Omnipresence

Omnipresence or ubiquity is the property of being present everywhere. The term omnipresence is most often used in a religious context as an attribute of a deity or supreme being, while the term ubiquity is generally used to describe something "existing or being everywhere at the same time, constantly encountered, widespread, common." Ubiquitous can also be used as a synonym for words like worldwide, universal, global, pervasive, all over the place.

The omnipresence of a supreme being is conceived differently by different religious systems. In monotheistic beliefs like Christianity, Judaism, and Islam the divine and the universe are separate, but the divine is present everywhere. In pantheistic beliefs the divine and the universe are identical. In panentheistic beliefs the divine interpenetrates the universe, but extends beyond it in time and space.

Introduction

Hinduism, and other religions that derive from it, incorporate the theory of transcendent and immanent omnipresence which is the traditional meaning of the word, Brahman. This theory defines a universal and fundamental substance, which is the source of all physical existence.

Divine omnipresence is thus one of the divine attributes, although in Western Christianity it has attracted less philosophical attention than such attributes as omnipotence, omniscience, or being eternal.

In Western theism, omnipresence is roughly described as the ability to be "present everywhere at the same time",[1] referring to an unbounded or universal presence. Omnipresence means minimally that there is no place to which God’s knowledge and power do not extend.[2] It is related to the concept of ubiquity, the ability to be everywhere or in many places at once.[3] This includes unlimited temporal presence.[4] William Lane Craig states that we shouldn’t think of God as being in space in the sense of being spread out like an invisible ether throughout space. He is not like an invisible gas that is everywhere present in space. This would be incorrect for several reasons. For one, it would mean that if the universe is finite, which is perfectly possible, then God would be finite. We do not want to say that because God is infinite. More seriously, if God is spread out throughout space, like an invisible ether, that means that he is not fully present everywhere.[5]

Some argue that omnipresence is a derived characteristic: an omniscient and omnipotent deity knows everything and can be and act everywhere, simultaneously. Others propound a deity as having the "Three O's", including omnipresence as a unique characteristic of the deity. Most Christian denominations — following theology standardized by the Nicene Creed — explain the concept of omnipresence in the form of the "Trinity", by having a single deity (God) made up of three omnipresent persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

Omnipresence in religions

Several ancient cultures such as the Vedic and the Native American civilizations share similar views on omnipresent nature; the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans did not worship an omnipresent being. While most Paleolithic cultures followed polytheistic practices, a form of omnipresent deity arises from a worldview that does not share ideas with mono-local deity cultures. Some omnipresent religions see the whole of existence as a manifestation of the deity. There are two predominant viewpoints here: pantheism, deity is the summation of Existence; and panentheism, deity is an emergent property of existence. The first is closest to the Native Americans' worldview; the latter resembles the Vedic outlook.

In traditional Jewish monotheism belief of panentheism, or an omnipresent God, is rejected.[6] While the "entire concept of God occupying physical space, or having any category of spatial reference apply to him was completely rejected by pure Judaic monotheism," Hasidic teachings, along with certain Kabbalistic systems, diverged to postulate belief in panentheism.[7]

In Islamic beliefs, pantheism is also rejected and omnipresence is described to transcend the physical. According to Shia tradition in Nahj al-Balagha, a compilation of Ali's teachings and letters, with commentary by Morteza Motahhari, the only territory that God does not enter is that of nothingness and non-existence. God is with everything, but not in anything, and nothing is with him. God is not within things, though not out of them. He is over and above every kind of condition, state, similarity and likeness. Ali says about God's omnipresence:

  • "He is with everything but not in physical nearness. He is different from everything but not in physical separation."
  • “He is not inside things in the sense of physical [pervasion or] penetration and is not outside them in the sense of [physical] exclusion [for exclusion entails a kind of finitude].”
  • “He is distinct from things because He overpowers them, and the things are distinct from Him because of their subjection to Him.”[8]

In Christianity, as well as in Kabbalistic and Hasidic philosophy, God is omnipresent. However, the major difference between them and other religious systems is that God is still transcendent to His creation and yet immanent in relating to creation. God is not immersed in the substance of creation, even though he is able to interact with it as he chooses. He cannot be excluded from any location or object in creation. God's presence is continuous throughout all of creation, though it may not be revealed in the same way at the same time to people everywhere. At times, he may be actively present in a situation, while he may not reveal that he is present in another circumstance in some other area. God is omnipresent in a way that he is able to interact with his creation however he chooses, and is the very essence of his creation. While contrary to normal physical intuitions, such omnipresence is logically possible by way of the classic geometric point or its equivalent, in that such a point is, by definition, within all of space without taking up any space. The Bible states that God can be both present to a person in a manifest manner (Psalm 46:1, Isaiah 57:15) as well as being present in every situation in all of creation at any given time (Psalm 33:13-14). Specifically, Oden states that the Bible shows that God can be present in every aspect of human life:

