD-II which General Motors used on some vehicles in 1994 and 1995. OBD 1.5 is a colloquialism. GM did not use the term OBD 1.5 in the documentation for these vehicles; they simply have an OBD and an OBD-II section in the service manual. Most of these 1994 & 1995 vehicles were simply 8196 baud ALDL serial data on the #9 vendor option terminal of the J1962 Jack that was formally adopted for OBD II starting in 1996.
For example, the 94–95 Corvettes have one post-catalyst oxygen sensor (although they have two catalytic converters), and have a subset of the OBD-II codes implemented. For a 1994 Corvette the implemented OBD-II codes are P0116-P0118, P0131-P0135, P0151-P0155, P0158, P0160-P0161, P0171-P0175, P0420, P1114-P1115, P1133, P1153 and P1158.
This hybrid system was present on the GM H-body cars in 94–95, W-body cars (Buick Regal, Chevrolet Lumina ('95 only), Chevrolet Monte Carlo ('95 only), Pontiac Grand Prix, Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme) in 94–95, L-body (Chevrolet Beretta/Corsica) in 94–95, Y-body (Chevrolet Corvette) in 94–95, on the F-body (Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird) in 95 and on the J-Body (Chevrolet Cavalier and Pontiac Sunfire) and N-Body (Buick Skylark, Oldsmobile Achieva, Pontiac Grand Am) in 95 and 96 and also on '94–'95 Saab vehicles with the naturally aspirated 2.3.
The pinout for the ALDL connection on these cars is as follows:
GM used at least two (#9 & #12) of what became seven "Vendor Option" terminals (1, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13) along with #4 Chassis Ground and #16 Battery Power in the formally accepted J1962 Jack. While OBD II interfaces will not communicate with these controllers they will not be damaged by plugging into these jacks either.
An OBD 1.5 compatible scan tool is required to read codes generated by OBD 1.5.
Additional vehicle-specific diagnostic and control circuits are also available on this connector. For instance, on the Corvette there are interfaces for the Class 2 serial data stream from the PCM, the CCM diagnostic terminal, the radio data stream, the airbag system, the selective ride control system, the low tire pressure warning system, and the passive keyless entry system.
Codes retrieved are still 2 digit codes which still require an ALDL scan tool, a laptop and USB-ALDL interface with a properly pinned J1962 ALDL plug, or a GM Tech II. Flash codes can be retrieved on 1994–1995 Corvettes by shorting #12-Vendor Option to #4 Chassis Ground.
OBD-II is an improvement over OBD-I in both capability and standardization. The OBD-II standard specifies the type of diagnostic connector and its pinout, the electrical signalling protocols available, and the messaging format. It also provides a candidate list of vehicle parameters to monitor along with how to encode the data for each. There is a pin in the connector that provides power for the scan tool from the vehicle battery, which eliminates the need to connect a scan tool to a power source separately. However, some technicians might still connect the scan tool to an auxiliary power source to protect data in the unusual event that a vehicle experiences a loss of electrical power due to a malfunction. Finally, the OBD-II standard provides list of standardized DTCs. As a result of this standardization, a single device can query the on-board computer(s) for these parameters in any vehicle. OBD-II standardization was prompted to simplify diagnosis of increasingly complicated emissions equipment, and though only emission-related codes and data are required to be transmitted through it according to U.S. legislation, most manufacturers have made the OBD-II Data Link Connector the main connector in the vehicle through which all systems are diagnosed and reprogrammed. OBD-II Diagnostic Trouble Codes are 4-digit, preceded by a letter: P for engine and transmission (powertrain), B for body, C for chassis, and U for network. Manufacturers may also add custom data parameters to their specific OBD-II implementation, including real-time data requests as well as trouble codes.
The SAE J1962 specification provides for two standardized hardware interfaces, called type A and type B. Both are female, 16-pin (2x8), D-shaped connectors, and both have a groove between the two rows of pins, but type B's groove is interrupted in the middle. This prevents the insertion of a type A male plug into a type B female socket while allowing a type B male plug to be inserted into a type A female socket.
