Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam (/kaɪˈjɑːm/; Persian: عمر خیّام[ˈoːmɒːɾ xæjˈjɒːm]; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.[3][4][5] He was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, and spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade.

As a mathematician, he is most notable for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations, where he provided geometric solutions by the intersection of conics.[6] Khayyam also contributed to the understanding of the parallel axiom.[7]:284 As an astronomer, he designed the Jalali calendar, a solar calendar with a very precise 33-year intercalation cycle.[8][9]:659

There is a tradition of attributing poetry to Omar Khayyam, written in the form of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt رباعیات‎). This poetry became widely known to the English-reading world in a translation by Edward FitzGerald (Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, 1859), which enjoyed great success in the Orientalism of the fin de siècle.

Omar Khayyam
عمر خیام
Omar Khayyam2
Born18 May[1] 1048[2]
Nishapur, Khorasan (present-day Iran)
Died4 December[1] 1131 (aged 83)[2]
Nishapur, Khorasan (present-day Iran)
NationalityPersian
SchoolIslamic mathematics, Persian poetry, Persian philosophy
Main interests
Mathematics, Astronomy, Avicennism, Poetry

Life

Omar Khayyam was born in Nishapur, a leading metropolis in Khorasan during medieval times that reached its climax of prosperity in the eleventh century under the Seljuq dynasty.[10]:15[11][12] Nishapur was then religiously a major center of Zoroastrians. It is likely that Khayyam's father was a Zoroastrian who had converted to Islam.[13]:68 He was born into a family of tent-makers (Khayyam). His full name, as it appears in the Arabic sources, was Abu’l Fath Omar ibn Ibrāhīm al-Khayyām.[14] In medieval Persian texts he is usually simply called Omar Khayyām.[15] The historian Bayhaqi, who was personally acquainted with Omar, provides the full details of his horoscope: "he was Gemini, the sun and Mercury being in the ascendant[...]".[16]:471 This was used by modern scholars to establish his date of birth as 18 May 1048.[9]:658

His boyhood was passed in Nishapur.[9]:659 His gifts were recognized by his early tutors who sent him to study under Imam Muwaffaq Nīshābūrī, the greatest teacher of the Khorasan region who tutored the children of the highest nobility.[13]:20 In 1073, at the age of twenty-six, he entered the service of Sultan Malik-Shah I as an adviser. In 1076 Khayyam was invited to Isfahan by the vizier and political figure Nizam al-Mulk to take advantage of the libraries and centers in learning there. His years in Isfahan were productive. It was at this time that he began to study the work of Greek mathematicians Euclid and Apollonius much more closely. But after the death of Malik-Shah and his vizier (presumably by the Assassins' sect), Omar had fallen from favour at court, and as a result, he soon set out on his pilgrimage to Mecca. A possible ulterior motive for his pilgrimage reported by Al-Qifti, is that he was attacked by the clergy for his apparent skepticism. So he decided to perform his pilgrimage as a way of demonstrating his faith and freeing himself from all suspicion of unorthodoxy.[13]:29 He was then invited by the new Sultan Sanjar to Marv, possibly to work as a court astrologer.[1] He was later allowed to return to Nishapur owing to his declining health. Upon his return, he seemed to have lived the life of a recluse.[17]:99 Khayyam died in 1131 and is buried in the Khayyam Garden.

Mathematics

Khayyam was famous during his life as a mathematician. His surviving mathematical works include: A commentary on the difficulties concerning the postulates of Euclid's Elements (Risāla fī šarḥ mā aškala min muṣādarāt kitāb Uqlīdis, completed in December 1077[5]), On the division of a quadrant of a circle (Risālah fī qismah rub‘ al-dā’irah, undated but completed prior to the treatise on algebra[5]), and On proofs for problems concerning Algebra (Maqāla fi l-jabr wa l-muqābala, most likely completed in 1079[7]:281). He furthermore wrote a treatise on extracting the nth root of natural numbers, which has been lost.[13]:197

Theory of parallels

A part of Khayyam's commentary on Euclid's Elements deals with the parallel axiom.[7]:282 The treatise of Khayyam can be considered the first treatment of the axiom not based on petitio principii, but on a more intuitive postulate. Khayyam refutes the previous attempts by other mathematicians to prove the proposition, mainly on grounds that each of them had postulated something that was by no means easier to admit than the Fifth Postulate itself.[5] Drawing upon Aristotle's views, he rejects the usage of movement in geometry and therefore dismisses the different attempt by Al-Haytham.[18][19] Unsatisfied with the failure of mathematicians to prove Euclid's statement from his other postulates, Omar tried to connect the axiom with the Fourth Postulate, which states that all right angles are equal to one another.[7]:282

Khayyam was the first to consider the three cases of acute, obtuse, and right angle for the summit angles of a Khayyam-Saccheri quadrilateral, three cases which are exhaustive and pairwise mutually exclusive.[7]:283 After proving a number of theorems about them, he proved that the Postulate V is a consequence of the right angle hypothesis, and refuted the obtuse and acute cases as self-contradictory.[5] Khayyam's elaborate attempt to prove the parallel postulate was significant for the further development of geometry, as it clearly shows the possibility of non-Euclidean geometries. The hypothesis of the acute, obtuse, and that of the right angle are now known to lead respectively to the non-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry of Gauss-Bolyai-Lobachevsky, to that of Riemannian geometry, and to Euclidean geometry.[20]

Khayyam-paper-1stpage
"Cubic equation and intersection of conic sections" the first page of two-chaptered manuscript kept in Tehran University.