Marbaniang points out that omnipresence doesn't mean divine occupation of all space, nor divine distribution over all space, nor indwelling of every entity, nor that God cannot move in space, nor the divinification of the universe; but means that God is fully present every-where, and that God can do different things at different places at the same time.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford Dictionary of English: http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/omnipresent
  2. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Doctrine of God (part 9)". Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  3. ^ "ubiquity". Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
  4. ^ "Nature and Attributes of God". Catholic Encyclopedia. NewAdvent.org. September 1, 1909. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
  5. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Doctrine of God (part 8)". Retrieved 20 May 2014.
  6. ^ Saadia Gaon in his HaNivchar BaEmunot U'va-Deot, II, 11 (English translation of portion free online at end of this post; Rosenblatt translation [The Book of Beliefs and Opinions, Yale University, 1948], p. 124-125; Arabic/Hebrew Kafih ed. [הנבחר באמונות ובדעות, Jerusalem, 1970] p. 106). Cf. Maimonides' rejection of panentheism in his Commentary on the Mishnah, Tractate Sanhedrin, 10:1, third principle (English translation by Rosner in Maimonides' Commentary on the Mishnah: Tractate Sanhedrin [New York, 1981], p. 151; p. 141 in Kafih's Hebrew edition of the Order of Neziqin with Maimonides' Commentary [Jerusalem, 1963]) and Is Judaism Panentheistic? – A Brief Mekori Perspective.
  7. ^ Ilan, Yehudah B. Parashat Vayetze: HaMakom – God’s Place or the Place of God? Retrieved 2016-02-16.
  8. ^ http://www.duas.org/pdfs/Nahjul-Balagha.pdf pg 42
  9. ^ Oden, Thomas C. The Living God. Systematic Theology Vol. 1, 67-69
  10. ^ Domenic Marbaniang, "Omnipresence", Light of Life, Mumbai, February 2018

External links

Attributes of God in Christianity

The attributes of God are specific characteristics of God discussed in Christian theology.

Barjols

Barjols is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

At the gateway to Haute Provence and the hills of Var, near the Verdon gorges and the Lake of St. Croix, the town is set on a limestone cliff. Featuring 42 fountains, Barjols' architecture and life have been determined for centuries by the omnipresence of water. Historical buildings include the 11th century Collegiate Church. Leather was the mainstay of the village economy until the late 20th century when production moved to emerging economies and decline set in. Owing to this more recent industry, Barjols did not embrace tourism, and has kept many features and characters of French village life.

Deer Cave (Otranto)

The Deer Cave (Italian: Grotta dei Cervi - literally: Grotto of the stags) is a natural cave at the Salento coast near the town of Porto Badisco, around 8 km (5.0 mi) south of Otranto in Apulia, Italy. Unknown before 1970 it came to immediate international attention after the discovery of its impressive, innovative and enigmatic complex galleries of prehistoric parietal wall paintings.This complex of caves was discovered during an ongoing routine exploration of the local territory on February 1, 1970 by a team of speleologists of the Salento Speleological Group "Pasquale de Laurentiis" from Maglie. It was initially named Cave of Aeneas (Grotta di Enea) in reference to Virgil's Aeneid in which the Trojan hero Aeneas first landed in Italy precisely in Porto Badisco. The current name alludes to the omnipresence and significance of deer depictions among the cave's galleries. The location was soon closed to the public in order to not to disrupt the original environmental conditions essential for the conservation of the paintings. Access to the cave remains restricted to authorized personnel and researchers only.

Divine simplicity

In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts. The general idea can be stated in this way: the being of God is identical to the "attributes" of God. Characteristics such as omnipresence, goodness, truth, eternity, etc. are identical to God's being, not qualities that make up that being, nor abstract entities inhering in God as in a substance; in other words we can say that in God both essence and existence are one and the same.Varieties of the doctrine may be found in Jewish, Christian, and Muslim philosophical theologians, especially during the height of scholasticism, although the doctrine's origins may be traced back to ancient Greek thought, finding apotheosis in Plotinus' Enneads as the Simplex.

God in Abrahamic religions

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are sometimes called Abrahamic religions because they all accept the tradition of the God (known as Yahweh in Hebrew and Allah in Arabic) that revealed himself to the prophet Abraham. The theological traditions of all Abrahamic religions are thus to some extent influenced by the depiction of the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible, and the historical development of monotheism in the history of Judaism.