The type A connector is used for vehicles that use 12V supply voltage, whereas type B is used for 24V vehicles and it is required to mark the front of the D-shaped area in blue color.
SAE J1962 defines the pinout of the connector as:
|1||Manufacturer discretion:||9||Manufacturer discretion:
|2||Bus Positive Line of SAE J1850 PWM and VPW||10||Bus Negative Line of SAE J1850 PWM only (not SAE J1850 VPW)|
|3||Manufacturer Discretion:||11||Manufacturer Discretion:|
|4||Chassis ground||12||Manufacturer discretion:
|5||Signal ground||13||Manufacturer discretion:
|6||CAN-High (ISO 15765-4 and SAE J2284)||14||CAN-Low (ISO 15765-4 and SAE J2284)|
|7||K-Line of ISO 9141-2 and ISO 14230-4||15||L-Line of ISO 9141-2 and ISO 14230-4|
Unlike the OBD-I connector, which was sometimes found under the hood of the vehicle, the OBD-II connector is required to be within 2 feet (0.61 m) of the steering wheel (unless an exemption is applied for by the manufacturer, in which case it is still somewhere within reach of the driver).
The EOBD (European on board diagnostics) regulations are the European equivalent of OBD-II, and apply to all passenger cars of category M1 (with no more than 8 passenger seats and a Gross Vehicle Weight rating of 2500 kg or less) first registered within EU member states since 1 January 2001 for petrol (gasoline) engined cars and since 1 January 2004 for diesel engined cars.
For newly introduced models, the regulation dates applied a year earlier – 1 January 2000 for petrol and 1 January 2003 for diesel. For passenger cars with a Gross Vehicle Weight rating of greater than 2500 kg and for light commercial vehicles, the regulation dates applied from 1 January 2002 for petrol models, and 1 January 2007 for diesel models.
The technical implementation of EOBD is essentially the same as OBD-II, with the same SAE J1962 diagnostic link connector and signal protocols being used.
In 2017, all previous standards were revoked because there were more than 24 standards produced over 35 years. The new document supplanted all previous versions.
Each of the EOBD fault codes consists of five characters: a letter, followed by four numbers. The letter refers to the system being interrogated e.g. Pxxxx would refer to the powertrain system. The next character would be a 0 if complies to the EOBD standard. So it should look like P0xxx.
The first letter indicates the family of DTC.
The first digit indicates if the code is generic or not (green digit):
The next character would refer to the sub system.
The following two characters would refer to the individual fault within each subsystem.
JOBD is a version of OBD-II for vehicles sold in Japan.
The ADR 79/01 vehicle standard (Australian Design Rule 79/01 – Emission Control for Light Vehicles, 2005) is the Australian equivalent of OBD-II. It applies to all vehicles of category M1 and N1 with a gross Vehicle Weight rating of 3500 kg or less, registered from new within Australia and produced since 1 January 2006 for petrol (gasoline) engined cars and since 1 January 2007 for diesel engined cars. For newly introduced models, the regulation dates applied a year earlier – 1 January 2005 for petrol and January 2006 for diesel. The ADR 79/01 standard was supplemented by the ADR 79/02 standard which imposed tighter emissions restrictions, applicable to all vehicles of class M1 and N1 with a gross vehicle weight rating of 3500 kg or less, from 1 July 2008 for new models, 1 July 2010 for all models. The technical implementation of this standard is essentially the same as OBD-II, with the same SAE J1962 diagnostic link connector and signal protocols being used.
Five signaling protocols are permitted with the OBD-II interface; most vehicles implement only one. It is often possible to deduce the protocol, based on which pins are present on the J1962 connector:
All OBD-II pinouts use the same connector, but different pins are used with the exception of pin 4 (battery ground) and pin 16 (battery positive).
OBD-II provides access to data from the electronic control unit (ECU) and offers a valuable source of information when troubleshooting problems inside a vehicle. The SAE J1979 standard defines a method for requesting various diagnostic data and a list of standard parameters that might be available from the ECU. The various parameters that are available are addressed by "parameter identification numbers" (parameter IDs or PIDs) which are defined in J1979. For a list of basic PIDs, their definitions, and the formula to convert raw OBD-II output to meaningful diagnostic units, see OBD-II PIDs. Manufacturers are not required to implement all PIDs listed in J1979 and they are allowed to include proprietary PIDs that are not listed. The PID request and data retrieval system gives access to real time performance data as well as flagged DTCs. For a list of generic OBD-II DTCs suggested by the SAE, see Table of OBD-II Codes. Individual manufacturers often enhance the OBD-II code set with additional proprietary DTCs.