Tusi's commentaries on Khayyam's treatment of parallels made its way to Europe. John Wallis, the professor of geometry at Oxford, translated Tusi's commentary into Latin. Jesuit geometrician Girolamo Saccheri, whose work (euclides ab omni naevo vindicatus, 1733) is generally considered as the first step in the eventual development of non-Euclidean geometry, was familiar with the work of Wallis. The American historian of mathematics, David Eugene Smith mentions that Saccheri "used the same lemma as the one of Tusi, even lettering the figure in precisely the same way and using the lemma for the same purpose". He further says that "Tusi distinctly states that it is due to Omar Khayyam, and from the text, it seems clear that the latter was his inspirer."[17]:104[21][13]:195

The real number concept

This treatise on Euclid contains another contribution dealing with the theory of proportions and with the compounding of ratios. Khayyam discusses the relationship between the concept of ratio and the concept of number and explicitly raises various theoretical difficulties. In particular, he contributes to the theoretical study of the concept of irrational number.[5] Displeased with Euclid's definition of equal ratios, he redefined the concept of a number by the use of a continuous fraction as the means of expressing a ratio. Rosenfeld and Youschkevitch (1973) argue that "by placing irrational quantities and numbers on the same operational scale, [Khayyam] began a true revolution in the doctrine of number." Likewise, it was noted by D. J. Struik that Omar was "on the road to that extension of the number concept which leads to the notion of the real number."[7]:284

Geometric algebra

Omar Khayyám's solution of third degree equations
Omar Khayyam's construction of a solution to the cubic x3 + 2x = 2x2 + 2. The intersection point produced by the circle and the hyperbola determine the desired segment.

Rashed and Vahabzadeh (2000) have argued that because of his thoroughgoing geometrical approach to algebraic equations, Khayyam can be considered the precursor of Descartes in the invention of analytic geometry.[22]:248 In The Treatise on the Division of a Quadrant of a Circle Khayyam applied algebra to geometry. In this work, he devoted himself mainly to investigating whether it is possible to divide a circular quadrant into two parts such that the line segments projected from the dividing point to the perpendicular diameters of the circle form a specific ratio. His solution, in turn, employed several curve constructions that led to equations containing cubic and quadratic terms.[22]:248

The solution of cubic equations

Khayyam seems to have been the first to conceive a general theory of cubic equations[23] and the first to geometrically solve every type of cubic equation, so far as positive roots are concerned.[24] The treatise on algebra contains his work on cubic equations.[25] It is divided into three parts: (i) equations which can be solved with compass and straight edge, (ii) equations which can be solved by means of conic sections, and (iii) equations which involve the inverse of the unknown.[26]

Khayyam produced an exhaustive list of all possible equations involving lines, squares, and cubes.[27]:43 He considered three binomial equations, nine trinomial equations, and seven tetranomial equations.[7]:281 For the first and second degree polynomials, he provided numerical solutions by geometric construction. He concluded that there are fourteen different types of cubics that cannot be reduced to an equation of a lesser degree.[5] For these he could not accomplish the construction of his unknown segment with compass and straight edge. He proceeded to present geometric solutions to all types of cubic equations using the properties of conic sections.[28]:157[7]:281 The prerequisite lemmas for Khayyam’s geometrical proof include Euclid VI, Prop 13, and Apollonius II, Prop 12.[28]:155 The positive root of a cubic equation was determined as the abscissa of a point of intersection of two conics, for instance, the intersection of two parabolas, or the intersection of a parabola and a circle, etc.[29]:141 However, he acknowledged that the arithmetic problem of these cubics was still unsolved, adding that "possibly someone else will come to know it after us".[28]:158 This task remained open until the sixteenth century, where algebraic solution of the cubic equation was found in its generality by Cardano, Del Ferro, and Tartaglia in Renaissance Italy.[7]:282[5]

In effect, Khayyam's work is an effort to unify algebra and geometry.[31]:241 This particular geometric solution of cubic equations has been further investigated by M. Hachtroudi and extended to solving fourth-degree equations.[32] Although similar methods had appeared sporadically since Menaechmus, and further developed by the 10th-century mathematician Abu al-Jud,[33][34] Khayyam's work can be considered the first systematic study and the first exact method of solving cubic equations.[35] The mathematician Woepcke (1851) who offered translations of Khayyam's algebra into French praised him for his "power of generalization and his rigorously systematic procedure."[36]:10

Binomial theorem and extraction of roots

In his algebraic treatise, Khayyam alludes to a book he had written on the extraction of the th root of the numbers using a law which he had discovered which did not depend on geometric figures.[29] This book was most likely titled The difficulties of arithmetic (Moškelāt al-hesāb),[5] and is not extant. Based on the context, some historians of mathematics such as D. J. Struik, believe that Omar must have known the formula for the expansion of the binomial , where n is a positive integer.[7]:282 The case of power 2 is explicitly stated in Euclid's elements and the case of at most power 3 had been established by Indian mathematicians. Khayyam was the mathematician who noticed the importance of a general binomial theorem. The argument supporting the claim that Khayyam had a general binomial theorem is based on his ability to extract roots.[38] The arrangement of numbers known as Pascal's triangle enables one to write down the coefficients in a binomial expansion. This triangular array sometimes is known as Omar Khayyam's triangle.[29]

Astronomy

Jalaali Leap Year
Representation of the intercalation scheme of the Jalali calendar

