Omega Point

The Omega Point is a spiritual belief and a scientific speculation that everything in the universe is fated to spiral towards a final point of divine unification.[1] The term was coined by the French Jesuit Catholic priest Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955).[2] Teilhard argued that the Omega Point resembles the Christian Logos, namely Christ, who draws all things into himself, who in the words of the Nicene Creed, is "God from God", "Light from Light", "True God from true God", and "through him all things were made". In the Book of Revelation, Christ describes himself thrice as "the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end". The idea of the Omega Point is developed in later writings, such as those of John David Garcia (1971), Paolo Soleri (1981), Frank Tipler (1994), and David Deutsch (1997).[3][4][5]

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's theory

TeilhardP 1947
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, 1947


Teilhard de Chardin was a paleontologist and Roman Catholic priest in the Jesuit order. In France in the 1920s, he began incorporating his theories of the universe into lectures that placed Catholicism and evolution in the same conversation. Because of these lectures, he was suspected by the Holy Office of denying the doctrine of original sin. This caused Teilhard to be exiled to China and banned from publication by Church authorities. It was not until one year after his death, in 1955, that his writings were published for the world to read. His book, The Phenomenon of Man, has been dissected by astrophysicists and cosmologists to be a theological or philosophical theory that cannot be scientifically proven. Teilhard, who was not a cosmologist, opens his books with the statement:

... if this book is to be properly understood, it must be read not as a work on metaphysics, still less as a sort of theological essay, but purely and a simply as a scientific treatise.[6]


Evolution does not end with mankind: Earth's biosphere evolved before humans existed. Teilhard describes evolution as earth's "hominization" in which one-cell organisms develop into metazoans, or animals, but some of the members of this classification develop organisms with complex nervous systems. This group has the capability to acquire intelligence. When Homo sapiens inhabited Earth through evolution, a noosphere, the cognitive layer of existence, was created. As evolution continues, the noosphere gains coherence. Teilhard refers to this process as "planetization". Eventually, the noosphere gains total dominance over the biosphere and reaches a point of complete independence from tangential energy forming a metaphysical being, coined the Omega Point.[7]


Energy exists in two basic modes:

  1. Tangential Energy: energy that can be measured by physics.
  2. Radial Energy: spiritual energy which accumulates into a higher state as time progresses.

Teilhard's misunderstanding of the second law of thermodynamics to not allow the evolution of energy into higher orders was the motivation for identifying a new realm of spiritual energy. He defines Radial Energy as becoming more concentrated and available as it is a critical element in man's evolution. The theory applies to all forms of matter, concluding that everything with existence has some sort of life. Modern scientists criticize this vitalism ideology as unscientific. In regard to Teilhard's The Phenomenon of Man, Peter Medawar wrote, "Teilhard's radial, spiritual, or psychic energy may be equated to 'information' or 'information content' in the sense that has been made reasonably precise by communication engineers."[8]

Formal properties

Teilhard's theory is maintained by four formal properties:

  1. Humans will escape the heat death of the universe. Scientifically, this means that intelligence cannot survive.[9] He theorizes that since radial energy is non-compliant with entropy, it escapes the collapses of forces at world's end.
  2. The Omega Point does not exist within the timeline of the universe, it occurs at the exact edge of the end of time. From that point, all sequence of existence is sucked into its being.
  3. The Omega Point can be understood as a volume shaped as a cone in which each section taken from the base to its summit decreases until it diminishes into a final point.
  4. The volume described in the Third Property must be understood as an entity with finite boundaries. Teilhard explains:

... what would have become of humanity, if, by some remote chance, it had been free to spread indefinitely on an unlimited surface, that is to say left only to the devices of its internal affinities? Something unimaginable. ... Perhaps even nothing at all, when we think of the extreme important of the role played in its development by the forces of compression.[10]