Here is a basic introduction to the OBD communication protocol according to ISO 15031-5:
Various tools are available that plug into the OBD connector to access OBD functions. These range from simple generic consumer level tools to highly sophisticated OEM dealership tools to vehicle telematic devices.
A range of rugged hand-held scan tools is available.
Mobile device applications allow mobile devices such as cell phones and tablets to display and manipulate the OBD-II data accessed via USB adaptor cables, bluetooth or WiFi adapters plugged into the car's OBD II connector. A number of new devices allow the vehicle's OBD port to stream data directly to the Internet via a cellular connection.
A PC-based OBD analysis tool that converts the OBD-II signals to serial data (USB or serial port) standard to PCs or Macs. The software then decodes the received data to a visual display. Many popular interfaces are based on the ELM or STN OBD Interpreter ICs, both of which read all five generic OBD-II protocols. Some adapters now use the J2534 API allowing them to access OBD-II Protocols for both cars and trucks.
In addition to the functions of a hand-held scan tool, the PC-based tools generally offer:
The extent that a PC tool may access manufacturer or vehicle-specific ECU diagnostics varies between software products as it does between hand-held scanners.
Data loggers are designed to capture vehicle data while the vehicle is in normal operation, for later analysis.
Data logging uses include:
Analysis of vehicle black box data may be performed on a periodic basis, automatically transmitted wirelessly to a third party or retrieved for forensic analysis after an event such as an accident, traffic infringement or mechanical fault.
In the United States, many states now use OBD-II testing instead of tailpipe testing in OBD-II compliant vehicles (1996 and newer). Since OBD-II stores trouble codes for emissions equipment, the testing computer can query the vehicle's onboard computer and verify there are no emission related trouble codes and that the vehicle is in compliance with emission standards for the model year it was manufactured.
In the Netherlands, 2006 and later vehicles get a yearly EOBD emission check.
Driver's supplementary vehicle instrumentation is installed in a vehicle in addition to that provided by the vehicle manufacturer and intended for display to the driver during normal operation. This is opposed to scanners used primarily for active fault diagnosis, tuning, or hidden data logging.
Auto enthusiasts have traditionally installed additional gauges such as manifold vacuum, battery current etc. The OBD standard interface has enabled a new generation of enthusiast instrumentation accessing the full range of vehicle data used for diagnostics, and derived data such as instantaneous fuel economy.
As a carputer is essentially a PC, the same software could be loaded as for PC-based scan tools and vice versa, so the distinction is only in the reason for use of the software.
These enthusiast systems may also include some functionality similar to the other scan tools.
OBD II is no longer only used by professionals and hobbyists to repair vehicles. OBD II information is commonly used by vehicle telematics devices that perform fleet tracking, monitor fuel efficiency, prevent unsafe driving, as well as for remote diagnostics and by pay-as-you-drive insurance. Although originally not intended for the above purposes, commonly supported OBD II data such as vehicle speed, RPM, and fuel level allow GPS-based fleet tracking devices to monitor vehicle idling times, speeding, and over-revving. By monitoring OBD II DTCs a company can know immediately if one of its vehicles has an engine problem and by interpreting the code the nature of the problem. OBD II is also monitored to block mobile phones when driving and to record trip data for insurance purposes.
Since 2010, Title 13 of the California Code of Regulations 1971.1 allows heavy duty (class 8) diesel trucks to use either SAE J1939-73 OBD protocols with the J1939-13 round OBD connector, or SAE J1979 OBD protocols with the J1962 OBD connector (same as passenger cars). Heavy trucks that use J1979/J1962 (for example Mack and Volvo Trucks North America) typically use 29 bit CAN identifiers.