In 1074, Omar Khayyam was commissioned by Sultan Malik-Shah to build an observatory at Isfahan and reform the Persian calendar. There was a panel of eight scholars working under the direction of Khayyam to make large-scale astronomical observations and revise the astronomical tables.[29]:141 Recalibrating the calendar fixed the first day of the year at the exact moment of the passing of the Sun's center across vernal equinox. This marks the beginning of spring or Nowrūz, a day in which the Sun enters the first degree of Aries before noon.[39][40] The resulted calendar was named in Malik-Shah's honor as the Jalālī calendar, and was inaugurated on Friday, March 15, 1079.[41] The observatory itself was disused after the death of Malik-Shah in 1092.[9]:659

The Jalālī calendar was a true solar calendar where the duration of each month is equal to the time of the passage of the Sun across the corresponding sign of the Zodiac. The calendar reform introduced a unique 33-year intercalation cycle. As indicated by the works of Khazini, Khayyam's group implemented an intercalation system based on quadrennial and quinquennial leap years. Therefore, the calendar consisted of 25 ordinary years that included 365 days, and 8 leap years that included 366 days.[42] The calendar remained in use across Greater Iran from the 11th to the 20th centuries. In 1911 the Jalali calendar became the official national calendar of Qajar Iran. In 1925 this calendar was simplified and the names of the months were modernized, resulting in the modern Iranian calendar. The Jalali calendar is more accurate than the Gregorian calendar of 1582,[9]:659 with an error of one day accumulating over 5,000 years, compared to one day every 3,330 years in the Gregorian calendar.[13]:200 Moritz Cantor considered it the most perfect calendar ever devised.[17]:101

One of his pupils Nizami Aruzi of Samarcand relates that Khayyam apparently did not have a belief in astrology and divination: "I did not observe that he (scil. Omar Khayyam) had any great belief in astrological predictions, nor have I seen or heard of any of the great [scientists] who had such belief."[36]:11 While working for Sultan Sanjar as an astrologer he was asked to predict the weather – a job that he apparently did not do well.[13]:30 George Saliba (2002) explains that the term ‘ilm al-nujūm, used in various sources in which references to Omar's life and work could be found, has sometimes been incorrectly translated to mean astrology. He adds: "from at least the middle of the tenth century, according to Farabi's enumeration of the sciences, that this science, ‘ilm al-nujūm, was already split into two parts, one dealing with astrology and the other with theoretical mathematical astronomy."[43]:224

A popular claim to the effect that Khayyam believed in heliocentrism is based on Edward FitzGerald's popular but anachronistic rendering of Khayyam's poetry, in which the first lines are mistranslated with a heliocentric image of the Sun flinging "the Stone that puts the Stars to Flight".[44]

Other works

He has a short treatise devoted to Archimedes' principle (in full title, On the Deception of Knowing the Two Quantities of Gold and Silver in a Compound Made of the Two). For a compound of gold adulterated with silver, he describes a method to measure more exactly the weight per capacity of each element. It involves weighing the compound both in air and in water, since weights are easier to measure exactly than volumes. By repeating the same with both gold and silver one finds exactly how much heavier than water gold, silver and the compound were. This treatise was extensively examined by Eilhard Wiedemann who believed that Khayyam's solution was more accurate and sophisticated than that of Khazini and Al-Nayrizi who also dealt with the subject elsewhere.[13]:198

Another short treatise is concerned with music theory in which he discusses the connection between music and arithmetic. Khayyam's contribution was in providing a systematic classification of musical scales, and discussing the mathematical relationship among notes, minor, major and tetrachords.[13]:198

Poetry

Chayyam guyand kasan behescht ba hur chosch ast2
Rendition of a ruba'i from the Bodleian ms, rendered in Shekasteh calligraphy.

The earliest allusion to Omar Khayyam's poetry is from the historian Imad ad-Din al-Isfahani, a younger contemporary of Khayyam, who explicitly identifies him as both a poet and a scientist (Kharidat al-qasr, 1174).[13]:49[45]:35 One of the earliest specimens of Omar Khayyam's Rubiyat is from Fakhr al-Din Razi. In his work Al-tanbih ‘ala ba‘d asrar al-maw‘dat fi’l-Qur’an (ca. 1160), he quotes one of his poems (corresponding to quatrain LXII of FitzGerald's first edition). Daya in his writings (Mirsad al-‘Ibad, ca. 1230) quotes two quatrains, one of which is the same as the one already reported by Razi. An additional quatrain is quoted by the historian Juvayni (Tarikh-i Jahangushay, ca. 1226-1283).[45]:36–37[13]:92 In 1340 Jajarmi includes thirteen quatrains of Khayyam in his work containing an anthology of the works of famous Persian poets (Munis al-ahrār), two of which have hitherto been known from the older sources.[46] A comparatively late manuscript is the Bodleian MS. Ouseley 140, written in Shiraz in 1460, which contains 158 quatrains on 47 folia. The manuscript belonged to William Ouseley (1767-1842) and was purchased by the Bodleian Library in 1844.