Forces of compression

Teilhard calls the contributing universal energy that generates the Omega Point "forces of compression". Unlike the scientific definition, which incorporates gravity and mass, Teilhard's forces of compression sources from communication and contact between human beings. This value is limitless and directly correlated with entropy. It suggests that as humans continue to interact, consciousness evolves and grows. For the theory to occur, humans must also be bound to the finite earth. Creation of this boundary forces the world's convergence upon itself which he theorizes to result in time ending in communion with the Omega Point-God. This portion of Teilhard's thinking shows his lack of expectation for humans to engage in space travel and transcend past the borders of the planet.[11]

The Omega Point cosmology

Frank J. Tipler's multiverse theory

Mathematical physicist Frank Tipler generalizes[12] Teilhard's term Omega Point to describe what he maintains is the ultimate fate of the universe required by the laws of physics: roughly, Tipler argues that quantum mechanics is inconsistent unless the future of every point in spacetime contains an intelligent observer to collapse the wavefunction, and that the only way for this to happen is if the Universe is closed (that is, it will collapse to a single point) and yet contains observers with a "God-like" ability to perform an unbounded series of observations in finite time. However, scientists such as Lawrence Krauss have stated that Tipler's reasoning is erroneous on multiple levels, possibly to the point of being nonsensical pseudoscience.[13][14][15]

Theological controversy

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's life (1881–1955) falls directly in between Vatican Council I (1869) and Vatican Council 2 (1965), a time period where increasing global acceptance of evolution was forming a disconnect between modern humanity and the Roman Catholic Church. His time came shortly after Charles Darwin's 1859 book, On the Origin of Species, a time when the intersection between the claims of scientific theories and the claims of traditional theological teachings became an enormous focus of the Vatican's agenda.[16]

Pope Pius XII stated his concern on the theory of evolution, albeit without condemning it:

If such a doctrine were to be spread, what will become of the unchangeable Catholic dogmas, what of the unity and the stability of the Creed?[17]

Teilhard's theory was a personal attempt in creating a new Christianity in which science and theology coexist. The outcome was that his theory of the Omega Point was not perfectly scientific as examined by physicists, and not perfectly Christian either. By 1962, The Society of Jesus had strayed from Spanish Jesuit Priest Francisco Suarez's philosophies on Man in favor of "Teilhardian evolutionary cosmogenesis". Teilhard's Christ is the "Cosmic Christ" or the "Omega" of revelation. He is an emanation of God which is made of matter, and experienced the nature of evolution by being born into this world and dying. His resurrection from the dead was not to heaven, but to the noosphere, the area of convergence of all spirituality and spiritual beings, where Christ will be waiting at the end of time. When the earth reaches its Omega Point, everything that exists will become one with divinity.[18]

Teilhard reaffirms the role of the Church in the following letter to Auguste Valensin. It is important to note that he defines evolution as a scientific phenomenon set in motion by God – that science and the divine are interconnected and acting through one another:

I believe in the Church, mediatrix between God and the world[.] ... The Church, the reflectively christified portion of the world, the Church, the principal focus of inter-human affinities through super-charity, the Church, the central axis of universal convergence and the precise point of contact between the universe and Omega Point. ... The Catholic Church, however, must not simply seek to affirm its primacy and authority but quite simply to present the world with the Universal Christ, Christ in human-cosmic dimension, as animator of evolution.[19]

Related concepts

Accelerating expansion of the universe

In 1998, a value measured from observations of Type Ia supernovae seemed to indicate that what was once assumed to be temporary cosmological expansion was actually accelerating.[20] The apparent acceleration has caused many to dismiss Tipler's Omega Point out of hand, since the necessity of a final big crunch singularity is key to the Omega Point's workability. However, Tipler himself believes that the Omega Point is still workable and has explained on multiple occasions why a big crunch/ final singularity is still required under many current universal models.[21][22]

Technological singularity

The technological singularity is the hypothetical advent of artificial general intelligence theoretically capable of recursive self-improvement, resulting in a runaway effect to an intelligence explosion.[23] Eric Steinhart, a proponent of "Christian transhumanism", argues there is significant overlap of ideas between the secular singularity and Teilhard's religious Omega Point.[3] Steinhart quotes Ray Kurzweil, one of the most prominent singularitarians, who stated that "evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never reaching this ideal."[3][24] Like Kurzweil, Teilhard predicts a period of rapid technological change that results in a merger of humanity and technology. He believes that this marks the birth of the noosphere and the emergence of the "spirit of the Earth", but the Teilhardian Singularity comes later. Unlike Kurzweil, Teilhard's singularity is marked by the evolution of human intelligence reaching a critical point in which humans ascend from "transhuman" to "posthuman". He identifies this with the Christian parousia.[3]