Researchers at the University of Washington and University of California examined the security around OBD, and found that they were able to gain control over many vehicle components via the interface. Furthermore, they were able to upload new firmware into the engine control units. Their conclusion is that vehicle embedded systems are not designed with security in mind.
There have been reports of thieves using specialist OBD reprogramming devices to enable them to steal cars without the use of a key. The primary causes of this vulnerability lie in the tendency for vehicle manufacturers to extend the bus for purposes other than those for which it was designed, and the lack of authentication and authorization in the OBD specifications, which instead rely largely on security through obscurity. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has demonstrated the ability to take over certain functions through wires to the car's control center.
In 2012, vehicles produced by BMW, Porsche, Opel, Renault, Mercedes, Volkswagen and Toyota were stolen by programming a blank key fob to start the car through the OBD connection. BMW offered all owners a free fix through a software update, and all newer vehicles have upgraded software that fixed this vulnerability.
Assembly Line Diagnostic Link or ALDL is a proprietary on-board diagnostics system developed by General Motors before the standardization of OBD-2. It was previously called Assembly Line Communications Link or ALCL. The two terms are used interchangeably.
This system was only vaguely standardized and suffered from the fact that specifications for the communications link varied from one model to the next. ALDL was largely used by manufacturers for diagnostics at their dealerships and official maintenance facilities. The connector is usually located under the dash on the driver's side of left-hand drive (LHD) vehicles, though this location was not standardized.
For the assembly plant test system computer that was connected to this vehicle connector and known by the same name, see the article IBM Series/1. In the late 1980s the system was migrated to the ADTS system (ALDL Development and Test System) which utilized an industrialized IBM PC with custom interface hardware.Carputer
A carputer is a computer with specializations to run in a car, such as compact size, low power requirement, and some customized components. The actual computing hardware is typically based on standard PCs or mobile devices. Because they are computer based they typically have many standard interfaces such as Bluetooth, USB, and WiFi. The first carputer was introduced by Clarion Co. on December 4, 1998, although on-board diagnostics have already been employed ever since the 1980s in order to measure precisely the amount of fuel entering the engine as the carburetors got too complex.A challenge to installing a computer in a car is the power supply. Energy is supplied as a nominal 12V DC in cars or 24V in some trucks. The real voltage varies according to whether the engine is on or off since the battery generally delivers less than 12V, while the generator supplies more. There can be peaks, and at ignition time the current supply drops. External DC/DC converters can help to regulate voltages so these can be used.Police cars often have Mobile data terminals in the form of a laptop swivel mounted where the driver's armrest would be. This can be used to log data and to query networked databases.Microsoft developed Windows Embedded Automotive and used it with the AutoPC, a brand of carputer jointly developed with Clarion. The system was released in 1998, and referred to the operating system itself as "Auto PC". It was based on Windows CE 2.0. It evolved into "Windows CE for Automotive". The platform was used for the first two generations of MyFord Touch while the third generation runs QNX from BlackBerry Limited.Tablet computers such as the Nexus 7 can be installed either permanently (in-dash) or removably (a dock). It can be used for watching movies or listening to music, as well as for GPS navigation. It also has a Bluetooth for hands-free calls.
Computers can be used to decode on-board diagnostics (OBD) data to a visual display. Many interfaces are based on the ELM327 OBD Interpreter ICs. Also STN1110 is known to be used.Chip tuning
Chip tuning is changing or modifying an erasable programmable read only memory chip in an automobile's or other vehicle's electronic control unit (ECU) to achieve superior performance, whether it be more power, cleaner emissions, or better fuel efficiency. Engine manufacturers generally use a conservative electronic control unit map to allow for individual engine variations as well as infrequent servicing and poor-quality fuel. Vehicles with a remapped electronic control unit may be more sensitive to fuel quality and service schedules.
This was done with early engine computers in the 1980s and 1990s. Today, the term chip tuning can be misleading, as people will often use it to describe ECU tuning that does not involve swapping the chip. Modern electronic control units can be tuned by simply updating their software through a standard interface, such as On Board Diagnostics. This procedure is commonly referred to as engine or electronic control unit tuning. Electronic control units are a relatively recent addition to the automobile, having first appeared in the late 1970s.