Inscript in Morića Han
Ottoman Era inscription of a poem written by Omar Khayyam at Morića Han in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

There are occasional quotes of verses attributed to Omar in texts attributed to authors of the 13th and 14th centuries, but these are also of doubtful authenticity, so that skeptic scholars point out that the entire tradition may be pseudepigraphic.[45]:11

Hans Heinrich Schaeder in 1934 commented that the name of Omar Khayyam "is to be struck out from the history of Persian literature" due to the lack of any material that could confidently be attributed to him. De Blois (2004) presents a bibliography of the manuscript tradition, concluding pessimistically that the situation has not changed significantly since Schaeder's time.[47] Five of the quatrains later attributed to Omar are found as early as 30 years after his death, quoted in Sindbad-Nameh. While this establishes that these specific verses were in circulation in Omar's time or shortly later, it doesn't imply that the verses must be his. De Blois concludes that at the least the process of attributing poetry to Omar Khayyam appears to have begun already in the 13th century.[48] Edward Granville Browne (1906) notes the difficulty to disentangle the authentic from the spurious quatrains: "while it is certain that Khayyam wrote many quatrains, it is hardly possible, save in a few exceptional cases, to assert positively that he wrote any of those ascribed to him".[9]:663

In addition to the Persian quatrains, there are twenty-five Arabic poems attributed to Khayyam which are attested by historians such as al-Isfahani, Shahrazuri (Nuzhat al-Arwah, ca. 1201-1211), Qifti (Tārikh al-hukamā, 1255), and Hamdallah Mustawfi (Tarikh-i guzida, 1339).[13]:39

Richard N. Frye (1975) emphasizes that there are a number of other Persian scholars who occasionally wrote quatrains, including Avicenna, Ghazzali, and Tusi. He concludes that it is also possible that poetry with Khayyam was the amusement of his leisure hours: "these brief poems seem often to have been the work of scholars and scientists who composed them, perhaps, in moments of relaxation to edify or amuse the inner circle of their disciples".[9]:662

The poetry attributed to Omar Khayyam has contributed greatly to his popular fame in the modern period as a direct result of the extreme popularity of the translation of such verses into English by Edward FitzGerald (1859). FitzGerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam contains loose translations of quatrains from The Bodleian manuscript. It enjoyed such success in the fin de siècle period that a bibliography compiled in 1929 listed more than 300 separate editions,[49] and many more have been published since.[50]

Philosophy

Bucureşti - Omar Khayam 3
Statue of Omar Khayyam in Bucharest

Khayyam considered himself intellectually to be a student of Avicenna.[51] According to Al-Bayhaqi, he was reading the metaphysics in Avicenna's the Book of Healing before he died.[9]:661 There are six philosophical papers believed to have been written by Khayyam. One of them, On existence (Fi’l-wujūd), was written originally in Persian and deals with the subject of existence and its relationship to universals. Another paper, titled The necessity of contradiction in the world, determinism and subsistence (Darurat al-tadād fi’l-‘ālam wa’l-jabr wa’l-baqā’), is written in Arabic and deals with free will and determinism.[51]:475 The titles of his other works are On being and necessity (Risālah fī’l-kawn wa’l-taklīf), The Treatise on Transcendence in Existence (Al-Risālah al-ulā fi’l-wujūd), On the knowledge of the universal principles of existence (Risālah dar ‘ilm kulliyāt-i wujūd), and Abridgement concerning natural phenomena (Mukhtasar fi’l-Tabi‘iyyāt).

Religious views

A literal reading of Khayyam's quatrains leads to the interpretation of his philosophic attitude toward life as a combination of pessimism, nihilism, Epicureanism, fatalism, and agnosticism.[13]:6[52] This view is taken by Iranologists such as Arthur Christensen, H. Schaeder, Richard N. Frye, E. D. Ross,[53]:365 E.H. Whinfield[36]:40 and George Sarton.[10]:18 Conversely, the Khayyamic quatrains have also been described as mystical Sufi poetry. However, this is the view of a minority of scholars.[54] In addition to his Persian quatrains, J. C. E. Bowen (1973) mentions that Khayyam's Arabic poems also "express a pessimistic viewpoint which is entirely consonant with the outlook of the deeply thoughtful rationalist philosopher that Khayyam is known historically to have been."[55]:69 Edward FitzGerald emphasized the religious skepticism he found in Khayyam.[56] In his preface to the Rubáiyát he claimed that he "was hated and dreaded by the Sufis",[57] and denied any pretense at divine allegory: "his Wine is the veritable Juice of the Grape: his Tavern, where it was to be had: his Saki, the Flesh and Blood that poured it out for him."[58]:62 Sadegh Hedayat is one of the most notable proponents of Khayyam's philosophy as agnostic skepticism, and according to Jan Rypka (1934), he even considered Khayyam an atheist.[59] Hedayat (1923) states that "while Khayyam believes in the transmutation and transformation of the human body, he does not believe in a separate soul; if we are lucky, our bodily particles would be used in the making of a jug of wine."[60] In a later study (1934–35) he further contends that Khayyam's usage of Sufic terminology such as "wine" is literal and that he turned to the pleasures of the moment as an antidote to his existential sorrow: "Khayyam took refuge in wine to ward off bitterness and to blunt the cutting edge of his thoughts."[61] In this tradition, Omar Khayyam's poetry has been cited in the context of New Atheism, e.g. in The Portable Atheist by Christopher Hitchens.[62]

Al-Qifti (ca. 1172–1248) appears to confirm this view of Omar's philosophy.[9]:663 In his work The History of Learned Men he reports that Omar's poems were only outwardly in the Sufi style, but were written with an anti-religious agenda.[53]:365 He also mentions that he was at one point indicted for impiety, but went on a pilgrimage to prove he was pious.[13]:29 The report has it that upon returning to his native city he concealed his deepest convictions and practised a strictly religious life, going morning and evening to the place of worship.[53]:355