The Omega Point in popular culture

The Spanish painter Salvador Dali was fascinated by Teilhard de Chardin and the Omega Point theory. His 1959 painting The Ecumenical Council is said to represent the "interconnectedness" of the Omega Point.[25] Point Omega by Don DeLillo takes its name from the theory and involves a character who is studying Teilhard de Chardin.[26] Flannery O'Connor's acclaimed collection of short stories taps the Omega Point theory in its title, Everything That Rises Must Converge, and science fiction writer Frederik Pohl references Frank Tipler and the Omega Point in his 1998 short story "The Siege of Eternity".[27] Scottish writer / counterculture figure Grant Morrison has used the Omega Point as a plot line in several of his Justice League of America and Batman stories.[28][29][30] Arthur C. Clarke and Stephen Baxter's The Light of Other Days references Teilhard de Chardin and includes a brief explanation of the Omega Point.[31]

See also


  1. ^ "Could artificial intelligence kill us off?". Newsweek. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  2. ^ Castillo, Mauricio (March 2012). "The Omega Point and Beyond: The Singularity Event" (PDF). American Journal of Neuroradiology. 33 (3): 393–5. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2664. PMID 21903920. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d Steinhart, Eric (2008). "Teilhard de Chardin and Transhumanism". Journal of Evolution and Technology. 20 (1): 1–22. ISSN 1541-0099. Retrieved 2015-06-03.
  4. ^ Green, Ronald (2012). "Challenging Transhumanism's Values". Hastings Center Report. 43 (4): 45–47. doi:10.1002/hast.195.
  5. ^ Lilley, Stephen (2013). Transcend or Transgress?. Hastings Center Report. SpringerBriefs in Philosophy. pp. 13–24. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4981-8_2. ISBN 978-94-007-4980-1.
  6. ^ Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre (2008). The Phenomenon of Man. Translated by Wall, Bernard. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Thought. p. 29. ISBN 978-0061632655.
  7. ^ Tipler, Frank J. (1994). The physics of immortality: modern cosmology, God, and the resurrection of the dead (1st Anchor Books ed.). New York: Anchor Books. p. 113. ISBN 978-0385467995.
  8. ^ Medawar, Sir Peter. "The Phenomenon of Man". Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  9. ^ Tipler, Frank J. (1994). The physics of immortality : modern cosmology, God, and the resurrection of the dead (1st Anchor Books ed.). New York: Anchor Books. p. 111. ISBN 978-0385467995.
  10. ^ Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (2008). The phenomenon of man. Translated by Bernard Wall (1st ed.). New York: Harper Perennial Modern Thought. p. 239. ISBN 978-0061632655.
  11. ^ Tipler, Frank J. (1994). The physics of immortality : modern cosmology, God, and the resurrection of the dead (1st Anchor Books ed.). New York: Anchor Books. p. 115. ISBN 978-0385467995.
  12. ^ Tipler, Frank J. "The omega point as eschaton: Answers to Pannenberg's questions for scientists." Zygon (journal) 24.2 (1989): 217–253. "Needless to say, the terminology is Teilhard de Chardin's..."
  13. ^ Ellis, George Francis Rayner (1994). "Piety in the Sky" (PDF). Nature. 371 (6493): 115. Bibcode:1994Natur.371..115E. doi:10.1038/371115a0. It is a masterpiece of pseudoscience
  14. ^ Krauss, Lawrence (May 2007). "More dangerous than nonsense". New Scientist. p. 53. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(07)61199-3. I am tempted to describe Tipler's new book as nonsense—but that would be unfair to the concept of nonsense.
  15. ^ "The Strange Case of Frank Jennings Tipler". Skeptical Inquirer. 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2016. I began to wonder if the book could be a subtle, hilarious hoax. Sadly, it is not.
  16. ^ Trennert-Helwig, Mathias (March 1995). "The Church as the Axis of Convergence in Teilhard's Theology and Life". Zygon. 30: 73–89. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.1995.tb00052.x.
  17. ^ "6 "Si talis opinio amplectanda esse videatur, quidfiet de numquam immutandis catholias dogmatibus, quid de fidei unitale et stabuliat". L'Osservatore Romano. 19 September 1946.
  18. ^ Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre (1 January 1968). Science and Christ. Collins.
  19. ^ Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre (1948). "My Fundamental Vision". XI: 191–192.
  20. ^ BBC News. 2011-10-04.
  21. ^ Q&A with Frank Tipler
  22. ^ Audio interview with Frank Tipler- White Gardenia interview with Frank Tipler, December 2015
  23. ^ Chalmers, David. "The singularity: A philosophical analysis." Journal of Consciousness Studies 17.9-10 (2010): 7-65.
  24. ^ Kurzweil, Ray (2005). The Singularity is Near. New York: Viking Books. ISBN 978-0-670-03384-3., pg 476; see also 375, 389-390
  25. ^ National Gallery of Victoria Educational Resource.
  26. ^ DeLillo, Don (2010). Point Omega. Scribner.
  27. ^ Pohl, Frederik (1998). The Siege of Eternity. Tor Science Fiction. ISBN 978-0812577662.
  28. ^ Morrison, Grant. Sample page from Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne #2 (June 2010). DC Comics.
  29. ^ Morrison, Grant. Sample page from JLA Volume 3: "The Rock of Ages".
  30. ^ Morrison, Grant. Sample page from Batman: The Return of Bruce Wayne #6 (November 2010). DC Comics.
  31. ^ Clarke, Arthur C. (2001). The Light of Other Days. Tom Doherty Associates. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-812-57640-5.