As technology advanced, so did the electronics that go into cars. The electronic control unit in a modern automobile, together with advanced engine technology, makes it possible to control many aspects of the engine's operation, such as spark timing and fuel injection. The electronic control unit may also control electronic throttle control (drive-by-wire), poppet valve timing, boost control (in turbocharged engines), Anti-lock braking system, the automatic transmission, speed governor (if equipped), and the Electronic Stability Control system.
Performance gains are realized by adjusting the ignition timing advance. Different timing may result in better performance. However, to cope with advanced timing, one must run high-octane gasoline to avoid pre-ignition detonation or pinging. Manufacturers design for a specific timing and this may limit performance accordingly.
In addition, changing fuel maps to coincide with the stoichiometric ratio for gasoline combustion may also realize performance increase. Most manufacturers tune for optimum emissions (running rich to protect the catalytic converter) and fuel economy purposes which can limit performance.
Cars with a turbo fitted can have the requested and allowable boost levels raised, these applications usually have the most effect if the turbo fitted is a low pressure turbo which leaves the most room for improvement.
Another reason to change the electronic control unit map is if there are engine, intake, or exhaust modifications to the car. These "bolt-on" modifications alter the way that the engine flows, often causing the air to fuel ratio to change. Without re-mapping the fuel tables, some of the performance gains from the modifications may not be realized.
A poorly tuned electronic control unit can result in decreased performance, driveability, and may even cause engine damage.
The most common way to "upgrade" the electronic control unit is using either plug in modules as mentioned above or using a specialist tuner who will use an On Board Diagnostics Flash tool. These devices generally plug into the diagnostic port although in some cases the reprogramming is done directly on the circuit board. Maps are supplied by tuners.
An alternative to modifying the on-board chip is adding an external device, often known as a tuning box. Tuning boxes work by connecting to certain existing sensors on the engine and manipulating the signal that they send to the car's ECU. The number of sensor signals that are intercepted will vary depending on the manufacturer of the tuning box. Generally speaking, at a minimum, diesel turbo tuning boxes will manipulate the fuel pressure signal and turbo petrol tuning boxes will intercept the boost pressure signal. The advantage of external tuning boxes is that they can be easily removed to restore the vehicle to standard and they leave no trace of being used.Data link connector (automotive)
The data link connector (DLC) is the multi-pin diagnostic connection port for automobiles, trucks, and motorcycles used to interface a scan tool with the control modules of a given vehicle and access on-board diagnostics and live data streams.
Prior to 1996, many OBD-I data link connector's were in the engine compartment, usually near the fuse block. Also, prior to 1996, there was no standardization for these connectors, and each manufacturer had its own shape with a unique pin arrangement. After 1996, many manufacturers retained their proprietary connectors in addition to the OBD-II interface, because OBD-II ports are only required to transmit emission-related codes and data.
J1708 is a DLC used on heavy duty vehicles.ELM327
The ELM327 is a programmed microcontroller produced by ELM Electronics for translating the on-board diagnostics (OBD) interface found in most modern cars. The ELM327 command protocol is one of the most popular PC-to-OBD interface standards and is also implemented by other vendors.
The original ELM327 is implemented on the PIC18F2480 microcontroller from Microchip Technology.
ELM327 is one of a family of OBD translators from ELM Electronics. Other variants implement only a subset of the OBD protocols.Equipment and Tool Institute
Equipment and Tool Institute (ETI) is a US-based non-profit automotive trade association. Its 70+ member companies supply products to vehicle manufacturers and the after-market industry. ETI is managed by a small staff consisting of an executive manager, technical manager and a marketing manager. Its member company representatives contribute to the various technical groups.K-line
K-line may refer to:
K Line, a Japanese shipping company
K-Line, a model railway locomotive company
K-line (artificial intelligence) (Knowledge-line), a mental agent in artificial intelligence
K-Line bus operator in Yorkshire, England since rebranded as Tiger Blue
K-line (IRC), a server ban in IRC
K-line (spectrometry), one of two features in spectroscopy:
Calcium K line, a Fraunhofer spectral line from ionised calcium
K-line (x-ray), an x-ray peak in astronomical spectrometry
K (Broadway Brooklyn Local), earlier KK, discontinued in 1976
K (Eighth Avenue Local), a defunct train service on the New York City Subway, which was known as the AA until 1985
K Ingleside, a service of the San Francisco Municipal Railway sometimes called the K Line
K-Line, part of the ISO 9141 on-board diagnostics vehicle network interface standard
K line, the line marking the calculation point in ski jumping
K line, a term used in Internal conversion electron spectroscopyMAP sensor
The manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor) is one of the sensors used in an internal combustion engine's electronic control system.