In the context of a piece entitled On the Knowledge Of the Principals of Existence, Khayyam endorses the Sufi path.[13]:8 Csillik (1960) suggests the possibility that Omar Khayyam could see in Sufism an ally against orthodox religiosity.[63]:75 Other commentators do not accept that Omar's poetry has an anti-religious agenda and interpret his references to wine and drunkenness in the conventional metaphorical sense common in Sufism. The French translator J. B. Nicolas held that Omar's constant exhortations to drink wine should not be taken literally, but should be seen in Sufi terms as representing an enlightened state.[64] The view of Omar Khayyam as a Sufi was defended by Bjerregaard (1915),[65] Idries Shah (1999),[66] and Dougan (1991) who attributes the reputation of hedonism to the failings of FitzGerald's translation, arguing that Omar's poetry is to be understood as "deeply esoteric".[67] On the other hand, Iranian experts such as Mohammad Ali Foroughi and Mojtaba Minovi unanimously rejected the hypothesis that Omar Khayyam was a Sufi.[55]:72 Foroughi stated that Khayyam's ideas may have been consistent with that of Sufis at times but there is no evidence that he was formally a Sufi. Aminrazavi (2007) states that "Sufi interpretation of Khayyam is possible only by reading into his Rubāʿīyyāt extensively and by stretching the content to fit the classical Sufi doctrine."[13]:128 Furthermore, Frye (1975) emphasizes that Khayyam was intensely disliked by a number of celebrated Sufi mystics who belonged to the same century. This includes Shams Tabrizi (spiritual guide of Rumi),[13]:58 Najm al-Din Daya who described Omar Khayyam as "an unhappy philosopher, atheist, and materialist",[55]:71 and Attar who regarded him not as a fellow-mystic but a free-thinking scientist who awaited punishments hereafter.[9]:663

Seyyed Hossein Nasr argues that it is "reductive" to use a literal interpretation of his verses (many of which are of uncertain authenticity to begin with) to establish Omar Khayyam's philosophy. Instead, he adduces Khayyam's interpretive translation of Avicenna's treatise Discourse on Unity (Al-Khutbat al-Tawhīd), where he expresses orthodox views on Divine Unity in agreement with the author.[68] The prose works believed to be Omar's are written in the Peripatetic style and are explicitly theistic, dealing with subjects such as the existence of God and theodicy.[13]:160 As noted by Bowen these works indicate his involvement in the problems of metaphysics rather than in the subtleties of Sufism.[55]:71 As evidence of Khayyam's faith and/or conformity to Islamic customs, Aminrazavi mentions that in his treatises he offers salutations and prayers, praising God and Muhammad. In most biographical extracts, he is referred to with religious honorifics such as Imām, The Patron of Faith (Ghīyāth al-Dīn), and The Evidence of Truth (Hujjat al-Haqq).[13] He also notes that biographers who praise his religiosity generally avoid making reference to his poetry, while the ones who mention them often do not praise his religious character.[13]:48 For instance Al-Bayhaqi's account which antedates by some years other biographical notices, speaks of Omar as a very pious man who professed orthodox views down to his last hour.[69]:174

On the basis of all the existing textual and biographical evidence, the question remains somewhat open,[13]:11 and as a result Khayyam has received sharply conflicting appreciations and criticisms.[53]:350

Reception

005-a-Ruby-kindles-in-the-vine-810x1146
"A Ruby kindles in the vine", illustration for FitzGerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam by Adelaide Hanscom Leeson (c. 1905).
At the Tomb of Omar Khayyam - by Jay Hambidge
"At the Tomb of Omar Khayyam" by Jay Hambidge (1911).

The various biographical extracts referring to Omar Khayyam describe him as unequalled in scientific knowledge and achievement during his time.[70] Many called him by the epithet King of the Wise (Arabic: ملک الحکما‎).[46]:436[29]:141 Shahrazuri (d. 1300) esteems him highly as a mathematician, and claims that he may be regarded as "the successor of Avicenna in the various branches of philosophic learning."[53]:352 Al-Qifti (d. 1248) even though disagreeing with his views concedes he was "unrivalled in his knowledge of natural philosophy and astronomy."[53]:355 Despite being hailed as a poet by a number of biographers, according to Richard Nelson Frye "it is still possible to argue that Khayyam's status as a poet of the first rank is a comparatively late development."[9]:663

Thomas Hyde was the first European to call attention to Omar and to translate one of his quatrains into Latin (Historia religionis veterum Persarum eorumque magorum, 1700).[71]:525 Western interest in Persia grew with the Orientalism movement in the 19th century. Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (1774-1856) translated some of Khayyam's poems into German in 1818, and Gore Ouseley (1770-1844) into English in 1846, but Khayyam remained relatively unknown in the West until after the publication of Edward FitzGerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam in 1859. FitzGerald's work at first was unsuccessful but was popularised by Whitley Stokes from 1861 onward, and the work came to be greatly admired by the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1872 FitzGerald had a third edition printed which increased interest in the work in America. By the 1880s, the book was extremely well known throughout the English-speaking world, to the extent of the formation of numerous "Omar Khayyam Clubs" and a "fin de siècle cult of the Rubaiyat"[72] Khayyam's poems have been translated into many languages; many of the more recent ones are more literal than that of FitzGerald.[73]

FitzGerald's translation was a factor in rekindling interest in Khayyam as a poet even in his native Iran.[74] Sadegh Hedayat in his Songs of Khayyam (Taranehha-ye Khayyam, 1934) reintroduced Omar's poetic legacy to modern Iran. Under the Pahlavi dynasty, a new monument of white marble, designed by the architect Houshang Seyhoun, was erected over his tomb. A statue by Abolhassan Sadighi was erected in Laleh Park, Tehran in the 1960s, and a bust by the same sculptor was placed near Khayyam's mausoleum in Nishapur. In 2009, the state of Iran donated a pavilion to the United Nations Office in Vienna, inaugurated at Vienna International Center.[75] In 2016, three statues of Khayyam were unveiled: one at the University of Oklahoma, one in Nishapur and one in Florence, Italy.[76] Over 150 composers have used the Rubaiyat as their source of inspiration. The earliest such composer was Liza Lehmann.[5]