External links

Apollo 440

Apollo 440 (also known as Apollo Four Forty or @440) are an English electronic music group formed in Liverpool in 1990. The group has written, recorded, and produced five studio albums, collaborated with and produced other artists, remixed as Apollo 440 and as ambient cinematic alter-ego Stealth Sonic Orchestra, and created music for film, television, advertisements and multimedia. Over eleven years, they notched up eleven top-forty UK singles with three top-tens, and had a chart presence worldwide.

Its name comes from the Greek god Apollo and the frequency of concert pitch — the A note at 440 Hz, often denoted as "A440", and the Sequential Circuits sampler/sequencer, the Studio 440. They changed the writing of their name from Apollo 440 to Apollo Four Forty in 1996, though they switched back for their latest album. To date, Apollo's remixes number around sixty - from U2 in the early 1990s to Puff Daddy/Jimmy Page and Ennio Morricone a decade later. Among their Stealth Sonic Orchestra remixes are a series of Manic Street Preachers singles.

Cosmic Christ

The cosmic Christ is a view of Christology which emphasises the extent of Jesus Christ's concern for the cosmos. The biblical bases for a cosmic Christology is often found in Colossians, Ephesians, and the prologue to the gospel of John.


The cosmos (UK: , US: ) is the universe. Using the word cosmos rather than the word universe implies viewing the universe as a complex and orderly system or entity; the opposite of chaos.

The cosmos, and our understanding of the reasons for its existence and significance, are studied in cosmology – a very broad discipline covering any scientific, religious, or philosophical contemplation of the cosmos and its nature, or reasons for existing. Religious and philosophical approaches may include in their concepts of the cosmos various spiritual entities or other matters deemed to exist outside our physical universe.


Dimensionaut is the debut (and as of 2018 only) album by British-based band Sound of Contact, and was released worldwide May 2013. Production of the album was a collaborative effort between Simon Collins and Dave Kerzner, two of the band's founding members. As of March 2014, two singles off the album have been released.Dimensionaut was mixed by veteran sound engineer Nick Davis, known for working with Genesis.