Engines that use a MAP sensor are typically fuel injected. The manifold absolute pressure sensor provides instantaneous manifold pressure information to the engine's electronic control unit (ECU). The data is used to calculate air density and determine the engine's air mass flow rate, which in turn determines the required fuel metering for optimum combustion (see stoichiometry) and influence the advance or retard of ignition timing. A fuel-injected engine may alternatively use a mass airflow sensor (MAF sensor) to detect the intake airflow. A typical naturally aspirated engine configuration employs one or the other, whereas forced induction engines typically use both; a MAF sensor on the intake tract pre-turbo and a MAP sensor on the charge pipe leading to the throttle body.
MAP sensor data can be converted to air mass data using the speed-density method. Engine speed (RPM) and air temperature are also necessary to complete the speed-density calculation. The MAP sensor can also be used in OBD II (on-board diagnostics) applications to test the EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) valve for functionality, an application typical in OBD II equipped General Motors engines.MapmyIndia
MapmyIndia offers digital map data, telematics, location-based SaaS and GIS services. The company was founded in 1992 and is headquartered at New Delhi.Mass flow sensor
A mass (air) flow sensor (MAF) is a sensor used to determine the mass flow rate of air entering a fuel-injected internal combustion engine.
The air mass information is necessary for the engine control unit (ECU) to balance and deliver the correct fuel mass to the engine. Air changes its density with temperature and pressure. In automotive applications, air density varies with the ambient temperature, altitude and the use of forced induction, which means that mass flow sensors are more appropriate than volumetric flow sensors for determining the quantity of intake air in each cylinder.
There are two common types of mass airflow sensors in use on automotive engines. These are the vane meter and the hot wire. Neither design employs technology that measures air mass directly. However, with additional sensors and inputs, an engine's ECU can determine the mass flow rate of intake air.
Both approaches are used almost exclusively on electronic fuel injection (EFI) engines. Both sensor designs output a 0.0–5.0 volt or a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal that is proportional to the air mass flow rate, and both sensors have an intake air temperature (IAT) sensor incorporated into their housings for most post on-board diagnostics (OBDII) vehicles. Vehicles prior to 1996 could have MAF without an IAT. An example is 1994 Infiniti Q45.
When a MAF sensor is used in conjunction with an oxygen sensor, the engine's air/fuel ratio can be controlled very accurately. The MAF sensor provides the open-loop controller predicted air flow information (the measured air flow) to the ECU, and the oxygen sensor provides closed-loop feedback in order to make minor corrections to the predicted air mass. Also see manifold absolute pressure sensor (MAP sensor).OBD
OBD may refer to:
On-board diagnostics, an electronics self diagnostic system, typically used in automotive applications
Optimal biological dose, the quantity of a radiological or pharmacological treatment that will produce the desired effect with acceptable toxicityOBD-II PIDs
OBD-II PIDs (On-board diagnostics Parameter IDs) are codes used to request data from a vehicle, used as a diagnostic tool.
SAE standard J1979 defines many OBD-II PIDs. All on-road vehicles and trucks sold in North America are required to support a subset of these codes, primarily for state mandated emissions inspections. Manufacturers also define additional PIDs specific to their vehicles. Though not mandated, many motorcycles also support OBD-II PIDs.
In 1996, light duty vehicles (less than 8,500 lb [3,900 kg]) were the first to be mandated followed by medium duty vehicles (between 8,500–14,000 lb [3,900–6,400 kg]) in 2005. They are both required to be accessed through a standardized data link connector defined by SAE J1962.