The Abrahamic God in this sense is the conception of God that remains a common attribute of all three traditions. God is conceived of as eternal, omnipotent, omniscient and as the creator of the universe. God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omni-benevolence and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is also transcendent, meaning that he is outside space and outside time and therefore not subject to anything within his creation, but at the same time a personal God, involved, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures.

Home movies

A home movie is a short amateur film or video typically made just to preserve a visual record of family activities, a vacation, or a special event, and intended for viewing at home by family and friends. Originally, home movies were made on photographic film in formats that usually limited the movie-maker to about three minutes per roll of costly camera film. The vast majority of amateur film formats lacked audio, shooting silent film.

The 1970s saw the advent of consumer camcorders that could record an hour or two of video on one relatively inexpensive videocassette which also had audio. This was followed by digital video cameras that recorded to flash memory, and most recently smartphones with video recording capability, made the creation of home movies easier and much more affordable to the average person.

The technological boundaries between home-movie-making and professional movie-making are becoming increasingly blurred as prosumer equipment often offers features previously only available on professional equipment.

In recent years, clips from home movies have been available to wider audiences through television series such as America's Funniest Home Videos, in Great Britain You've Been Framed! and Internet online video-sharing sites such as YouTube. The popularity of the Internet, and wider availability of high-speed connections has provided new ways of sharing home movies, such as video weblogs (vlogs), and video podcasts.

Microbial ecology

Microbial ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life—Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria—as well as viruses.Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. As a consequence of the quantitative magnitude of microbial life (Whitman and coworkers calculated 5.0×1030 cells, eight orders of magnitude greater than the number of stars in the observable universe) microbes, by virtue of their biomass alone, constitute a significant carbon sink. Aside from carbon fixation, microorganisms' key collective metabolic processes (including nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulfur metabolism) control global biogeochemical cycling. The immensity of microorganisms' production is such that, even in the total absence of eukaryotic life, these processes would likely continue unchanged.

Mortiis

Mortiis is a band from Notodden, Norway fronted by Håvard Ellefsen, who is also known as the namesake of the band. The name is a misspelling of the word 'mortis', which is the pronunciation used by the band. Mortiis started as the solo project of Ellefsen as a means to convey a story. This aspect was lost over time and Mortiis slowly formed into a band.

Omnipotence

Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power. Monotheistic religions generally attribute omnipotence to only the deity of their faith. In the monotheistic philosophies of Abrahamic religions, omnipotence is often listed as one of a deity's characteristics among many, including omniscience, omnipresence, and omnibenevolence. The presence of all these properties in a single entity has given rise to considerable theological debate, prominently including the problem of theodicy, the question of why such a deity would permit the manifestation of evil.

Omniscience

Omniscience () is the capacity to know everything. In monotheistic religions, such as Sikhism and the Abrahamic religions, this is an attribute of God. In some other religions that do not include a supreme deity, such as Buddhism and Jainism, omniscience is an attribute that any individual can eventually attain.

Psalm 139

Psalm 139 is the 139th psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "O lord, thou hast searched me, and known me." The Book of Psalms is the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, and in its Latin translation in the Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 138 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known as "Domine probasti me et cognovisti me". The psalm is a hymn psalm. Attributed to David, it is known for its affirmation of God's omnipresence.

The psalm is a regular part of Jewish, Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant liturgies. It has been set to music often.

Putto

A putto (Italian: [ˈputto]; plural putti [ˈputti]) is a figure in a work of art depicted as a chubby male child, usually naked and sometimes winged. Originally limited to profane passions in symbolism, the putto came to represent the sacred cherub (plural cherubs) (plural cherubim); and in the Baroque period of art, the putto came to represent the omnipresence of God. A putto representing a cupid is also called an amorino (plural amorini) or amoretto (plural amoretti).

Religious philosophy

Religious philosophy is philosophical thinking that is inspired and directed by a particular religion. It can be done objectively, but may also be done as a persuasion tool by believers in that faith.

There are different philosophies for each religion such as those of:

Aztec philosophy

Buddhist philosophy

Christian philosophy

Hindu philosophy

Islamic philosophy

Jain philosophy

Jewish philosophy

Sikh philosophy

Taoist philosophy

Zoroastrian philosophy

Sarav viāpak

In Sikhism, Sarav viāpak (literally "all-prevading god") is the omnipresence of God; since Sikhs hold God to be without form, shape, colour, etc., they see God as present in every living being in the Universe.Sikhism holds that creation is neither ex nihilo nor from materials lying outside God; it is the result of divine self-revelation by God. God has revealed or manifested himself in the form of the world. But God's being is not exhausted in this world alone, it goes beyond this world.