Dyson's eternal intelligence

Dyson's eternal intelligence concept (the Dyson Scenario), proposed by Freeman Dyson in 1979,

proposes a means by which an immortal society of intelligent beings in an open universe

may escape the prospect of heat death by extending subjective time to infinity even though expending only a finite amount of energy.

Bremermann's limit can be invoked to deduce that the amount of time to perform a computation on 1 bit is inversely proportional to the change in energy in the system. As a result, the amount of computations that can be performed grows logarithmically over time. Therefore, any arbitrary amount of computation can be performed in a finite, albeit exponentially growing, time span.

The intelligent beings would begin by storing a finite amount of energy. They then use half (or any fraction) of this energy to power their thought. When the energy gradient created by unleashing this fraction of the stored fuel was exhausted, the beings would enter a state of zero-energy-consumption until the universe cooled. Once the universe had cooled sufficiently, half of the remaining half (one quarter of the original energy) of the intelligent beings' fuel reserves would once again be released, powering a brief period of thought once more. This would continue, with smaller and smaller amounts of energy being released. As the universe cooled, the thoughts would be slower and slower, but there would still be an infinite number of them.In 1998 it was discovered that the expansion of the universe appears to be accelerating rather than decelerating due to a positive cosmological constant, implying that any two regions of the universe will eventually become permanently separated from one another.

Frank J. Tipler has cited Dyson's writings, and specifically his writings on the eternal intelligence, as a major influence on his own highly controversial Omega Point theory.

Tipler's theory differs from Dyson's theory on several key points, most notable of which is that Dyson's eternal intelligence presupposes an open universe while Tipler's Omega Point presupposes a closed/ contracting universe. Both theories will be invalidated if the observed universal expansion continues to accelerate.

Frank J. Tipler

Frank Jennings Tipler (born February 1, 1947) is an American mathematical physicist and cosmologist, holding a joint appointment in the Departments of Mathematics and Physics at Tulane University. Tipler has written books and papers on the Omega Point based on Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's religious ideas, which he claims is a mechanism for the resurrection of the dead. He is also known for his theories on the Tipler cylinder time machine. George Ellis has argued that his theories are largely pseudoscience.

George Zebrowski

George Zebrowski (born December 28, 1945) is an American science fiction author and editor who has written and edited a number of books, and is a former editor of The Bulletin of the Science Fiction Writers of America. He lives with author Pamela Sargent, with whom he has co-written a number of novels, including Star Trek novels.

Zebrowski won the John W. Campbell Memorial Award in 1999 for his novel Brute Orbits. Three of his short stories, "Heathen God," "The Eichmann Variations," and "Wound the Wind," have been nominated for the Nebula Award, and "The Idea Trap" was nominated for the Theodore Sturgeon Award.

Ideal point

In hyperbolic geometry, an ideal point, omega point or point at infinity is a well defined point outside the hyperbolic plane or space.

Given a line l and a point P not on l, right- and left-limiting parallels to l through P converge to l at ideal points.

Unlike the projective case, ideal points form a boundary, not a submanifold. So, these lines do not intersect at an ideal point and such points, although well defined, do not belong to the hyperbolic space itself.

The ideal points together form the Cayley absolute or boundary of a hyperbolic geometry.

For instance, the unit circle forms the Cayley absolute of the Poincaré disk model and the Klein disk model.

While the real line forms the Cayley absolute of the Poincaré half-plane model .Pasch's axiom and the exterior angle theorem still hold for an omega triangle, defined by two points in hyperbolic space and an omega point.

Modulok (rapper)

Mohammad Gonsalves, better known by his stage name Modulok, is an underground hip hop artist based in East York, Ontario.


Mystechs (sometimes referred to as The Mystechs) is an electronic/punk music group formed in 1998 in Chicago, Illinois. The band's lineup consists of keyboardist/songwriter Emil Hyde joined by a host of other musicians and collaborators. Their music covers a wide range of genres from indie rock to new wave, hip hop and heavy metal. The Mystechs began as an electronica group, gradually incorporating other genres to their sound. Hyde says of the band, "Mystechs began as a nice, normal, female-fronted trip-hop group like Portishead or Esthero".Formed in 1999, the Mystechs have issued CDs and DVDs on the independent Omega Point label. The CDs are 1999's Fantaseed, 2000's Dark Age Disco, 2001's Unholy Land, 2002's Showtime at the Apocalypse, 2003's City Folk, 2004's Jook Een Dah, 2005's Warriors & Warlocks, 2006's Escape From Planet Love, and 2007's Hot Tub o' Blood.