FitzGerald rendered Omar's name as "Tentmaker", and the anglicized name of "Omar the Tentmaker" resonated in English-speaking popular culture for a while. Thus, Nathan Haskell Dole published a novel called Omar, the Tentmaker: A Romance of Old Persia in 1898. Omar the Tentmaker of Naishapur is a historical novel by John Smith Clarke, published in 1910. "Omar the Tentmaker" is also the title of a 1914 play by Richard Walton Tully in an oriental setting, adapted as a silent film in 1922. US General Omar Bradley was given the nickname "Omar the Tent-Maker" in World War II.[77] The name has also been recorded as a slang expression for "penis".[78]

The lunar crater Omar Khayyam was named in his honour in 1970, as was the minor planet 3095 Omarkhayyam discovered by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Zhuravlyova in 1980.[79]

Persian Scholar pavilion in Viena UN (Omar Khayyam)
The statue of Khayyam in United Nations Office in Vienna as a part of Persian Scholars Pavilion donated by Iran.

See also

Citations

  1. ^ a b c "Omar Khayyam (Persian poet and astronomer)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-05-30.
  2. ^ a b Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Mehdi Aminrazavi. An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Vol. 1: From Zoroaster to 'Umar Khayyam, I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2007.
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  4. ^ "Omar Khayyam | Persian poet and astronomer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-07-13. Omar Khayyam, Arabic in full Ghiyāth al-Dīn Abū al-Fatḥ ʿUmar ibn Ibrāhīm al-Nīsābūrī al-Khayyāmī, (born May 18, 1048, Neyshābūr [also spelled Nīshāpūr], Khorāsān [now Iran]—died December 4, 1131, Neyshābūr), Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet
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  8. ^ With an error of one day accumulating over 5,000 years, it was more precise than the Gregorian calendar of 1582, which has an error of one day in 3,330 years in the Gregorian calendar (Aminrazavi 2007:200).
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  11. ^ Edward FitzGerald, Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Ed. Christopher Decker, (University of Virginia Press, 1997), xv;"The Saljuq Turks had invaded the province of Khorasan in the 1030s, and the city of Nishapur surrendered to them voluntarily in 1038. Thus Omar Khayyam grew to maturity during the first of the several alien dynasties that would rule Iran until the twentieth century.".
  12. ^ Peter Avery and John Heath-Stubbs, The Ruba'iyat of Omar Khayyam, (Penguin Group, 1981), 14;"These dates, 1048-1031, tell us that Khayyam lived when the Saljuq Turkish Sultans were extending and consolidating their power over Persia and when the effects of this power were particularly felt in Nishapur, Khayyam's birthplace.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Mehdi Aminrazavi, The Wine of Wisdom: The Life, Poetry and Philosophy of Omar Khayyam, Oneworld Publications (2007)
  14. ^ in e.g. Al-Qifti (Aminrazavi 2007:55) or Abu'l-Hasan Bayhaqi. (E. D. R., & H. A. R. G. (1929:436).
  15. ^ Frye (1975:658); e.g. in Rashid-al-Din Hamadani (Browne 1899:409f) or in Munis al-ahrār (Ross 1927:436).
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  18. ^ (Rozenfeld 1988, pp. 64–65)
  19. ^ (Katz 1998, p. 270). Excerpt: In some sense, his treatment was better than ibn al-Haytham's because he explicitly formulated a new postulate to replace Euclid's rather than have the latter hidden in a new definition.
  20. ^ Rolwing, R., & Levine, M. (1969). THE PARALLEL POSTULATE. The Mathematics Teacher, 62(8), 665-669.
  21. ^ Smith, David, 1935, "Euclid, Omar Khayyam and Saccheri," Scripta Mathematica.
  22. ^ a b Cooper, G. (2003). Journal of the American Oriental Society,123(1), 248-249.
  23. ^ "Khayyam biography". www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018-07-13. However, Khayyam himself seems to have been the first to conceive a general theory of cubic equations.
  24. ^ Howard Eves, Omar Khayyam's Solution of Cubic Equations, The Mathematics Teacher (1958), pages 302-303.
  25. ^ "Omar Al Hay of Chorassan, about 1079 AD did most to elevate to a method the solution of the algebraic equations by intersecting conics." Guilbeau, Lucye (1930), "The History of the Solution of the Cubic Equation", Mathematics News Letter, 5 (4): 8–12, doi:10.2307/3027812, JSTOR 3027812
  26. ^ Bijan Vahabzadeh, "KHAYYAM, OMAR xv. As Mathematician", Encyclopædia Iranica.
  27. ^ Netz, R. (1999). Archimedes Transformed: The Case of a Result Stating a Maximum for a Cubic Equation. Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 54(1), 1-47.
  28. ^ a b c Deborah A. Kent, & David J. Muraki. (2016). A Geometric Solution of a Cubic by Omar Khayyam … in Which Colored Diagrams Are Used Instead of Letters for the Greater Ease of Learners. The American Mathematical Monthly, 123(2), 149-160.
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  31. ^ The Mathematics Teacher, 25(4), 238-241. (1932).
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  33. ^ Waerden, Bartel L. van der (2013-06-29). A History of Algebra: From al-Khwārizmī to Emmy Noether. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 29. ISBN 978-3-642-51599-6.
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  35. ^ Mathematical Masterpieces: Further Chronicles by the Explorers, p. 92
  36. ^ a b c E. H. Whinfield, The Quatrains of Omar Khayyam, Psychology Press (2000)
  37. ^ "Muslim extraction of roots". Mactutor History of Mathematics.
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  41. ^ Farrell, Charlotte (1996), "The ninth-century renaissance in astronomy", The Physics Teacher, 34 (5): 268–272, Bibcode:1996PhTea..34..268F, doi:10.1119/1.2344432.
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  47. ^ Francois De Blois , Persian Literature - A Bio-Bibliographical Survey: Poetry of the Pre-Mongol Period (2004), p. 307.
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  66. ^ Idries Shah, The Sufis, Octagon Press (1999), pp. 165-166
  67. ^ "Every line of the Rubaiyat has more meaning than almost anything you could read in Sufi literature" Abdullah Dougan Who is the Potter? Gnostic Press 1991 ISBN 0-473-01064-X
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References