In Sikhism, creation is fully real. Because God is real, and the world is the expression of God, it follows that the world is also fully real.

Saturation patrol

A saturation patrol is a police or military patrol tactic wherein a large number of officers are concentrated into a small geographic area. Saturation patrols are used for hot-spot crime reduction, DUI checkpoints, and other location-specific patrols. The methodology employs overwhelming force presence, via large concentration of patrol officers, to create a real or perceived omnipresence, in the hopes that it deters crime inside and outside the actual patrol location. Authorities also use them because of riots and riot officers together with horses or dogs can assist.

Scholastic Lutheran Christology

Scholastic Lutheran Christology is the orthodox Lutheran theology of Jesus Christ, developed using the methodology of Lutheran scholasticism.

On the general basis of the Chalcedonian christology and following the

indications of the Scriptures as the only rule of faith, the Protestant (especially the Lutheran) scholastics at the close of the sixteenth and during the seventeenth century, built some additional features and developed new aspects of Christ's person. The propelling cause was the Lutheran doctrine of the real presence or omnipresence of Christ's body in the Lord's Supper, and the controversies growing out of it with the Zwinglians and Calvinists, and among the Lutherans themselves. These new features relate to the communion of the two natures, and to the states and the offices of Christ. The first was the production of the Lutheran Church, and was never adopted, but partly rejected, by the Reformed; the second and third were the joint doctrines of both, but with a very material difference in the understanding of the second.

Seder hishtalshelus

In Kabbalistic and Hasidic philosophy, seder hishtalshelus or hishtalshelut (Hebrew: סדר השתלשלות) refers to the chain-like descent of spiritual worlds (Olam/Olamot) between God and Creation. Each spiritual world denotes a complete realm of existence, resulting from its general proximity or distance to Divine revelation. Each realm is also a form of consciousness reflected in this world through the psychology of the soul.

The theosophical tradition in Kabbalah is concerned with defining in great detail the esoteric nature, particular divine manifestations, and functional role of each level between the infinite and the finite. Each spiritual realm embodies a creative stage God continually uses to go from his self to the creation of the physical world, the material Universe being the end of the chain, and the only physical realm. Hasidic thought applies the Kabbalistic scheme to its own concern of perceiving divine omnipresence in this material world. In this, Hasidism varies in its use of Kabbalah, Mainstream-Hasidism avoiding Kabbalistic focus, while Habad thought explains seder hishtalshelus in relation to man's psychology. In contrast to the functional aim of Kabbalah, this contemplates seder hishtalshelus as a vehicle for relating to the divine unity with creation.The term Seder Hishtalshelus is sometimes used restrictively to refer to the actually emergent Created Order (the comprehensive Four Worlds). More broadly, all preceding levels are included, as their function underlies resulting Existence. This page lists and links to all the main spiritual levels described in Lurianic Kabbalah, the scheme of Isaac Luria (1534–1572), the basis of modern Jewish mysticism. Its listing incorporated, expanded and explained earlier Medieval/Classical Kabbalah. After Luria, esoteric Kabbalists broadened explanation within the Lurianic listing. The supra-rational doctrines of Luria described Chokhmah-Wisdom levels of Divinity (Tzimtzum, Shevira) that preceded the "rationally" perceived Binah-Understanding levels of Medieval Kabbalah and Moshe Cordovero. In turn, the Habad Hasidic exploration described Keter-Will levels of Divine intention that preceded Creation.

Serial Experiments Lain

Serial Experiments Lain (シリアルエクスペリメンツレイン, Shiriaru Ekusuperimentsu Rein) is a science fiction anime series directed by Ryūtarō Nakamura, with character design by Yoshitoshi ABe, screenplay written by Chiaki J. Konaka, and produced by Yasuyuki Ueda for Triangle Staff. It was broadcast on TV Tokyo from July to September 1998. The series is influenced by themes such as reality, identity and communication, and it demonstrates them by using philosophy, computer history, cyberpunk literature and conspiracy theory.

Visoba Khechara

Visoba Khechara (unknown - 1309 CE), spelled also as Visoba Khechar or Visoba Khecar, was the yogi-guru of the Varkari poet-saint Namdev (c.1270-1350) of Maharashtra, India. Visoba was a disciple of the Varkari poet-saint Jñāneśvar (c. 1275-1296). He had linkages with the Varkari tradition as well as the Nath tradition of Maharashtra. He preached the omnipresence of God and thus denounced idol-worship. Though a staunch Shaiva, Visoba has composed verses in praise of the god Vithoba, the patron deity of the Varkari faith. He has also composed a metaphysical treatisecalled the Shatsthala.

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