The DVDs are Legend of the Buick Brothers, Warriors & Warlocks: The Movie, and 2007's Escape From Planet Love: The Motion Picture.

The Mystechs have toured with Aviador Dro and Rick Johnson Rock N' Roll Machine, among other groups.


The noosphere (; sometimes noösphere) is the sphere of human thought. The word derives from the Greek νοῦς (nous "mind") and σφαῖρα (sphaira "sphere"), in lexical analogy to "atmosphere" and "biosphere". It was introduced by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin in 1922 in his Cosmogenesis. Another possibility is the first use of the term by Édouard Le Roy (1870–1954), who together with Teilhard was listening to lectures of Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky at the Sorbonne. In 1936, Vernadsky accepted the idea of the noosphere in a letter to Boris Leonidovich Lichkov (though he states that the concept derives from Le Roy. Citing the work of Teilhard's biographer—Rene Cuenot—Sampson and Pitt stated that although the concept was jointly developed by all three men (Vernadsky, LeRoy, and Teilhard), Teilhard believed that he actually invented the word: "I believe, so far as one can ever tell, that the word 'noosphere' was my invention: but it was he [Le Roy] who launched it."

Omega Point (album)

Omega Point Is the twelfth studio album by Spear of Destiny. The album was made available on Kirk Brandon's official site before the actual release date as a direct download. Unlike the last album, this one was made available on iTunes.

Omega Point (disambiguation)

Omega Point is an idea in philosophy (eschatology) advanced by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin.

Omega Point may also refer to:

Omega Point (album), an album by Spear of Destiny

An idea in cosmology advanced by mathematical physicist Frank J. Tipler

Omega point (geometry), a boundary point in hyperbolic geometry

Point Omega, a 2010 novel by Don DeLillo

The Omega Point, a series of space opera novellas by George Zebrowski

Omega Point (band), a progressive metal band from Baltimore, MD

The Omega Point: Beyond 2012, a novel by Whitley Strieber

"Omega Point", a track by Apollo 440 from their album Millennium Fever

Paul J. McAuley

Paul J. McAuley (born 23 April 1955) is a British botanist and science fiction author.

A biologist by training, McAuley writes mostly hard science fiction.His novels dealing with themes such as biotechnology, alternative history/alternative reality, and space travel.

McAuley began with far-future space opera Four Hundred Billion Stars, its sequel Eternal Light, and the planetary-colony adventure Of the Fall. Red Dust, set on a far-future Mars colonized by the Chinese, is a planetary romance featuring many emerging technologies and SF motifs: nanotechnology, biotechnology, artificial intelligence, personality downloads, virtual reality. The Confluence series, set in an even more distant future (about ten million years from now), is one of a number of novels to use Frank J. Tipler's Omega Point Theory (that the universe seems to be evolving toward a maximum degree of complexity and consciousness) as one of its themes.

About the same time, he published Pasquale's Angel, set in an alternative Italian Renaissance and featuring Niccolò Machiavegli (Machiavelli) and Leonardo da Vinci as major characters.

McAuley has also used biotechnology and nanotechnology themes in near-future settings: Fairyland describes a dystopian, war-torn Europe where genetically engineered "dolls" are used as disposable slaves. Since 2001 he has produced several SF-based techno-thrillers such as The Secret of Life, Whole Wide World, and White Devils.

Four Hundred Billion Stars, his first novel, won the Philip K. Dick Award in 1988. Fairyland won the 1996 Arthur C. Clarke Award and the 1997 John W. Campbell Memorial Award for Best SF Novel. "The Temptation of Dr. Stein", won the British Fantasy Award. Pasquale's Angel won the Sidewise Award for Alternate History (Long Form).