Heavy duty vehicles (greater than 14,000 lb [6,400 kg]) made after 2010, for sale in the US are allowed to support OBD-II diagnostics through SAE standard J1939-13 (a round diagnostic connector) according to CARB in title 13 CCR 1971.1. Some heavy duty trucks in North America use the SAE J1962 OBD-II diagnostic connector that is common with passenger cars, notably Mack and Volvo Trucks, however they use 29 bit CAN identifiers (unlike 11 bit headers used by passenger cars).OBDuino
OBDuino is an open source trip computer design based on the Arduino platform. An OBDuino may be assembled and customised by an electronics hobbyist; it displays information such as instantaneous fuel economy (e.g. miles per gallon, L/100 km or kilometres per litre), engine tuning parameters etc. on an LCD.
OBDuino utilises the On-Board Diagnostics interface found in most modern cars.ODB
ODB can refer to:
the IATA airport code of Córdoba AirportOn-board
On-board may refer to:
On Board (film), a 1998 Turkish film directed by Serdar Akar
Onboarding, the mechanism through which new employees acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and behaviors to become effective organizational members and insiders
On-Board Data HandlingUberdata
Uberdata (also known as Überdata or Uber data) is a ROM editing software package designed specifically for On Board Diagnostics (OBD) Honda Engine control units. It was created by Blake Warner (also known as Uberteg or Vertigo). In an article Warner states that "Uberdata is, in short, a piece of software that enables you to modify your Honda ECU's code using a Windows-based program".The current stable release is 1.70 (which was officially released on 24 Oct 04). The future of Uberdata is uncertain because Warner stopped developing the program, but he has released the source code to the open source community.VAG-COM
VCDS (an abbreviation for "VAG-COM Diagnostic System" and formerly known as VAG-COM) is a Microsoft Windows-based software package, developed and produced by Ross-Tech, LLC since May 2000. It is primarily used for diagnostics and adjustments of Volkswagen Group motor vehicles, including Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Audi, Bentley (limited), Lamborghini (limited), SEAT, and Škoda automobiles, along with Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles. The name "VAG-COM" derives from the acronym for Volkswagen Auto Group (VAG), the former name of the Volkswagen Group.
VCDS will perform most of the functions of the expensive electronic diagnostic tools available only to official dealers, like the current VAS 505x series diagnostic tools. In the past, these dealership-only tools have prevented owners, and many small independent repair shops from performing some fundamental tasks, such as diagnosing problems, diesel ignition timing, modification of convenience options such as automatic door unlocking, coding a replacement electronic control unit (ECU) or key to the vehicle, and monitoring of many vehicle sensors for diagnosing problems. Unlike generic on-board diagnostics (OBD-II or EOBD), VCDS uses the more in-depth Volkswagen Group-specific manufacturer protocol commands, which allows the user to access all diagnostic capable vehicle systems — even in vehicles which are not covered by generic OBD-II/EOBD (e.g. pre-1996). In general, there are two ways to use this software, either as a package (software and hardware) distributed by the manufacturer or their agents, or, by building your own interface hardware and using it with the publicly available but limited shareware version of the software.
VCDS is also capable of interfacing vehicles which use the generic OBD-II/EOBD protocols. However, the OBD-II and EOBD standards only allow for limited diagnostics, and no adjustments to any of the ECUs.Vehicle bus
A vehicle bus is a specialized internal communications network that interconnects components inside a vehicle (e.g., automobile, bus, train, industrial or agricultural vehicle, ship, or aircraft). Special requirements for vehicle control such as assurance of message delivery, of non-conflicting messages, of minimum time of delivery, of low cost, and of EMF noise resilience, as well as redundant routing and other characteristics mandate the use of less common networking protocols. Protocols include Controller Area Network (CAN), Local Interconnect Network (LIN) and others. Conventional computer networking technologies (such as Ethernet and TCP/IP) are rarely used, except in aircraft, where implementations of the ARINC 664 such as the Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet are used. Aircraft that use AFDX include the B787, the A400M and the A380.
All cars sold in the United States since 1996 are required to have an On-Board Diagnostics connector, for access to the car's electronic controllers.
ISO standards by standard number