  • Browne, E. (1899). Yet More Light on 'Umar-i-Khayyām. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 409-420.
  • Turner, Howard R. (1997). Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-78149-0.
  • Jos Biegstraaten (2008). "Omar Khayyam (Impact On Literature And Society In The West)". Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 15. Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation.
  • Nasr, S. H. (2006). Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-6799-6.
  • Katz, Victor (1998). A History of Mathematics: An Introduction (2 ed.). Addison-Wesley. p. 879. ISBN 0-321-01618-1.
  • KnoebelNasr, Arthur; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David (2007). Mathematical Masterpieces: Further Chronicles by the Explorers. Springer. ISBN 0-387-33061-5.
  • ed. by J.A. Boyle. (1968). The Cambridge History of Iran (5): The Saljug and Mongol Periods. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-06936-X.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Smith, David Eugene (1935). "Euclid, Omar Khayyâm, and Saccheri". Scripta Mathematica. III (1): 5–10. OCLC 14156259.
  • Rozenfeld, Boris A. (1988). A History of Non-Euclidean Geometry: Evolution of the Concept of a Geometric Space. Springer Verlag. pp. 65, 471. ISBN 0-387-96458-4.
  • Ross, E. (1927). 'Omar Khayyam. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, 4(3), 433-439.
  • Jan Rypka (1968). History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company. OCLC 460598. ISBN 90-277-0143-1

External links

1917 Kentucky Derby

The 1917 Kentucky Derby was the 43rd running of the Kentucky Derby. The race took place on May 12, 1917. Horses Penrod, Diamond, and Sol Gilsey scratched before the race. Winner Omar Khayyam, foaled in England, was the first foreign bred horse to win the Derby.

Edward FitzGerald (poet)

Edward FitzGerald (31 March 1809 – 14 June 1883) was an English poet and writer, best known as the poet of the first and most famous English translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. The writing of his name as both FitzGerald and Fitzgerald is seen. The use here of FitzGerald conforms to that of his own publications, anthologies such as Quiller-Couch's Oxford Book of English Verse, and most reference books up until about the 1960s.

Hourless

Hourless (1914–1935) was a British-born Thoroughbred racehorse who raced in the United States where he won the 1917 Belmont Stakes.

Kerry Wendell Thornley

Kerry Wendell Thornley (April 17, 1938 – November 28, 1998) is known as the co-founder (along with childhood friend Greg Hill) of Discordianism, in which context he is usually known as Omar Khayyam Ravenhurst or simply Lord Omar. He and Hill authored the religion's text Principia Discordia, Or, How I Found Goddess, And What I Did To Her When I Found Her. Thornley was also known for his 1962 manuscript, The Idle Warriors, which was based on the activities of his acquaintance, Lee Harvey Oswald, prior to the 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy.Thornley was highly active in the countercultural publishing scene, writing for a number of underground magazines and newspapers, and self-publishing many one-page (or broadsheet) newsletters of his own. One such newsletter called Zenarchy was published in the 1960s under the pen name Ho Chi Zen. Zenarchy is described in the introduction of the collected volume as "the social order which springs from meditation", and "A noncombative, nonparticipatory, no-politics approach to anarchy intended to get the serious student thinking."

Raised Mormon, in adulthood Kerry shifted his ideological focus frequently, in rivalry with any serious countercultural figure of the 1960s. Among the subjects he closely scrutinized throughout his life were atheism, anarchism, Objectivism, autarchism (he attended Robert LeFevre's Freedom School), neo-paganism, Kerista, Buddhism, and the memetic inheritor of Discordianism, the Church of the SubGenius.

Maithili Sharan Gupt

Maithili Sharan Gupt (3 August 1886 – 12 December 1964) was one of the most important modern Hindi poets. He is considered one among the pioneers of Khari Boli (plain dialect) poetry and wrote in Khari Boli dialect, at a time when most Hindi poets favoured the use of Braj Bhasha dialect. He was a recipient of the third highest (then second highest) Indian civilian honour of Padma Bhushan. For his book Bharat-Bharati (1912), widely quoted during India's freedom struggle, he was given the title of Rashtra Kavi by Mahatma Gandhi.

Mausoleum of Omar Khayyám

The Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam (Persian: آرامگاه عمر خیام ) is a modern monument of white marble erected over Omar Khayyam's tomb located in Omar Khayyam Square, Nishapur.

Muhammad Shahidullah

Muhammad Shahidullah (10 July 1885 – 13 July 1969) was a Bengali educationist, writer, philologist and linguist of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).In 2004, Shahidullah was ranked number 16 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time.