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (French: [pjɛʁ tejaʁ də ʃaʁdɛ̃] (listen ); 1 May 1881 – 10 April 1955) was a French idealist philosopher and Jesuit priest who trained as a paleontologist and geologist and took part in the discovery of Peking Man. He conceived the vitalist idea of the Omega Point (a maximum level of complexity and consciousness towards which he believed the universe was evolving), and he developed Vladimir Vernadsky's concept of noosphere.

Although a monitum was issued in regard to some of Teilhard's ideas, he has been posthumously praised by Pope Benedict XVI and other eminent Catholic figures, and his theological teachings were cited by Pope Francis in the 2015 encyclical, Laudato si'. The response to his writings by evolutionary biologists has been, with some exceptions, decidedly negative, although recently some have written more positively about Teilhard's ideas.

The Fall of a Rebel Angel

The Fall of a Rebel Angel is the eighth studio album from the German musical project Enigma, released on 11 November 2016 by Republic Records. The first studio album since Seven Lives Many Faces (2008), it is a concept album that tells the story of a protagonist's journey of development and change to find a new, fulfilling life. The album was developed by Enigma's founder, producer, and principal composer, Michael Cretu and German lyricist and librettist Michael Kunze. Its artwork was designed by Wolfgang Beltracchi.


In philosophy, theophysics is an approach to cosmology that attempts to reconcile physical cosmology and religious cosmology. It is related to physicotheology, the difference between them being that the aim of physicotheology is to derive theology from physics, whereas that of theophysics is to unify physics and theology.

Yoshi Wada

For the Japanese novelist, see Yoshie Wada.Yoshimasa "Yoshi" Wada (born November 11, 1943), is a Japanese sound installation artist and musician living in the United States. He lived in New York City for many years but now lives in San Francisco, California.Born in Japan, Wada joined the Fluxus movement in 1968 after meeting George Maciunas.[1] He also studied with the North Indian vocalist Pandit Pran Nath. Wada's works often incorporate the use of drone and are usually performed at very high volume, allowing for the overtones within the sound to be heard very clearly.

He frequently performs his own compositions, which feature much freedom of improvisation, on Scottish highland bagpipe and voice, and also employs a number of homemade instruments. These include "pipe horns" (very long horn-type instruments made from metal plumbing pipe) as well as large reed instruments involving multiple bagpipe-like pipes connected to a large air compressor; due to their appearance, Wada named these latter instruments "Alligator" and "the Elephantine Crocodile". His music has been scarcely released on recordings, having seen only two LP releases, on the India Navigation (1982) and FMP [2] labels. Lament For The Rise and Fall of Elephantine Crocodile, The Appointed Cloud and Off the Wall were reissued by Japanese labels EM Records and Editions Omega Point in 2008.[3]

Wada is also known for his mechanical and robotic installations. In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the mid-1990s, he performed a whimsically entitled piece, Lament for the Rise and Fall of Handy-Horn, in which several compressed-air "auditory flare" signals used for nautical emergencies (the "Handy Horn" brand named in the title) were sounded for the duration of their usefulness, giving rise to an alarmingly high-decibel air-pressure environment and charged psychoacoustic environment.

Zeno machine

In mathematics and computer science, Zeno machines (abbreviated ZM, and also called accelerated Turing machine, ATM) are a hypothetical computational model related to Turing machines that allows a countably infinite number of algorithmic steps to be performed in finite time. These machines are ruled out in most models of computation.

More formally, a Zeno machine is a Turing machine that takes 2−n units of time to perform its n-th step; thus, the first step takes 0.5 units of time, the second takes 0.25, the third 0.125 and so on, so that after one unit of time, a countably infinite (i.e. ℵ0) number of steps will have been performed.

The idea of Zeno machines was first discussed by Hermann Weyl in 1927; the name refers to Zeno's paradoxes, attributed to the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea. Zeno machines play a crucial role in some theories. The theory of the Omega Point devised by physicist Frank J. Tipler, for instance, can only be valid if Zeno machines are possible.

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