Omar Khayyam (crater)

Omar Khayyam is a lunar impact crater that is located just beyond the northwestern limb of the Moon, on the far side from the Earth. It lies in a region of the surface that is sometimes brought into view of the Earth due to libration, and under favorable lighting it can be viewed from the edge. However under such circumstances not much detail can be seen, and the crater is best viewed from orbit.

This feature is located at the western edge of the larger walled plain Poczobutt, and the northwestern rim of Omar Khayyam is overlain by the crater Zsigmondy. The east-southeastern part of the interior floor of Omar Khayyam is overlain by a smaller and younger crater. The remainder of the interior floor is split in half by a ridge attached to the western outer rim of this crater, giving Omar Khayyam the appearance of a formation composed of multiple merged impacts.

The outer rim of Omar Khayyam is heavily eroded, and has a wide gap to the southeast. A small crater overlies the western rim, and multiple small craterlets mark the sides and parts of the interior. The floor to the southwest is somewhat smoother than elsewhere.

This crater was named in honor of the Persian mathematician and astronomer Omar Khayyám.

Omar Khayyam (film)

Omar Khayyam (also released as The Life, Loves and Adventures of Omar Khayyam and The Loves of Omar Khayyam) is an American movie directed by William Dieterle, filmed in 1956 (mostly on the Paramount lot) and released in 1957. It starred Cornel Wilde as Omar Khayyám, the eponymous Persian poet, Michael Rennie as Hasani Sabah, and famous exotica singer Yma Sumac as Karina. It was the final film to be scored by Victor Young (1899-1956) and was released posthumously.

Omar Khayyam (horse)

Omar Khayyam (1914–1938) was a British-born Thoroughbred racehorse who was sold as a yearling to an American racing partnership and who became the first foreign-bred horse to win the Kentucky Derby. He was named for the famous Persian mathematician, poet, and astronomer, Omar Khayyam.

Omar Khayyam Square

Omar Khayyam Square) is a city square in Nishapur.

Omar Khayyam Square is One of the Historical and Important Squares in City of Nishapur.In the center of this city square Located First Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam.

Quatrain

A quatrain is a type of stanza, or a complete poem, consisting of four lines.

Existing in a variety of forms, the quatrain appears in poems from the poetic traditions of various ancient civilizations including Ancient India, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, and China, and continues into the 21st century, where it is seen in works published in many languages. During Europe's Dark Ages, in the Middle East and especially Iran, polymath poets such as Omar Khayyam continued to popularize this form of poetry, also known as Ruba'i, well beyond their borders and time. Michel de Nostredame (Nostradamus) used the quatrain form to deliver his famous prophecies in the 16th century.

There are fifteen possible rhyme schemes, but the most traditional and common are: AAAA, ABAB, and ABBA.

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám is the title that Edward FitzGerald gave to his 1859 translation from Persian to English of a selection of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt) attributed to Omar Khayyam (1048–1131), dubbed "the Astronomer-Poet of Persia".

FitzGerald's work at first was unsuccessful commercially. But it was popularised from 1861 onward by Whitley Stokes, and the work came to be greatly admired by the Pre-Raphaelites in England. In 1872 FitzGerald had a third edition printed, which increased interest in the work in the United States of America. By the 1880s, the book was extremely well known throughout the English-speaking world, to the extent that numerous "Omar Khayyam Clubs" were formed and there was a "fin de siècle cult of the Rubaiyat".

FitzGerald's work has been published in several hundred editions, and it has inspired similar translation efforts in English and in many other languages.

Samarkand (novel)

Samarkand (French: Samarcande) is a 1988 historical fiction novel by the French-Lebanese writer Amin Maalouf. The narrative revolves the 11th-century Persian poet Omar Khayyám and his poetry collection Rubaiyat. The novel received the Prix Maison de la Presse.

Shame (Rushdie novel)

Shame is Salman Rushdie's third novel, published in 1983. This book was written out of a desire to approach the problem of "artificial" (other-made) country divisions, their residents' complicity, and the problems of post-colonialism, when Pakistan was created to separate the Muslims from the Hindus, when England gave up control of "India"...

The book was written in the style of magic realism. It portrays the lives of Iskander Harappa (sometimes assumed to be Zulfikar Ali Bhutto), and

General Raza Hyder (sometimes assumed to be General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq), and their relationship. The central theme of the novel is that begetting "shame" begets violence. The concepts of 'shame' and 'shamelessness' are explored through all of the characters, with main focus on Sufiya Zinobia and Omar Khayyám.

Shame discusses the sense of heritage, lineage, and their relationship to a personal sense of "autheticity", deriding all as rather obtruse and confused, if not without deep feelings. Central to the novel is women's relationship to "motherhood" and identity, aside from whether or not a man was a father to the child, disrupting all sense of "truth". Shame and shamelessness are central themes, and come to head in a woman so "mad with untruths" she starts incontrollably pulling the heads off chickens... a central food source.

Rushdie wrote Shame after his second novel Midnight's Children.

T. Ifor Rees

Dr Thomas Ifor Rees C.M.G. (16 February 1890 – 11 February 1977) was a British diplomat, author and translator. Born Thomas Ifor Rees at 'Bronceiro' near the hamlet of Rhydypennau in Cardiganshire, Wales, he served as Britain's first Ambassador to Bolivia from 1947 until his retirement in 1949.

He was the author of a number of travel books in Welsh and English, such as In and around the valley of Mexico (1953), Sajama (1960) and Illimani (1964). His translations include a Welsh translation of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, published in Mexico City in 1939.

Valley Downs, Louisville

Valley Downs is a neighborhood of Louisville, Kentucky, USA located along Omar Khayyam Boulevard south of Johnsontown Road.

People of Khorasan
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